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Human Body > List of Illustrations


List of Illustrations

Figure 1 - Diagram of a cell. (Modified from Wilson.)

Figure 2 - Diagram showing the changes which occur in the centrosomes and nucleus of a cell in the process of mitotic division. (Schäfer.) I to III, prophase; IV, metaphase; V and VI, anaphase; VII and VIII, telophase.

Figure 3 - Human ovum examined fresh in the liquor folliculi. (Waldeyer.) The zona pellucida is seen as a thick clear girdle surrounded by the cells of the corona radiata. The egg itself shows a central granular deutoplasmic area and a peripheral clear layer, and encloses the germinal vesicle, in which is seen the germinal spot.

Figure 4 - Formation of polar bodies in Asterias glacialis. (Slightly modified from Hertwig.) In I the polar spindle (sp) has advanced to the surface of the egg. In II a small elevation (pb1) is formed which receives half of the spindle. In III the elevation is constricted off, forming the first polar body (pb1), and a second spindle is formed. In IV is seen a second elevation which in V has been constricted off as the second polar body (pb2). Out of the remainder of the spindle (f.pn in VI) the female pronucleus is developed.

Figure 5 - Diagram showing the reduction in number of the chromosomes in the process of maturation of the ovum.

Figure 6 - Human spermatozoön. Diagrammatic. A. Surface view. B. Profile view. In C the head, neck, and connecting piece are more highly magnified.

Figure 7 - Scheme showing analogies in the process of maturation of the ovum and the development of the spermatids (young spermatozoa).

Figure 8 - The process of fertilization in the ovum of a mouse. (After Sobotta.)

Figure 9 - First stages of segmentation of a mammalian ovum. Semidiagrammatic. (From a drawing by Allen Thomson.) z.p. Zona striata. p.gl. Polar bodies. a. Two-cell stage. b. Four-cell stage. c. Eight-cell stage. d, e. Morula stage.

Figure 10 - Blastodermic vesicle of Vespertilio murinus. (After van Beneden.)

Figure 11 - Section through embryonic disk of Vespertilio murinus. (After van Beneden.)

Figure 12 - Section through embryonic area of Vespertilio murinus to show the formation of the amniotic cavity. (After van Beneden.)

Figure 13 - Surface view of embryo of a rabbit. (After Kölliker.) arg. Embryonic disk. pr. Primitive streak.

Figure 14 - Surface view of embryo of Hylobates concolor. (After Selenka.) The amnion has been opened to expose the embryonic disk.

Figure 15 - Series of transverse sections through the embryonic disk of Tarsius. (After Hubrecht.) Section I passes through the disk, in front of Hensen’s knot and shows only the ectoderm and entoderm. Sections II, III, and IV pass through Hensen’s knot, which is seen in V tapering away into the primitive streak. In III, IV, and V the mesoderm is seen springing from the keel-like thickening of the ectoderm, which in III and IV is observed to be continuous into the entoderm.

Figure 16 - A series of transverse sections through an embryo of the dog. (After Bonnet.) Section I is the most anterior. In V the neural plate is spread out nearly flat. The series shows the uprising of the neural folds to form the neural canal. a. Aortæ. c. Intermediate cell mass. ect. Ectoderm. ent. Entoderm. h, h. Rudiments of endothelial heart tubes. In III, IV, and V the scattered cells represented between the entoderm and splanchnic layer of mesoderm are the vasoformative cells which give origin in front, according to Bonnet, to the heart tubes, h; l.p. Lateral plate still undivided in I, II, and III; in IV and V split into somatic (sm) and splanchnic (sp) layers of mesoderm. mes. Mesoderm. p. Pericardium. so. Primitive segment.

Figure 17 - Human embryo—length, 2 mm. Dorsal view, with the amnion laid open. X 30. (After Graf Spee.)

Figure 18 - Chick embryo of thirty-three hours’ incubation, viewed from the dorsal aspect. X 30. (From Duval’s “Atlas d’Embryologie.”)

Figure 19 - Transverse section of a chick embryo of forty-five hours’ incubation. (Balfour.)

Figure 20 - Dorsum of human embryo, 2.11 mm. in length. (After Eternod.)

Figure 21 - Section through the embryo which is represented in Fig. 17. (After Graf Spee.)

Figure 22 - Human embryo of 2.6 mm. (His.)

Figure 23 - Human embryo from thirty-one to thirty-four days. (His.)

Figure 24 - Diagram showing earliest observed stage of human ovum.

Figure 25 - Diagram illustrating early formation of allantois and differentiation of body-stalk.

Figure 26 - Diagram showing later stage of allantoic development with commencing constriction of the yolk-sac.

Figure 27 - Diagram showing the expansion of amnion and delimitation of the umbilicus.

Figure 28 - Diagram illustrating a later stage in the development of the umbilical cord.

Figure 29 - Diagram of a transverse section, showing the mode of formation of the amnion in the chick. The amniotic folds have nearly united in the middle line. (From Quain’s Anatomy.) Ectoderm, blue; mesoderm, red; entoderm and notochord, black.

Figure 30 - Fetus of about eight weeks, enclosed in the amnion. Magnified a little over two diameters. (Drawn from stereoscopic photographs lent by Prof. A. Thomson, Oxford.)

Figure 31 - Model of human embryo 1.3 mm. long. (After Eternod.)

Figure 32 - Section through ovum imbedded in the uterine decidua. Semidiagrammatic. (After Peters.) am. Amniotic cavity. b.c. Blood-clot. b.s. Body-stalk. ect. Embryonic ectoderm. ent. Entoderm. mes. Mesoderm. m.v. Maternal vessels. tr. Trophoblast. u.e. Uterine epithelium. u.g. Uterine glands. y.s. Yolk-sac.

Figure 33 - Diagrammatic sections of the uterine mucous membrane: A. The non-pregnant uterus. B. The pregnant uterus, showing the thickened mucous membrane and the altered condition of the uterine glands. (Kundrat and Engelmann.)

Figure 34 - Sectional plan of the gravid uterus in the third and fourth month. (Modified from Wagner.)

Figure 35 - Transverse section of a chorionic villus.

Figure 36 - Primary chorionic villi. Diagrammatic. (Modified from Bryce.)

Figure 37 - Secondary chorionic villi. Diagrammatic. (Modified from Bryce.)

Figure 38 - Fetus in utero, between fifth and sixth months.

Figure 39 - Scheme of placental circulation.

Figure 40 - Embryo between eighteen and twenty-one days. (His.)

Figure 41 - Head end of human embryo, about the end of the fourth week. (From model by Peter.)

Figure 42 - Floor of pharynx of embryo shown in Fig. 40.

Figure 43 - Head and neck of a human embryo eighteen weeks old, with Meckel’s cartilage and hyoid bar exposed. (After Kölliker.)

Figure 44 - Under surface of the head of a human embryo about twenty-nine days old. (After His.)

Figure 45 - Head end of human embryo of about thirty to thirty-one days. (From model by Peters.)

Figure 46 - Same embryo as shown in Fig. 45, with front wall of pharynx removed.

Figure 47 - Head of a human embryo of about eight weeks, in which the nose and mouth are formed. (His.)

Figure 48 - Diagram showing the regions of the adult face and neck related to the fronto-nasal process and the branchial arches.

Figure 49 - Primitive palate of a human embryo of thirty-seven to thirty-eight days. (From model by Peters.) On the left side the lateral wall of the nasal cavity has been removed.

Figure 50 - The roof of the mouth of a human embryo, aged about two and a half months, showing the mode of formation of the palate. (His.)

Figure 51 - Frontal section of nasal cavities of a human embryo 28 mm. long. (Kollmann.)

Figure 52 - Human embryo from thirty-one to thirty-four days. (His.)

Figure 53 - Embryo of about six weeks. (His.)

Figure 54 - Figure obtained by combining several successive sections of a human embryo of about the fourth week (From Kollmann.) The upper arrow is in the pleuroperitoneal opening, the lower in the pleuropericardial.

Figure 55 - Upper part of celom of human embryo of 6.8 mm., seen from behind. (From model by Piper.)

Figure 56 - Diagram of transverse section through rabbit embryo. (After Keith.)

Figure 57 - The thoracic aspect of the diaphragm of a newly born child in which the communication between the peritoneum and pleura has not been closed on the left side; the position of the opening is marked on the right side by the spinocostal hiatus. (After Keith.)

Figure 58 - Human embryo about fifteen days old. (His.)

Figure 59 - Human embryo between eighteen and twenty-one days old. (His.

Figure 60 - Human embryo, twenty-seven to thirty days old. (His.)

Figure 61 - Human embryo, thirty-one to thirty-four days old. (His.)

Figure 62 - Human embryo of about six weeks. (His.)

Figure 63 - Human embryo about eight and a half weeks old. (His.)

Figure 64 - Transverse section of a human embryo of the third week to show the differentiation of the primitive segment. (Kollmann.) ao. Aorta. m.p. Muscle-plate. n.c. Neural canal. sc. Sclerotome. s.p. cutis-plate.

Figure 65 - Scheme showing the manner in which each vertebral centrum is developed from portions of two adjacent segments.

Figure 66 - Sagittal section through an intervertebral fibrocartilage and adjacent parts of two vertebræ of an advanced sheep’s embryo. (Kölliker.)

Figure 67 - Diagrams showing the portions of the adult vertebræ derived respectively from the bodies, vertebral arches, and costal processes of the embryonic vertebræ. The bodies are represented in yellow, the vertebral arches in red, and the costal processes in blue.

Figure 68 - Sagittal section of cephalic end of notochord. (Keibel.)

Figure 69 - Diagrams of the cartilaginous cranium. (Wiedersheim.)

Figure 70 - Model of the chondrocranium of a human embryo, 8 cm. long. (Hertwig.) The membrane bones are not represented.

Figure 71 - The same model as shown in Fig. 70 from the left side. Certain of the membrane bones of the right side are represented in yellow. (Hertwig.)

Figure 72 - Human bone marrow. Highly magnified.

Figure 73 - Transverse section of compact tissue bone. Magnified. (Sharpey.)

Figure 74 - Section parallel to the surface from the body of the femur. X 100. a, Haversian canals; b, lacunæ seen from the side; c, others seen from the surface in lamellæ, which are cut horizontally.

Figure 75 - Perforating fibers, human parietal bone, decalcified. (H. Müller.) a, perforating fibers in situ; b, fibres drawn out of their sockets; c, sockets.

Figure 76 - Nucleated bone cells and their processes, contained in the bone lacunæ and their canaliculi respectively. From a section through the vertebra of an adult mouse. (Klein and Noble Smith.)

Figure 77 - Transverse section of body of human fibula, decalcified. X 250.

Figure 78 - Part of the growing edge of the developing parietal bone of a fetal cat. (After J. Lawrence.)

Figure 79 - Section of fetal bone of cat. ir. Irruption of the subperiosteal tissue. p. Fibrous layer of the periosteum. o. Layer of osteoblasts. im. Subperiosteal bony deposit. (From Quain’s “Anatomy,” E. A. Schäfer.)

Figure 80 - Part of a longitudinal section of the developing femur of a rabbit. a. Flattened cartilage cells. b. Enlarged cartilage cells. c, d. Newly formed bone. e. Osteoblasts. f. Giant cells or osteoclasts. g, h. Shrunken cartilage cells. (From “Atlas of Histology,” Klein and Noble Smith.)

Figure 81 - Osteoblasts and osteoclasts on trabecula of lower jaw of calf embryo. (Kölliker.)

Figure 82 - A typical thoracic vertebra, viewed from above.

Figure 83 - Sagittal section of a lumbar vertebra.

Figure 84 - A cervical vertebra.

Figure 85 - Side view of a typical cervical vertebra.

Figure 86 - First cervical vertebra, or atlas.

Figure 87 - Second cervical vertebra, or epistropheus, from above.

Figure 88 - Second cervical vertebra, epistropheus, or axis, from the side.

Figure 89 - Seventh cervical vertebra.

Figure 90 - A thoracic vertebra.

Figure 91 - Peculiar thoracic vertebræ.

Figure 92 - A lumbar vertebra seen from the side.

Figure 93 - A lumbar vertebra from above and behind.

Figure 94 - Fifth lumbar vertebra, from above.

Figure 95 - Sacrum, pelvic surface.

Figure 96 - Sacrum, dorsal surface.

Figure 97 - Lateral surfaces of sacrum and coccyx.

Figure 98 - Base of sacrum.

Figure 99 - Median sagittal section of the sacrum.

Figure 100 - Coccyx.

Figure 101 - Ossification of a vertebra

Figure 102 - No caption.

Figure 103 - No caption.

Figure 104 - Atlas.

Figure 105 - Axis.

Figure 106 - Lumbar vertebra.

Figure 107 - No caption.

Figure 108 - No caption.

Figure 109 - Ossification of the sacrum.

Figure 110 - Base of young sacrum.

Figure 111 - Lateral view of the vertebral column.

Figure 112 - The thorax from in front. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 113 - The thorax from behind. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 114 - The thorax from the right. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 115 - Anterior surface of sternum and costa cartilages.

Figure 116 - Posterior surface of sternum.

Figure 117 - Lateral border of sternum.

Figure 118 - Ossification of the sternum.

Figure 119 - No caption.

Figure 120 - Peculiarities.

Figure 121 - No caption.

Figure 122 - A central rib of the left side. Inferior aspect.

Figure 123 - A central rib of the left side, viewed from behind.

Figure 124 - Peculiar ribs.

Figure 125 - Peculiar ribs.

Figure 126 - Peculiar ribs.

Figure 127 - Peculiar ribs.

Figure 128 - Peculiar ribs.

Figure 129 - Occipital bone. Outer surface.

Figure 130 - Occipita bone. Inner surface.

Figure 131 - Occipital bone at birth.

Figure 132 - Left parietal bone. Outer surface.

Figure 133 - Left parietal bone. Inner surface.

Figure 134 - Frontal bone. Outer surface.

Figure 135 - Frontal bone. Inner surface.

Figure 136 - Frontal bone at birth.

Figure 137 - Left temporal bone. Outer surface.

Figure 138 - Left temporal bone. Inner surface.

Figure 139 - Coronal section of right temporal bone.

Figure 140 - Diagrammatic view of the fundus of the right internal acoustic meatus. (Testut.) 1. Crista falciformis. 2. Area facialis, with (2’) internal opening of the facial canal. 3. Ridge separating the area facialis from the area cribrosa superior. 4. Area cribrosa superior, with (4’) openings for nerve filaments. 5. Anterior inferior cribriform area, with (5’) the tractus spiralis foraminosus, and (5’’) the canalis centralis of the cochlea. 6. Ridge separating the tractus spiralis foraminosus from the area cribrosa media. 7. Area cribrosa media, with (7’) orifices for nerves to saccule. 8. Foramen singulare.

Figure 141 - Left temporal bone. Inferior surface.

Figure 142 - The three principal parts of the tempora bone at birth. 1. Outer surface of petromastoid part. 2. Outer surface of tympanic ring. 3. Inner surface of squama.

Figure 143 - Temporal bone at birth. Outer aspect.

Figure 144 - Temporal bone at birth. Inner aspect.

Figure 145 - Sphenoid bone. Upper surface.

Figure 146 - Sphenoid bone. Anterior and inferior surfaces.

Figure 147 - Sphenoid bone. Upper and posterior surfaces.

Figure 148 - Sphenoid bone at birth. Posterior aspect.

Figure 149 - Ethmoid bone from above.

Figure 150 - Perpendicular plate of ethmoid. Shown by removing the right labyrinth.

Figure 151 - Ethmoid bone from behind.

Figure 152 - Ethmoid bone from the right side.

Figure 153 - Lateral wall of nasal cavity, showing ethmoid bone in position.

Figure 154 - Articulation of nasal and lacrimal bones with maxilla.

Figure 155 - Right nasal bone. Outer surface.

Figure 156 - Right nasal bone. Inner surface.

Figure 157 - Left maxilla. Outer surface.

Figure 158 - Left maxilla. Nasal surface.

Figure 159 - Left maxillary sinus opened from the exterior.

Figure 160 - The bony palate and alveolar arch.

Figure 161 - Anterior surface of maxilla at birth.

Figure 162 - Inferior surface of maxilla at birth.

Figure 163 - Left lacrimal bone. Orbital surface. Enlarged.

Figure 164 - Left zygomatic bone in situ.

Figure 165 - Left zygomatic bone. Malar surface.

Figure 166 - Left zygomatic bone. Temporal surface.

Figure 167 - Articulation of left palatine bone with maxilla.

Figure 168 - Left palatine bone. Nasal aspect. Enlarged.

Figure 169 - Left palatine bone. Posterior aspect. Enlarged.

Figure 170 - Lateral wall of right nasal cavity showing inferior concha in situ.

Figure 171 - Right inferior nasal concha. Medial surface.

Figure 172 - Right inferior nasal concha. Lateral surface.

Figure 173 - Median wall of left nasal cavity showing vomer in situ.

Figure 174 - The vomer.

Figure 175 - Vomer of infant.

Figure 176 - Mandible. Outer surface. Side view.

Figure 177 - Mandible. Inner surface. Side view.

Figure 178 - Mandible of human embryo 24 mm. long. Outer aspect. (From model by Low.)

Figure 179 - Mandible of human embryo 24 mm. long. Inner aspect. (From model by Low.)

Figure 180 - Mandible of human embryo 95 mm. long. Outer aspect. Nuclei of cartilage stippled. (From model by Low.)

Figure 181 - Mandible of human embryo 95 mm. long. Inner aspect. Nuclei of cartilage stippled. (From model by Low.)

Figure 182 - At birth.

Figure 183 - In childhood.

Figure 184 - In the adult.

Figure 185 - In old age. Side view of the mandible at different periods of life.

Figure 186 - Hyoid bone. Anterior surface. Enlarged.

Figure 187 - Base of skull. Inferior surface.

Figure 188 - Side view of the skull.

Figure 189 - Left infratemporal fossa.

Figure 190 - The skull from the front.

Figure 191 - Horizontal section of nasal and orbital cavities.

Figure 192 - Medial wall of left orbit.

Figure 193 - Base of the skull. Upper surface.

Figure 194 - Sagittal section of skull.

Figure 195 - Medial wall of left nasal fossa.

Figure 196 - Roof, floor, and lateral wall of left nasal cavity.

Figure 197 - Skull at birth, showing frontal and occipital fonticuli.

Figure 198 - Skull at birth, showing sphenoidal and mastoid fonticuli.

Figure 199 - The premaxilla and its sutures. (After Albrecht.)

Figure 200 - Left clavicle. Superior surface.

Figure 201 - Left clavicle. Inferior surface.

Figure 202 - Left scapula. Costal surface.

Figure 203 - Left scapula. Dorsal surface.

Figure 204 - Posterior view of the thorax and shoulder girdle. (Morris.)

Figure 205 - Left scapula. Lateral view.

Figure 206 - Plan of ossification of the scapula. From seven centers.

Figure 207 - Left humerus. Anterior view.

Figure 208 - Left humerus. Posterior view.

Figure 209 - Longitudinal section of head of left humerus.

Figure 210 - Plan of ossification of the humerus.

Figure 211 - Epiphysial lines of humerus in a young adult. Anterior aspect. The lines of attachment of the articular capsules are in blue.

Figure 212 - Upper extremity of left ulna. Lateral aspect.

Figure 213 - Bones of left forearm. Anterior aspect.

Figure 214 - Bones of left forearm. Posterior aspect.

Figure 215 - Plan of ossification of the ulna. From three centers.

Figure 216 - Epiphysial lines of ulna in a young adult. Lateral aspect. The lines of attachment of the articular capsules are in blue.

Figure 217 - Plan of ossification of the radius. From three centers.

Figure 218 - Epiphysial lines of radius in a young adult. Anterior aspect. The line of attachment of the articular capsule of the wrist-joint is in blue.

Figure 219 - Bones of the left hand. Volar surface.

Figure 220 - Bones of the left hand. Dorsal surface.

Figure 221 - The left navicular bone.

Figure 222 - The left lunate bone.

Figure 223 - The left triangular bone.

Figure 224 - The left pisiform bone.

Figure 225 - The left greater multangular bone.

Figure 226 - The left lesser multangular bone.

Figure 227 - The left capitate bone.

Figure 228 - The left hamate bone.

Figure 229 - The first metacarpal. (Left.)

Figure 230 - The second metacarpal. (Left.)

Figure 231 - The third metacarpal. (Left.)

Figure 232 - The fourth metacarpal. (Left.)

Figure 233 - The fifth metacarpal. (Left.)

Figure 234 - Plan of ossification of the hand.

Figure 235 - Right hip bone. External surface.

Figure 236 - Right hip bone. Internal surface.

Figure 237 - Plan of ossification of the hip bone. The three primary centers unite through a Y-shaped piece about puberty. Epiphyses appear about puberty, and unite about twenty-fifth year.

Figure 238 - Diameters of superior aperture of lesser pelvis (female).

Figure 239 - Diameters of inferior aperture of lesser pelvis (female).

Figure 240 - Median sagittal section of pelvis.

Figure 241 - Male pelvis.

Figure 242 - Female pelvis.

Figure 243 - Upper extremity of right femur viewed from behind and above.

Figure 244 - Right femur. Anterior surface.

Figure 245 - Right femur. Posterior surface.

Figure 246 - Lower extremity of right femur viewed from below.

Figure 247 - Frontal longitudinal midsection of upper femur.

Figure 248 - Diagram of the lines of stress in the upper femur, based upon the mathematical analysis of the right femur. These result from the combination of the different kinds of stresses at each point in the femur. (After Koch.)

Figure 249 - Frontal longitudinal midsection of left femur. Taken from the same subject as the one that was analyzed and shown in Figs. 248 and 250. 4/9 of natural size. (After Koch.)

Figure 250 - Diagram of the computed lines of maximum stress in the normal femur. The section numbers 2, 4, 6, 8, etc., show the positions of the transverse sections analyzed. The amounts of the maximum tensile and compressive stress at the various sections are given for a load of 100 pounds on the femur-head. For the standing position (“at attention”) these stresses are multiplied by 0.6, for walking by 1.6 and for running by 3.2. (After Koch.)

Figure 251 - Intensity of the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in the upper femur. Computed for the load of 100 pounds on the right femur. Corresponds to the upper part of Fig. 250. (After Koch.)

Figure 252 - Plan of ossification of the femur. From five centers.

Figure 253 - Epiphysial lines of femur in a young adult. Anterior aspect. The lines of attachment of the articular capsules are in blue.

Figure 254 - Epiphysial lines of femur in a young adult. Posterior aspect. The lines of attachment of the articular capsules are in blue.

Figure 255 - Right patella. Anterior surface.

Figure 256 - Right patella. Posterior surface.

Figure 257 - Upper surface of right tibia.

Figure 258 - Bones of the right leg. Anterior surface.

Figure 259 - Bones of the right leg. Posterior surface.

Figure 260 - Plan of ossification of the tibia. From three centers.

Figure 261 - Epiphysial lines of tibia and fibula in a young adult. Anterior aspect.

Figure 262 - Lower extremity of right fibula. Medial aspect.

Figure 263 - Plan of ossification of the fibula. From three centers.

Figure 264 - Left calcaneus, superior surface.

Figure 265 - Left calcaneus, inferior surface.

Figure 266 - Left calcaneus, lateral surface.

Figure 267 - Left calcaneus, medial surface.

Figure 268 - Bones of the right foot. Dorsal surface.

Figure 269 - Bones of the right foot. Plantar surface.

Figure 270 - Left talus, from above.

Figure 271 - Left talus, from below.

Figure 272 - Left talus, medial surface.

Figure 273 - Left talus, lateral surface.

Figure 274 - The left cuboid. Antero-medial view.

Figure 275 - The left cuboid. Postero-lateral view.

Figure 276 - The left navicular. Antero-lateral view.

Figure 277 - The left navicular. Postero-medial view.

Figure 278 - The left first cuneiform. Antero-medial view.

Figure 279 - The left first cuneiform. Postero-lateral view.

Figure 280 - The left second cuneiform. Antero-medial view.

Figure 281 - The left second cuneiform. Postero-lateral view.

Figure 282 - The left third cuneiform. Postero-medial view.

Figure 283 - The third left cuneiform. Antero-lateral view.

Figure 284 - The first metatarsal. (Left.)

Figure 285 - The second metatarsal. (Left.)

Figure 286 - The third metatarsal. (Left.)

Figure 287 - The fourth metatarsal. (Left.)

Figure 288 - The fifth metatarsal. (Left.)

Figure 289 - Plan of ossification of the foot.

Figure 290 - Skeleton of foot. Medial aspect.

Figure 291 - Skeleton of foot. Lateral aspect.

Figure 292 - Human cartilage cells from the cricoid cartilage.

Figure 293 - Vertical section of articular cartilage.

Figure 294 - Costal cartilage from a man, aged seventy-six years, showing the development of fibrous structure in the matrix. In several portions of the specimen two or three generations of cells are seen enclosed in a parent cell wall. Highly magnified.

Figure 295 - White fibrocartilage from an intervertebral fibrocartilage.

Figure 296 - Section across the sagittal suture.

Figure 297 - Section through occipitosphenoid synchondrosis of an infant.

Figure 298 - Diagrammatic section of a symphysis.

Figure 299 - Diagrammatic section of a diarthrodial joint.

Figure 300 - Diagrammatic section of a diarthrodial joint, with an articular disk.

Figure 301 - Median sagittal section of two lumbar vertebræ and their ligaments.

Figure 302 - Posterior longitudinal ligament, in the thoracic region.

Figure 303 - Vertebral arches of three thoracic vertebræ viewed from the front.

Figure 304 - Anterior atlantoöccipital membrane and atlantoaxial ligament.

Figure 305 - Posterior atlantoöccipital membrane and atlantoaxial ligament.

Figure 306 - Articulation between odontoid process and atlas.

Figure 307 - Membrana tectoria, transverse, and alar ligaments.

Figure 308 - Median sagittal section through the occipital bone and first three cervical vertebræ. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 309 - Articulation of the mandible. Lateral aspect.

Figure 310 - Articulation of the mandible. Medial aspect.

Figure 311 - Sagittal section of the articulation of the mandible.

Figure 312 - Costovertebral articulations. Anterior view.

Figure 313 - Costotransverse articulation. Seen from above.

Figure 314 - Section of the costotransverse joints from the third to the ninth inclusive. Constrast the concave facets on the upper with the flattened facets on the lower transverse processes.

Figure 315 - Sternocostal and interchondral articulations. Anterior view.

Figure 316 - Lateral view of first and seventh ribs in position, showing the movements of the sternum and ribs in A, ordinary expiration; B, quiet inspiration; C, deep inspiration.

Figure 317 - Diagram showing the axes of movement (A B and C D) of a vertebrosternal rib. The interrupted lines indicate the position of the rib in inspiration.

Figure 318 - Diagram showing the axis of movement (A B) of a vertebrochondral rib. The interrupted lines indicate the position of the rib in inspiration.

Figure 319 - Articulations of pelvis. Anterior view. (Quain.)

Figure 320 - Articulatios of pelvis. Posterior view. (Quain.)

Figure 321 - Symphysis pubis exposed by a coronal section.

Figure 322 - Coronal section of anterior sacral segment.

Figure 323 - Coronal section of middle sacra segment.

Figure 324 - Coronal section of posterior sacral segment.

Figure 325 - Sternoclavicular articulation. Anterior view.

Figure 326 - The left shoulder and acromioclavicular joints, and the proper ligaments of the scapula.

Figure 327 - Capsule of shoulder-joint (distended). Anterior aspect.

Figure 328 - Glenoid fossa of right side.

Figure 329 - Left elbow-joint, showing anterior and ulnar collateral ligaments.

Figure 330 - Left elbow-joint, showing posterior and radial collateral ligaments.

Figure 331 - Capsule of elbow-joint (distended). Anterior aspect.

Figure 332 - Capsule of elbow-joint (distended). Posterior aspect.

Figure 333 - Annular ligament of radius, from above. The head of the radius has been sawn off and the bone dislodged from the ligament.

Figure 334 - Ligaments of wrist. Anterior view

Figure 335 - Ligaments of wrist. Posterior view.

Figure 336 - Vertical section through the articulations at the wrist, showing the synovial cavities.

Figure 337 - Metacarpophalangeal articulation and articulations of digit. Volar aspect.

Figure 338 - Metacarpophalangeal articulation and articulations of digit. Ulnar aspect.

Figure 339 - Right hip-joint from the front. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 340 - The hip-joint from behind. (Quain.)

Figure 341 - Left hip-joint, opened by removing the floor of the acetabulum from within the pelvis.

Figure 342 - Hip-joint, front view. The capsular ligament has been largely removed.

Figure 343 - Capsule of hip-joint (distended). Posterior aspect.

Figure 344 - Structures surrounding right hip-joint.

Figure 345 - Right knee-joint. Anterior view.

Figure 346 - Right knee-joint. Posterior view.

Figure 347 - Right knee-joint, from the front, showing interior ligaments.

Figure 348 - Left knee-joint from behind, showing interior ligaments.

Figure 349 - Head of right tibia seen from above, showing menisci and attachments of ligaments.

Figure 350 - Sagittal section of right knee-joint.

Figure 351 - Capsule of right knee-joint (distended). Lateral aspect.

Figure 352 - Capsule of right knee-joint (distended). Posterior aspect.

Figure 353 - Posterior surface of the right patella, showing diagrammatically the areas of contact with the femur in different positions of the knee.

Figure 354 - Ligaments of the medial aspect of the foot. (Quain.)

Figure 355 - The ligaments of the foot from the lateral aspect. (Quain.)

Figure 356 - Capsule of left talocrura articulation (distended). Lateral aspect.

Figure 357 - Coronal section through right talocrural and talocalcaneal joints.

Figure 358 - Ligaments of the sole of the foot, with the tendons of the Peronæus longus, Tibialis posterior and Tibialis anterior muscles. (Quain.)

Figure 359 - Talocalcaneal and talocalcaneonavicular articulations exposed from above by removing the talus.

Figure 360 - Oblique section of left intertarsal and tarsometatarsal articulations, showing the synovial cavities.

Figure 361 - No caption.

Figure 362 - No caption.

Figure 363 - No caption.

Figure 364 - No caption.

Figure 365 - A, fusiform; B, unipinnate; C, bipinnate; P.C.S., physiological cross-section.

Figure 366 - No caption.

Figure 367 - No caption.

Figure 368 - No caption.

Figure 369 - No caption.

Figure 370 - No caption.

Figure 371 - No caption.

Figure 372 - No caption.

Figure 373 - Transverse section of human striped muscle fibers. x 255.

Figure 374 - Striped muscle fibers from tongue of cat. x 250.

Figure 375 - A. Portion of a medium-sized human muscular fiber. Magnified nearly 800 diameters. B. Separated bundles of fibrils, equally magnified. a, a. Larger, and b, b, smaller collections. c. Still smaller. d, d. The smallest which could be detached.

Figure 376 - Diagram of a sarcomere. (After Schäfer.) A. In moderately extended condition. B. In a contracted condition. k, k. Membranes of Krause. H. Line or plane of Hensen. S.E. Poriferous sarcous element.

Figure 377 - Subcutaneous tissue from a young rabbit. Highly magnified. (Schäfer.)

Figure 378 - Muscles of the head, face, and neck.

Figure 379 - Left orbicularis oculi, seen from behind.

Figure 380 - Muscles of the pharynx and cheek.

Figure 381 - Scheme showing arrangement of fibers of Orbicularis oris.

Figure 382 - The Temporalis; the zygomatic arch and Masseter have been removed.

Figure 383 - The Pterygoidei; the zygomatic arch and a portion of the ramus of the mandible have been removed.

Figure 384 - Section of the neck at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. Showing the arrangement of the fascia coli.

Figure 385 - Muscles of the neck. Lateral view.

Figure 386 - Muscles of the neck. Anterior view.

Figure 387 - The anterior vertebral muscles.

Figure 388 - Diagram of a transverse section of the posterior abdominal wall, to show the disposition of the lumbodorsal fascia.

Figure 389 - Deep muscles of the back.

Figure 390 - Posterior surface of sternum and costal cartilages, showing Transversus thoracis.

Figure 391 - The diaphragm. Under surface.

Figure 392 - The Obliquus externus abdominis.

Figure 393 - The subcutaneous inguinal ring.

Figure 394 - The inguinal and lacunar ligaments.

Figure 395 - The Obliquus internus abdominis.

Figure 396 - The Cremaster.

Figure 397 - The Transversus abdominis, Rectus abdominis, and Pyramidalis.

Figure 398 - The interfoveolar ligament, seen from in front. (Modified from Braune.)

Figure 399 - Diagram of sheath of Rectus.

Figure 400 - Diagram of a transverse section through the anterior abdomina wall, below the linea semicircularis.

Figure 401 - The abdominal inguinal ring.

Figure 402 - Coronal section of pelvis, showing arrangement of fasciæ. Viewed from behind. (Diagrammatic.)

Figure 403 - Median sagittal section of pelvis, showing arrangement of fasciæ.

Figure 404 - Left Levator ani from within.

Figure 405 - The perineum. The integument and superficial layer of superficial fascia reflected.

Figure 406 - Muscles of male perineum.

Figure 407 - Coronal section of anterior part of pelvis, through the pubic arch. Seen from in front. (Diagrammatic.)

Figure 408 - Muscles of the female perineum. (Modified from a drawing by Peter Thompson.)

Figure 409 - Muscles connecting the upper extremity to the vertebral column.

Figure 410 - —Superficial muscles of the chest and front of the arm.

Figure 411 - Deep muscles of the chest and front of the arm, with the boundaries of the axilla.

Figure 412 - —Muscles on the dorsum of the scapula, and the Triceps brachii.

Figure 413 - Cross-section through the middle of upper arm. (Eycleshymer and Schoemaker. 84)

Figure 414 - Front of the left forearm. Superficial muscles.

Figure 415 - Front of the left forearm. Deep muscles.

Figure 416 - Tendons of forefinger and vincula tendina.

Figure 417 - Cross-section through the middle of the forearm. (Eycleshymer and Schoemaker.)

Figure 418 - Posterior surface of the forearm. Superficial muscles.

Figure 419 - Posterior surface of the forearm. Deep muscles.

Figure 420 - The Supinator.

Figure 421 - Transverse section across distal ends of radius and ulna.

Figure 422 - Transverse section across the wrist and digits.

Figure 423 - The mucous sheaths of the tendons on the front of the wrist and digits.

Figure 424 - The mucous sheaths of the tendons on the back of the wrist.

Figure 425 - The palmar aponeurosis.

Figure 426 - The muscles of the thumb.

Figure 427 - The muscles of the left hand. Palmar surface.

Figure 428 - The Interossei dorsales of left hand.

Figure 429 - The Interossei volares of left hand.

Figure 430 - Muscles of the iliac and anterior femoral regions.

Figure 431 - The fossa ovalis.

Figure 432 - Cross-section through the middle of the thigh. (Eycleshymer and Schoemaker.)

Figure 433 - Deep muscles of the medial femoral region.

Figure 434 - Muscles of the gluteal and posterior femoral regions.

Figure 435 - The obturator membrane.

Figure 436 - The Obturator externus.

Figure 437 - Muscles of the front of the leg.

Figure 438 - Muscles of the back of the leg. Superficial layer.

Figure 439 - Muscles of the back of the leg. Deep layer.

Figure 440 - Cross-section through middle of leg. (Eycleshymer and Schoemaker.)

Figure 441 - The mucous sheaths of the tendons around the ankle. Lateral aspect.

Figure 442 - The mucous sheaths of the tendons around the ankle. Medial aspect.

Figure 443 - Muscles of the sole of the foot. First layer.

Figure 444 - Muscles of the sole of the foot. Second layer.

Figure 445 - Muscles of the sole of the foot. Third layer.

Figure 446 - The Interossei dorsales. Left foot.

Figure 447 - The Interossei plantares. Left foot.

Figure 448 - Transverse section through a small artery and vein of the mucous membrane of the epiglottis of a child. X 350. (Klein and Noble Smith.) A. Artery, showing the nucleated endothelium, e, which lines it; the vessel being contracted, the endothelial cells appear very thick. Underneath the endothelium is the wavy elastic lamina. The chief part of the wall of the vessel is occupied by the circular muscle coat m; the rod-shaped nuclei of the muscle cells are well seen. Outside this is a, part of the adventitia. This is composed of bundles of connective tissue fibers, shown in section, with the nuclei of the connective tissue corpuscles. The adventitia gradually merges into the surrounding connective tissue. V. Vein showing a thin endothelial membrane, e, raised accidentally from the intima, which on account of its delicacy is seen as a mere line on the media m. This latter is composed of a few circular unstriped muscle cells a. The adventitia, similar in structure to that of an artery.

Figure 449 - Small artery and vein, pia mater of sheep. X 250. Surface view above the interrupted line; longitudinal section below. Artery in red; vein in blue,

Figure 450 - Section of a medium-sized artery. (After Grünstein.)

Figure 451 - Capillaries from the mesentery of a guinea-pig, after treatment with solution of nitrate of silver. a. Cells. b. Their nuclei.

Figure 452 - Section of a medium-sized vein.

Figure 453 - Human red blood corpuscles. Highly magnified. a. Seen from the surface. b. Seen in profile and forming rouleaux. c. Rendered spherical by water. d. Rendered crenate by salt solution.

Figure 454 - Varieties of leucocytes found in human blood. Highly magnified.

Figure 455 - Human colorles blood corpuscle, showing its successive changes of outline within ten minutes when kept moist on a warm stage. (Schofield.)

Figure 456 - Blood platelets. Highly magnified. (After Kopsch.)

Figure 457 - Transverse section through the region of the heart in a rabbit embryo of nine days. X 80. (Kölliker.) j, j. Jugular veins. ao. Aorta. ph. Pharynx. som. Somatopleure. bl. Proamnion. ect. Ectoderm. ent. Entoderm. p. Pericardium. spl. Splanchnopleure. ah. Outer wall of heart. ih. Endothelial lining of heart. é. Septum between heart tubes.

Figure 458 - Diagram of the vascular channels in a human embryo of the second week. (After Eternod.) The red lines are the dorsal aortæ continued into the umbilical arteries. The red dotted lines are the ventral aortæ, and the blue dotted lines the vitelline veins.

Figure 459 - Human embryo of about fourteen days, with yolk-sac. (After His.)

Figure 460 - Head of chick embryo of about thirty-eight hours’ incubation, viewed from the ventral surface. X 26 (Duval.)

Figure 461 - Diagram to illustrate the simple tubular condition of the heart. (Drawn from Ecker-Ziegler model.)

Figure 462 - Heart of human embryo of about fourteen days. (From model by His.)

Figure 463 - Heart of human embryo of about fifteen days. (Reconstruction by His.)

Figure 464 - Dorsal surface of heart of human embryo of thirty-five days. (From model by His.)

Figure 465 - Interior of dorsal half of heart from a human embryo of about thirty days. (From model by His.)

Figure 466 - Heart showing expansion of the atria. (Drawn from Ecker-Zeigler model.)

Figure 467 - Interior of dorsal half of heart of human embryo of about thirty-five days. (From model by His.)

Figure 468 - Same heart as in Fig. 467, opened on right side. (From model by His.)

Figure 469 - Diagrams to illustrate the transformation of the bulbus cordis. (Keith.) Ao. Truncus arteriosus. Au. Atrium. B. Bulbus cordis. RV. Right ventricle. LV. Left ventricle. P. Pulmonary artery.

Figure 470 - Diagrams to show the development of the septum of the aortic bulb and of the ventricles. (Born.)

Figure 471 - Transverse sections through the aortic bulb to show the growth of the aortic septum. The lowest section is on the left, the highest on the right of the figure. (After His.)

Figure 472 - Profile view of a human embryo estimated at twenty or twenty-one days old. (After His.)

Figure 473 - Scheme of the aortic arches and their destination. (Modified from Kollmann.)

Figure 474 - Diagram showing the origins of the main branches of the carotid arteries. (Founded on Tandler.)

Figure 475 - The liver and the veins in connection with it, of a human embryo, twenty-four or twenty-five days old, as seen from the ventral surface. (After His.)

Figure 476 - Human embryo with heart and anterior body-wall removed to show the sinus venosus and its tributaries. (After His.)

Figure 477 - Scheme of arrangement of parietal veins.

Figure 478 - Scheme showing early stages of development of the inferior vena cava.

Figure 479 - Diagram showing development of main cross branches between jugulars and between cardinals.

Figure 480 - Diagram showing completion of development of the parietal veins.

Figure 481 - 4 mm.

Figure 482 - 14 mm.

Figure 483 - 18 mm.

Figure 484 - 21 mm.

Figure 485 - 35 mm.

Figure 486 - 50 mm. crown-rump length.

Figure 487 - 80 mm. crown-rump length.(After Streeter.)

Figure 488 - Profile drawings of the dural veins showing principal stages in their development in human embryos from 4 mm. to birth. It is of particular interest to notice their adaptation to the growth and changes in the form of the central nervous system. Fig. 481, 4 mm.; Fig. 482, 14 mm.; Fig. 483, 18 mm.; Fig. 484, 21 mm.; Fig. 485, 35 mm.; Fig. 486, 50 mm. crown-rump length; Fig. 487, 80 mm. crown-rump length; Fig. 488, adult. (After Streeter.)

Figure 489 - Posterior wall of the pericardial sac, showing the lines of reflection of the serous pericardium on the great vessels.

Figure 490 - Front view of heart and lungs.

Figure 491 - Base and diaphragmatic surface of heart.

Figure 492 - Sternocostal surface of heart.

Figure 493 - Interior of right side of heart.

Figure 494 - Heart seen from above.

Figure 495 - Base of ventricles exposed by removal of the atria.

Figure 496 - Interior of left side of heart.

Figure 497 - Aorta laid open to show the semilunar valves.

Figure 498 - Section of the heart showing the ventricular septum.

Figure 499 - Anastomosing muscular fibers of the heart seen in a longitudinal section. On the right the limits of the separate cells with their nuclei are exhibited somewhat diagrammatically.

Figure 500 - Purkinje’s fibers from the sheep’s heart. A. In longitudinal section. B. In transverse section.

Figure 501 - Schematic representation of the atrioventricular bundle of His. The bundle, represented in red originates near the orifice of the coronary sinus, undergoes slight enlargement to form a node, passes forward to the ventricular septum, and divides into two limbs. The ultimate distribution cannot be completely shown in this diagram.

Figure 502 - Plan of the fetal circulation. In this plan the figured arrows represent the kind of blood, as well as the direction which it takes in the vessles. Thus—arterial blood is figured >—>; venous blood, >—>; mixed (arterial and venous) blood, >—>.

Figure 503 - Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery.

Figure 504 - Pulmonary vessels, seen in a dorsal view of the heart and lungs. The lungs have been pulled away from the median line, and a part of the right lung has been cut away to display the air-ducts and bloodvessels.

Figure 505 - The arch of the aorta, and its branches.

Figure 506 - Plan of the branches.

Figure 507 - Superficial dissection of the right side of the neck, showing the carotid and subclavian arteries.

Figure 508 - The arteries of the face and scalp. 98

Figure 509 - The labial coronary arteries, the glands of the lips, and the nerves of the right side seen from the posterior surface after removal of the mucous membrane. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 510 - Plan of branches of internal maxillary artery.

Figure 511 - Plan of branches of internal maxillary artery.

Figure 512 - The triangles of the neck.

Figure 513 - The internal carotid and vertebral arteries. Right side.

Figure 514 - The ophthalmic artery and its branches.

Figure 515 - Bloodvessels of the eyelids, front view. 1, supraorbital artery and vein; 2, nasal artery; 3, angular artery, the terminal branch of 4, the facial artery; 5, suborbital artery; 6, anterior branch of the superficial temporal artery; 6’, malar branch of the transverse artery of the face; 7, lacrimal artery; 8, superior palpebral artery with 8’, its external arch; 9, anastomoses of the superior palpebral with the superficial temporal and lacrimal; 10, inferior palpebral artery; 11, facial vein; 12, angular vein; 13, branch of the superficial temporal vein. (Testut.)

Figure 516 - The arteries of the base of the brain. The tempora pole of the cerebrum and a portion of the cerebellar hemisphere have been removed on the right side.

Figure 517 - Outer surface of cerebral hemisphere, showing areas supplied by cerebral arteries.

Figure 518 - Medial surface of cerebral hemisphere, showing areas supplied by cerebral arteries.

Figure 519 - Diagram of the arterial circulation at the base of the brain. A.L. Antero-lateral. A.M. Antero-medial. P.L. Postero-lateral. P.M. Posteromedial ganglionic branches.

Figure 520 - Superficial dissection of the right side of the neck, showing the carotid and subclavian arteries.

Figure 521 - The scapular and circumflex arteries.

Figure 522 - The internal mammary artery and its branches.

Figure 523 - The axillary artery and its branches.

Figure 524 - The scapular and circumflex arteries.

Figure 525 - The brachial artery.

Figure 526 - Diagram of the anastomosis around the elbow-joint.

Figure 527 - The radial and ulnar arteries.

Figure 528 - Ulnar and radial arteries. Deep view.

Figure 529 - Arteries of the back of the forearm and hand.

Figure 530 - The thoracic aorta, viewed from the left side.

Figure 531 - The abdominal aorta and its branches.

Figure 532 - The celiac artery and its branches; the liver has been raised, and the lesser omentum and anterior layer of the greater omentum removed.

Figure 533 - The celiac artery and its branches; the stomach has been raised and the peritoneum removed.

Figure 534 - The superior mesenteric artery and its branches.

Figure 535 - Loop of small intestine showing distribution of intestinal arteries. (From a preparation by Mr. Hamilton Drummond.) The vessels were injected while the gut was in situ; the gut was then removed, and an x-ray photograph taken.

Figure 536 - Arteries of cecum and vermiform process.

Figure 537 - The inferior mesenteric artery and its branches.

Figure 538 - Sigmoid colon and rectum, showing distribution of branches of inferior mesenteric artery and their anastomoses. (From a preparation by Mr. Hamilton Drummond.) Prepared in same manner as Fig. 535.

Figure 539 - The arteries of the pelvis.

Figure 540 - The arteries of the internal organs of generation of the female, seen from behind. (After Hyrtl.)

Figure 541 - Variations in origin and course of obturator artery.

Figure 542 - The superficial branches of the internal pudendal artery.

Figure 543 - The deeper branches of the internal pudendal artery.

Figure 544 - The arteries of the gluteal and posterior femoral regions.

Figure 545 - Femoral sheath laid open to show its three compartments.

Figure 546 - Structures passing behind the inguinal ligament.

Figure 547 - The relations of the femoral and abdominal inguinal rings, seen from within the abdomen. Right side.

Figure 548 - Scheme of the femoral artery. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 549 - The left femoral triangle.

Figure 550 - The femoral artery.

Figure 551 - The popliteal, posterior tibial, and peroneal arteries.

Figure 552 - Circumpatellar anastomosis.

Figure 553 - Anterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries.

Figure 554 - The plantar arteries. Superficial view.

Figure 555 - The plantar arteries. Deep view.

Figure 556 - Base and diaphragmatic surface of heart.

Figure 557 - Veins of the head and neck.

Figure 558 - The veins of the neck, viewed from in front. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 559 - Veins of the tongue. The hypoglossal nerve has been displaced downward in this preparation. (Testut after Hirschfeld.)

Figure 560 - The veins of the thyroid gland.

Figure 561 - Diagram showing common arrangement of thyroid veins. (Kocher.)

Figure 562 - The fascia and middle thyroid veins. The veins here designated the inferior thyroid are called by Kocher the thyroidea ima. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 563 - The vertebral vein. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 564 - Veins of the diploë as displayed by the removal of the outer table of the skull.

Figure 565 - Velum interpositum. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 566 - Superior sagittal sinus laid open after remova of the skull cap. The chordæ Willisii are clearly seen. The venous lacunæ are also well shown; from two of them probes are passed into the superior sagittal sinus. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 567 - Dura mater and its processes exposed by removing part of the right half of the skull, and the brain.

Figure 568 - Sagittal section of the skull, showing the sinuses of the dura.

Figure 569 - Tentorium cerebelli from above.

Figure 570 - The sinuses at the base of the skull.

Figure 571 - Oblique section through the cavernous sinus.

Figure 572 - Veins of orbit. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 573 - The veins on the dorsum of the hand. (Bourgery.)

Figure 574 - The superficial veins of the upper extremity.

Figure 575 - The deep veins of the upper extremity. (Bourgery.)

Figure 576 - The veins of the right axilla, viewed from in front. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 577 - The venæ cavæ and azygos veins, with their tributaries.

Figure 578 - Transverse section of a thoracic vertebra, showing the vertebral venous plexuses.

Figure 579 - Median sagittal section of two thoracic vertebræ, showing the vertebral venous plexuses.

Figure 580 - The great saphenous vein and its tributaries at the fossa ovalis.

Figure 581 - The great saphenous vein and its tributaries.

Figure 582 - The small saphenous vein.

Figure 583 - The popliteal vein.

Figure 584 - The femoral vein and its tributaries. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 585 - The veins of the right half of the male pelvis. (Spalteholz).

Figure 586 - The iliac veins. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 587 - Scheme of the anastomosis of the veins of the rectum. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 588 - The penis in transverse section, showing the bloodvessels. (Testut.)

Figure 589 - Vessels of the uterus and its appendages, rear view. (Testut.)

Figure 590 - Spermatic veins. (Testut.)

Figure 591 - The portal vein and its tributaries.

Figure 592 - Scheme showing relative positions of primary lymph sacs based on the description given by Florence Sabin.

Figure 593 - Lymph capillaries of the human conjunctiva: a, conjunctiva corneæ; b, conjunctiva scleroticæ. X 40 dia. (Teichmann.)

Figure 594 - Lymph capillaries from the human scrotum, showing also transition from capillaries to the collecting vessels a, a. X 20 dia. (Teichmann.)

Figure 595 - Lymph capillaries of the cutis from the inner border of the sole of the human foot. a, a, outer layer; b, b, inner layer. X 30 dia. (Teichmann.)

Figure 596 - Vertical section through human tongue; a, a, blind lymph capillaries in the filiform papillæ with the underlying lymphatic plexus. X 45. (Teichmann.)

Figure 597 - Section of small lymph gland of rabbit. X 100.

Figure 598 - Lymph gland tissue. Highly magnified. a, Trabeculæ. b. Small artery in substance of same. c. Lymph paths. d. Lymph corpuscles. e. Capillary plexus.

Figure 599 - The thoracic and right lymphatic ducts.

Figure 600 - Modes of origin of thoracic duct. (Poirier and Charpy.) a. Thoracic duct. a’. Cisterna chyli. b, c’ Efferent trunks from lateral aortic glands. d. An efferent vessel which pierces the left crus of the diaphragm. e. f. Lateral aortic glands. h. Retroaortic glands. i. Intestinal trunk. j. Descending branch from intercostal lymphatics.

Figure 601 - Terminal collecting trunks of right side. a. Jugular trunk. b. Subclavian trunk. c. Bronchomediastinal trunk. d. Right lymphatic trunk. e. Gland of internal mammary chain. f. Gland of deep cervical chain. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 602 - Superficial lymph glands and lymphatic vessels of head and neck.

Figure 603 - Lymphatics of pharynx. (Poirier and Charpy.

Figure 604 - The lymphatics of the face. (After Küttner.)

Figure 605 - Lymphatics of the tongue. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 606 - The superficial lymph glands and lymphatic vessels of the upper extremity.

Figure 607 - Lymphatics of the mamma, and the axillary glands (semidiagrammatic). (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 608 - Lymphatic vessels of the dorsal surface of the hand. (Sappey.)

Figure 609 - Lymph glands of popliteal fossa. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 610 - The superficial lymph glands and lymphatic vessels of the lower extremity.

Figure 611 - The parietal lymph glands of the pelvis. (Cunéo and Marcille.)

Figure 612 - Iliopelvic glands (lateral view). (Cunéo and Marcille.)

Figure 613 - Lymphatics of stomach, etc. (Jamieson and Dobson.)

Figure 614 - Lymphatics of stomach, etc. The stomach has been turned upward. (Jamieson and Dobson.)

Figure 615 - The lymphatics of cecum and vermiform process from the front. (Jamieson and Dobson.)

Figure 616 - The lymphatics of cecum and vermiform process from behind. (Jamieson and Dobson.)

Figure 617 - Lymphatics of colon. (Jamieson and Dobson.)

Figure 618 - Lymphatics of the bladder. (Cunéo and Marcille.)

Figure 619 - Lymphatics of the prostate. (Cunéo and Marcille.)

Figure 620 - Lymphatics of the uterus. (Cunéo and Marcille.)

Figure 621 - Deep lymph nodes and vessels of the thorax and abdomen (diagrammatic). Afferent vessels are represented by continuous lines, and efferent and internodular vessels by dotted lines. (Cunningham.)

Figure 622 - The tracheobronchial lymph glands. (From a figure designed by M. Hallé.)

Figure 623 - Neuroglia cells of brain shown by Golgi’s method. A. Cell with branched processes. B. Spider cell with unbranched processes. (After Andriezen.)

Figure 624 - Various forms of nerve cells. A. Pyramidal cell. B. Small multipolar cell, in which the axon quickly divides into numerous branches. C. Small fusiform cell. D and E. Ganglion cells (E shows T-shaped division of axon). ax. Axon. c. Capsule.

Figure 625 - Bipolar nerve cell from the spinal ganglion of the pike. (After Kölliker.)

Figure 626 - Motor nerve cell from ventral horn of medulla spinalis of rabbit. The angular and spindle-shaped Nissl bodies are well shown. (After Nissl.)

Figure 627 - Pyramidal cell from the cerebral cortex of a mouse. (After Ramón y Cajal.)

Figure 628 - Cell of Purkinje from the cerebellum. Golgi method. (Cajal.) a. Axon. b. Collateral. c and d. Dendrons.

Figure 629 - Nerve cells of kitten, showing neurofibrils. (Cajal.) a. Axon. b. Cyton. c. Nucleus. d. Neurofibrils.

Figure 630 - Medullated nerve fibers. X 350.

Figure 631 - Diagram of longitudinal sections of medullated nerve fibers. Osmic acid.

Figure 632 - Transverse sections of medullated nerve fibers. Osmic acid.

Figure 633 - Diagram of medullated nerve fibers stained with osmic acid. X 425. (Schäfer.) R. Nodes of Ranvier. a. Neurolemma. c. Nucleus.

Figure 634 - Medullated nerve fibers stained with silver nitrate.

Figure 635 - A small nervous branch from the sympathetic of a mammal. a. Two medullated nerve fibers among a number of gray nerve fibers, b.

Figure 636 - Transverse section of human tibial nerve.

Figure 637 - Muscular fibers of Lacerta viridis with the terminations of nerves. a. Seen in profile. P, P. The nerve end-plates. S, S. The base of the plate, consisting of a granular mass with nuclei. b. The same as seen in looking at a perfectly fresh fiber, the nervous ends being probably still excitable. (The forms of the variously divided plate can hardly be represented in a woodcut by sufficiently delicate and pale contours to reproduce correctly what is seen in nature.) c. The same as seen two hours after death from poisoning by curare.

Figure 638 - Transverse section of spinal ganglion of rabbit. A. Ganglion. X 30. a. Large clear nerve cell. b. Small deeply staining nerve cell. c. Nuclei of capsule. X 250. The lines in the center point to the corresponding cells in the ganglion.

Figure 639 - Transverse section of sympathetic ganglion of cat. A. Ganglion. X 50. a. A nerve cell. X 250.

Figure 640 - Section of medulla spinalis of a four weeks’ embryo. (His.)

Figure 641 - Transverse section of the medulla spinalis of a human embryo at the beginning of the fourth week. The left edge of the figure corresponds to the lining of the central canal. (His.)

Figure 642 - aged about four and a half weeks.

Figure 643 - aged about three months.

Figure 644 - Two stages in the development of the neural crest in the human embryo. (Lenhossèk.)

Figure 645 - Reconstruction of periphera nerves of a human embryo of 10.2 mm. (After His.) The abducent nerve is not labelled, but is seen passing forward to the eye under the mandibular and maxillary nerves.

Figure 646 - Diagram to illustrate the alar and basal laminæ of brain vesicles. (His.)

Figure 647 - Transverse section of medulla oblongata of human embryo. X 32. (Kollmann.)

Figure 648 - Transverse section of medulla oblongata of human embryo. (After His.)

Figure 649 - Hind-brain of a human embryo of three months—viewed from behind and partly from left side. (From model by His.)

Figure 650 - Exterior of brain of human embryo of four and a half weeks. (From model by His.)

Figure 651 - Brain of human embryo of four and a half weeks, showing interior of fore-brain. (From model by His.)

Figure 652 - Exterior of brain of human embryo of five weeks. (From model by His.)

Figure 653 - Interior of brain of human embryo of five weeks. (From model by His.)

Figure 654 - Median sagittal section of brain of human embryo of three months. (From model by His.)

Figure 655 - Inferior surface of brain of embryo at beginning of fourth month. (From Kollmann.)

Figure 656 - Diagrammatic coronal section of brain to show relations of neopallium. (After His.) Cs. Corpus striatum. Th. Thalamus.

Figure 657 - Median sagittal section of brain of human embryo of four months. (Marchand.)

Figure 658 - Outer surface of cerebral hemisphere of human embryo of about five months.

Figure 659 - Transverse section of medulla oblongata of human embryo. X 32. (Kollmann)

Figure 660 - Transverse section of medulla oblongata of human embryo. (After His.)

Figure 661 - Sagittal section of vertebral canal to show the lower end of the medulla spinalis and the filum terminale. Li, Lv. First and fifth lumbar vertebræ. Sii. Second sacral vertebra. 1. Dura mater. 2. Lower part of tube of dura mater. 3. Lower extremity of medulla spinalis. 4. Intradural, and 5, Extradural portions of filum terminale. 6. Attachment of filum terminale to first segment of coccyx. (Testut.)

Figure 662 - Cauda equina and filum terminale seen from behind. The dura mater has been opened and spread out, and the arachnoid has been removed.

Figure 663 - Diagrams of the medulla spinalis.

Figure 664 - Transverse section of the medulla spinalis in the mid-thoracic region.

Figure 665 - Curves showing the sectional area at different levels of the cord. The ordinates show the area in sq. mm. (Donaldson and Davis.)

Figure 666 - Transverse sections of the medulla spinalis at different levels.

Figure 667 - Section of central canal of medulla spinalis, showing ependymal and neuroglial cells. (v. Lenhossek.)

Figure 668 - Cells of medulla spinalis. Diagram showing in longitudinal section the intersegmental neurons of the medulla spinalis. The gray and white parts correspond respectively to the gray and white substance of the medulla spinalis. (Poirier.)

Figure 669 - Diagram showing a few of the connections of afferent (sensory) fibers of the posterior root with the efferent fibers from the ventral column and with the various long ascending fasciculi.

Figure 670 - Diagram showing possible connection of long descending fibers from higher centers with the motor cells of the ventral column through association fibers.

Figure 671 - Transverse sections of the medulla spinalis at different levels to show the arrangement of the principal cell columns.

Figure 672 - Diagram of the principal fasciculi of the spinal cord.

Figure 673 - Formation of the fasciculus gracilis. Medulla spinalis viewed from behind. To the left, the fasciculus gracilis is shaded. To the right, the drawing shows that the fasciculus gracilis is formed by the long fibers of the posterior roots, and that in this tract the sacral nerves lie next the median plane, the lumbar to their lateral side, and the thoracic still more laterally. (Poirier.)

Figure 674 - Descending fibers in the posterior funiculi, shown at different levels. A. In the conus medullaris. B. In the lumbar region. C. In the lower thoracic region. D. In the upper thoracic region. (After Testut.)

Figure 675 - A spinal nerve with its anterior and posterior roots.

Figure 676 - Posterior roots entering medulla spinalis and dividing into ascending and descending branches. (Van Gehuchten.) a. Stem fiber. b, b. Ascending and descending limbs of bifurcation. c. Collateral arising from stem fiber.

Figure 677 - Scheme showing the connections of the several parts of the brain. (After Schwalbe.)

Figure 678 - Schematic representation of the chief ganglionic categories (I to V). (Spitzka.)

Figure 679 - Medulla oblongata and pons. Anterior surface.

Figure 680 - Decussation of pyramids. Scheme showing passage of various fasciculi from medulla spinalis to medulla oblongata. a. Pons. b. Medulla oblongata. c. Decussation of the pyramids. d. Section of cervical part of medulla spinalis. 1. Anterior cerebrospinal fasciculus (in red). 2. Lateral cerebrospinal fasciculus (in red). 3. Sensory tract (fasciculi gracilis et cuneatus) (in blue). 3’. Gracile and cuneate nuclei. 4. Antero-lateral proper fasciculus (in dotted line). 5. Pyramid. 6. Lemniscus. 7. Medial longitudinal fasciculus. 8. Ventral spinocerebellar fasciculus (in blue). 9. Dorsal spinocerebellar fasciculus (in yellow). (Testut.)

Figure 681 - Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view.

Figure 682 - Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view.

Figure 683 - Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view.

Figure 684 - Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view.

Figure 685 - Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view.

Figure 686 - Upper part of medulla spinalis and hind- and mid-brains; posterior aspect, exposed in situ.

Figure 687 - Section of the medulla oblongata through the lower part of the decussation of the pyramids. (Testut.) 1. Anterior median fissure. 2. Posterior median sulcus. 3. Anterior column (in red), with 3’, anterior root. 4. Posterior column (in blue), with 4’, posterior roots. 5. Lateral cerebrospinal fasciculus. 6. Posterior funiculus. The red arrow, a, a’, indicates the course the lateral cerebrospinal fasciculus takes at the level of the decussation of the pyramids; the blue arrow, b, b’, indicates the course which the sensory fibers take.

Figure 688 - Section of the medulla oblongata at the level of the decussation of the pyramids. (Testut.) 1. Anterior median fissure. 2. Posterior median sulcus. 3. Motor roots. 4. Sensory roots. 5. Base of the anterior column, from which the head (5’) has been detached by the lateral cerebrospinal fasciculus. 6. Decussation of the lateral cerebrospinal fasciculus. 7. Posterior columns (in blue). 8. Gracile nucleus.

Figure 689 - Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view.

Figure 690 - Deep dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view.

Figure 691 - Dissection of brain-stem. Dorsal view. The nuclear masses of the medulla are taken from model by Weed, Carnegie Publication, No. 19.

Figure 692 - Superior terminations of the posterior fasciculi of the medulla spinalis. 1. Posterior median sulcus. 2. Fasciculus gracilis. 3. Fasciculus cuneatus. 4. Gracile nucleus. 5. Cuneate nucleus. 6, 6’, 6’’. Sensory fibers forming the lemniscus. 7. Sensory decussation. 8. Cerebellar fibers uncrossed (in black). 9. Cerebellar fibers crossed (in black). (Testut.)

Figure 693 - Transverse section passing through the sensory decussation. (Schematic.) 1. Anterior median fissure. 2. Posterior median sulcus. 3, 3. Head and base of anterior column (in red). 4. Hypoglossal nerve. 5. Bases of posterior columns. 6. Gracile nucleus. 7. Cuneate nucleus. 8, 8. Lemniscus. 9. Sensory decussation. 10. Cerebrospinal fasciculus. (Testut.)

Figure 694 - Section of the medulla oblongata at about the middle of the olive. (Schwalbe.)

Figure 695 - Transverse section of medulla oblongata below the middle of the olive.

Figure 696 - The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. (The olfactory and optic centers are not represented.)

Figure 697 - Nuclei of origin of cranial motor nerves schematically represented; lateral view.

Figure 698 - Primary terminal nuclei of the afferent (sensory) cranial nerves schematically represented; lateral view. The olfactory and optic centers are not represented.

Figure 699 - Diagram showing the course of the arcuate fibers. (Testut.) 1. Medulla oblongata anterior surface. 2. Anterior median fissure. 3. Fourth ventricle. 4. Inferior olivary nucleus, with the accessory olivary nuclei. 5. Gracile nucleus. 6. Cuneate nucleus. 7. Trigeminal. 8. Inferior peduncles, seen from in front. 9. Posterior external arcuate fibers. 10. Anterior external arcuate fibers. 11. Internal arcuate fibers. 12. Peduncle of inferior olivary nucleus. 13. Nucleus arcuatus. 14. Vagus. 15. Hypoglossal.

Figure 700 - The formatio reticularis of the medulla oblongata, shown by a transverse section passing through the middle of the olive. (Testut.) 1. Anterior median fissure. 2. Fourth ventricle. 3. Formatio reticularis, with 3’, its internal part (reticularis alba), and 3’’, its external part (reticularis grisea). 4. Raphé. 5. Pyramid. 6. Lemniscus. 7. Inferior olivary nucleus with the two accessory olivary nuclei. 8. Hypoglossal nerve, with 8’, its nucleus of origin. 9. Vagus nerve, with 9’, its nucleus of termination. 10. Lateral dorsal acoustic nucleus. 11. Nucleus ambiguus (nucleus of origin of motor fibers of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and cerebral portion of spinal accessory). 12. Gracile nucleus. 13. Cuneate nucleus. 14. Head of posterior column, with 14’, the lower sensory root of trigeminal nerve. 15. Fasciculus solitarius. 16. Anterior external arcuate fibers, with 16’, the nucleus arcuatus. 17. Nucleus lateralis 18. Nucleus of fasciculus teres. 19. Ligula.

Figure 701 - Coronal section of the pons, at its upper part.

Figure 702 - Upper surface of the cerebellum. (Schäfer.)

Figure 703 - Under surface of the cerebellum. (Schäfer.)

Figure 704 - Sagittal section of the cerebellum, near the junction of the vermis with the hemisphere. (Schäfer.)

Figure 705 - Dissection showing the projection fibers of the cerebellum. (After E. B. Jamieson.)

Figure 706 - Transverse section of a cerebellar folium. (Diagrammatic, after Cajal and Kölliker.)

Figure 707 - Sagittal section through right cerebellar hemisphere. The right olive has also been cut sagitally.

Figure 708 - Scheme of roof of fourth ventricle. The arrow is in the foramen of Majendie.

Figure 709 - Rhomboid fossa.

Figure 710 - Coronal section through mid-brain. (Schematic.) (Testut.) 1. Corpora quadrigemina. 2. Cerebral aqueduct. 3. Central gray stratum. 4. Interpeduncular space. 5. Sulcus lateralis. 6. Substantia nigra. 7. Red nucleus of tegmentum. 8. Oculomotor nerve, with 8’, its nucleus of origin. a. Lemniscus (in blue) with a’ the medial lemniscus and a" the lateral lemniscus. b. Medial longitudinal fasciculus. c. Raphé. d. Temporopontine fibers. e. Portion of medial lemniscus, which runs to the lentiform nucleus and insula. f. Cerebrospinal fibers. g. Frontopontine fibers.

Figure 711 - Transverse section of mid-brain at level of inferior colliculi.

Figure 712 - Transverse section of mid-brain at level of superior colliculi.

Figure 713 - Scheme showing the course of the fibers of the lemniscus; medial lemniscus in blue, lateral in red.

Figure 714 - Transverse section passing through the sensory decussation. Schematic. (Testut.) 1. Anterior median fissure. 2. Posterior median sulcus. 3, 3’. Head and base of anterior column (in red). 4. Hypoglossal nerve. 5. Bases of posterior column. 6. Gracile nucleus. 7. Cuneate nucleus. 8, 8. Lemniscus. 9. Sensory decussation. 10. Cerebrospinal fasciculus.

Figure 715 - Mesal aspect of a brain sectioned in the median sagittal plane.

Figure 716 - Dissection showing the ventricles of the brain.

Figure 717 - Coronal section of brain immediately in front of pons.

Figure 718 - Coronal section of brain through intermediate mass of third ventricle.

Figure 719 - Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view.

Figure 720 - Median sagittal section of brain. The relations of the pia mater are indicated by the red color.

Figure 721 - The hypophysis cerebri, in position. Shown in sagittal section.

Figure 722 - Scheme showing central connections of the optic nerves and optic tracts.

Figure 723 - Coronal section of lateral and third ventricles. (Diagrammatic.)

Figure 724 - Base of brain.

Figure 725 - Lateral surface of left cerebral hemisphere, viewed from above.

Figure 726 - Lateral surface of left cerebral hemisphere, viewed from the side.

Figure 727 - Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere.

Figure 728 - Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally.

Figure 729 - Orbital surface of left frontal lobe.

Figure 730 - Section of brain showing upper surface of temporal lobe.

Figure 731 - The insula of the left side, exposed by removing the opercula.

Figure 732 - Scheme of rhinencephalon.

Figure 733 - Corpus callosum from above.

Figure 734 - Scheme showing relations of the ventricles to the surface of the brain.

Figure 735 - Drawing of a cast of the ventricular cavities, viewed from above. (Retzius.)

Figure 736 - Drawing of a cast of the ventricular cavities, viewed from the side. (Retzius.)

Figure 737 - Central part and anterior and posterior cornua of lateral ventricles exposed from above.

Figure 738 - Coronal section through posterior cornua of lateral ventricle.

Figure 739 - Posterior and inferior cornua of left lateral ventricle exposed from the side.

Figure 740 - Inferior and posterior cornua, viewed from above.

Figure 741 - Two views of a model of the striatum: A, lateral aspect; B, mesal aspect.

Figure 742 - Horizontal section of right cerebral hemisphere.

Figure 743 - Coronal section through anterior cornua of lateral ventricles.

Figure 744 - Coronal section of brain through anterior commissure.

Figure 745 - Dissection showing the course of the cerebrospinal fibers. (E. B. Jamieson.)

Figure 746 - Diagram of the tracts in the internal capsule. Motor tract red. The sensory tract (blue) is not direct, but formed of neurons receiving impulses from below in the thalamus and transmitting them to the cortex. The optic radiation (occipitothalamic) is shown in violet.

Figure 747 - Diagram of the fornix. (Spitzka.)

Figure 748 - The fornix and corpus callosum from below. (From a specimen in the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Oxford.)

Figure 749 - Coronal section of inferior horn of lateral ventricle. (Diagrammatic.)

Figure 750 - Tela chorioidea of the third ventricle, and the choroid plexus of the left lateral ventricle, exposed from above.

Figure 751 - Diagram showing principal systems of association fibers in the cerebrum.

Figure 752 - Dissection of cortex and brain-stem showing association fibers and island of Reil after removal of its superficial gray substance.

Figure 753 - Deep dissection of cortex and brain-stem.

Figure 754 - Cerebral cortex. (Poirier.) To the left, the groups of cells; to the right, the systems of fibers. Quite to the left of the figure a sensory nerve fiber is shown.

Figure 755 - Coronal section of olfactory bulb. (Schwalbe.)

Figure 756 - Areas of localization on lateral surface of hemisphere. Motor area in red. Area of general sensations in blue. Auditory area in green. Visula area in yellow. The psychic portions are in lighter tints.

Figure 757 - Areas of localization on medial surface of hemisphere. Motor area in red. Area of general sensations in blue. Visual area in yellow. Olfactory area in purple. The psychic portions are in lighter tints.

Figure 758 - Diagram of the spinal cord reflex apparatus. Some of the connections of a single afferent neuron from the skin (d.r.2) are indicated: d.r.2, dorsal root from second spinal ganglion; m, muscles; sp.g.1 to sp.g.4, spinal ganglia; v.r.1' to v.r.4, ventral roots. (After Herrick.)

Figure 759 - The sensory tract. (Modified from Poirier.)

Figure 760 - Terminal nuclei of the cochlear nerve, with their upper connections. (Schematic.) The vestibular nerve with its terminal nuclei and their efferent fibers have been suppressed. On the other hand, in order not to obscure the trapezoid body, the efferent fibers of the terminal nuclei on the right side have been resected in a considerable portion of their extent. The trapezoid body, therefore, shows only one-half of its fibers, viz., those which come from the left. 1. Vestibular nerve, divided at its entrance into the medulla oblongata. 2. Cochlear nerve. 3. Accessory nucleus of acoustic nerve. 4. Tuberculum acusticum. 5. Efferent fibers of accessory nucleus. 6. Efferent fibers of tuberculum acusticum, forming the striae medullares, with 6’, their direct bundle going to the superior olivary nucleus of the same side; 6’’, their decussating bundles going to the superior olivary nucleus of the opposite side. 7. Superior olivary nucleus. 8. Trapezoid body. 9. Trapezoid nucleus. 10. Central acoustic tract (lateral lemniscus). 11. Raphé. 12. Cerebrospinal fasciculus. 13. Fourth ventricle. 14. Inferior peduncle. (Testut.)

Figure 761 - Terminal nuclei of the vestibular nerve, with their upper connections. (Schematic.) 1. Cochlear nerve, with its two nuclei. 2. Accessory nucleus. 3. Tuberculum acusticum. 4. Vestibular nerve. 5. Internal nucleus. 6. Nucleus of Deiters. 7. Nucleus of Bechterew. 8. Inferior or descending root of acoustic. 9. Ascending cerebellar fibers. 10. Fibers going to raphé. 11. Fibers taking an oblique course. 12. Lemniscus. 13. Inferior sensory root of trigeminal. 14. Cerebrospinal fasciculus. 15. Raphé. 16. Fourth ventricle. 17. Inferior peduncle. Origin of striæ medullares. (Testut.)

Figure 762 - Figure showing the different groups of cells, which constitute, according to Perlia, the nucleus of origin of the oculomotor nerve. 1. Posterior dorsal nucleus. 1’. Posterior ventral nucleus. 2. Anterior dorsal nucleus. 2’. Anterior ventral nucleus. 3. Central nucleus. 4. Nucleus of Edinger and Westphal. 5. Antero-internal nucleus. 6. Antero-external nucleus. 8. Crossed fibers. 9. Trochlear nerve, with 9’, its nucleus of origin, and 9", its decussation. 10. Third ventricle. M, M. Median line. (Testut.)

Figure 763 - Scheme showing central connections of the optic nerves and optic tracts.

Figure 764 - The motor tract. (Modified from Poirier.)

Figure 765 - Dura mater and its processes exposed by removing part of the right half of the skull and the brain.

Figure 766 - Tentorium cerebelli seen from above.

Figure 767 - The medulla spinalis and its membranes.

Figure 768 - Diagram showing the positions of the three principal subarachnoid cisternæ.

Figure 769 - Diagrammatic representation of a section across the top of the skull, showing the membranes of the brain, etc. (Modified from Testut.)

Figure 770 - Diagrammatic transverse section of the medulla spinalis and its membranes.

Figure 771 - Nerves of septum of nose. Right side.

Figure 772 - Plan of olfactory neurons.

Figure 773 - The left optic nerve and the optic tracts.

Figure 774 - Scheme showing central connections of the optic nerves and optic tracts.

Figure 775 - Plan of oculomotor nerve.

Figure 776 - Nerves of the orbit. Seen from above.

Figure 777 - Nerves of the orbit, and the ciliary ganglion. Side view.

Figure 778 - Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the submaxillary ganglion.

Figure 779 - Alveolar branches of superior maxillary nerve and sphenopalatine ganglion. (Testut.)

Figure 780 - The sphenopalatine ganglion and its branches.

Figure 781 - Mandibular division of the trifacial nerve. (Testut.)

Figure 782 - Mandibular division of trifacial nerve, seen from the middle line. The small figure is an enlarged view of the otic ganglion. (Testut.)

Figure 783 - The otic ganglion and its branches.

Figure 784 - Sensory areas of the head, showing the general distribution of the three divisions of the fifth nerve. (Modified from Testut.)

Figure 785 - Figure showing the mode of innervation of the Recti medialis and lateralis of the eye (after Duval and Laborde).

Figure 786 - Oblique section through the right cavernous sinus.

Figure 787 - Dissection showing origins of right ocular muscles, and nerves entering by the superior orbital fissure.

Figure 788 - Plan of the facial and intermediate nerves and their communication with other nerves.

Figure 789 - The course and connections of the facial nerve in the temporal bone.

Figure 790 - The nerves of the scalp, face, and side of neck.

Figure 791 - Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.

Figure 792 - Upper part of medulla spinalis and hind- and mid-brains; posterior aspect, exposed in situ.

Figure 793 - Course and distribution of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.

Figure 794 - Hypoglossal nerve, cervical plexus, and their branches.

Figure 795 - Plan of hypoglossal nerve.

Figure 796 - A portion of the spinal cord, showing its right lateral surface. The dura is opened and arranged to show the nerve roots. (Testut.)

Figure 797 - Distribution of cutaneous nerves. Ventral aspect.

Figure 798 - Distribution of cutaneous nerves. Dorsal aspect.

Figure 799 - Scheme showing structure of a typical spinal nerve. 1. Somatic efferent. 2. Somatic afferent. 3,4,5. Sympathetic efferent. 6,7. Sympathetic afferent.

Figure 800 - Posterior primary divisions of the upper three cervical nerves. (Testut.)

Figure 801 - Diagram of the distribution of the cutaneous branches of the posterior divisions of the spinal nerves.

Figure 802 - Areas of distribution of the cutaneous branches of the posterior divisions of the spinal nerves. The areas of the medial branches are in black, those of the lateral in red. (H. M. Johnston.)

Figure 803 - The posterior divisions of the sacral nerves.

Figure 804 - Plan of the cervical plexus. (Gerrish.)

Figure 805 - The nerves of the scalp, face, and side of neck.

Figure 806 - The phrenic nerve and its relations with the vagus nerve.

Figure 807 - Plan of brachial plexus.

Figure 808 - The right brachial plexus with its short branches, viewed from in front. The Sternomastoid and Trapezius muscles have been completely, the Omohyoid and Subclavius have been partially, removed; a piece has been sawed out of the clavicle; the Pectoralis muscles have been incised and reflected. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 809 - The right brachial plexus (infraclavicular portion) in the axillary fossa; viewed from below and in front. The Pectoralis major and minor muscles have been in large part removed; their attachments have been reflected. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 810 - Suprascapular and axillary nerves of right side, seen from behind. (Testut.)

Figure 811 - Cutaneous nerves of right upper extremity. Anterior view.

Figure 812 - Diagram of segmental distribution of the cutaneous nerves of the right upper extremity. Anterior view.

Figure 813 - Cutaneous nerves of right upper extremity. Posterior view.

Figure 814 - Diagram of segmental distribution of the cutaneous nerves of the right upper extremity. Posterior view.

Figure 815 - Superficial palmar nerves. (Testut.)

Figure 816 - Nerves of the left upper extremity.

Figure 817 - Deep palmar nerves. (Testut.)

Figure 818 - The suprascapular, axillary, and radial nerves.

Figure 819 - Diagram of the course and branches of a typica intercostal nerve.

Figure 820 - Cutaneous distribution of thoracic nerves. (Testut.)

Figure 821 - Intercostal nerves, the superficial muscles having been removed. (Testut).

Figure 822 - Plan of lumbar plexus.

Figure 823 - The lumbar plexus and its branches.

Figure 824 - Deep and superficial dissection of the lumbar plexus. (Testut.)

Figure 825 - Cutaneous nerves of right lower extremity. Front view.

Figure 826 - Diagram of segmental distribution of the cutaneous nerves of the right lower extremity. Front view.

Figure 827 - Nerves of the right lower extremity. Front view.

Figure 828 - Plan of sacral and pudendal plexuses.

Figure 829 - Dissection of side wall of pelvis showing sacral and pudendal plexuses. (Testut.)

Figure 830 - Cutaneous nerves of right lower extremity. Posterior view. 137

Figure 831 - Diagram of the segmental distribution of the cutaneous nerves of the right lower extremity. Posterior view.

Figure 832 - Nerves of the right lower extremity Posterior view.

Figure 833 - The plantar nerves.

Figure 834 - Diagram of the segmental distribution of the cutaneous nerves of the sole of the foot.

Figure 835 - Deep nerves of the front of the leg. (Testut.)

Figure 836 - Nerves of the dorsum of the foot. (Testut.)

Figure 837 - Sacral plexus of the right side. (Testut).

Figure 838 - The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses. (After Schwalbe.)

Figure 839 - Diagram of efferent sympathetic nervous system. Blue, cranial and sacral outflow. Red, thoracohumeral outflow. ——, Postganglionic fibers to spinal and cranial nerves to supply vasomotors to head, trunk and limbs, motor fibers to smooth muscles of skin and fibers to sweat glands. (Modified after Meyer and Gottlieb.)

Figure 840 - Sympathetic connections of the ciliary and superior cervical ganglia.

Figure 841 - Sympathetic connections of the sphenopalatine and superior cervical ganglia.

Figure 842 - Sympathetic connections of the submaxillary and superior cervical ganglia.

Figure 843 - Sympathetic connections of the otic and superior cervical ganglia.

Figure 844 - Diagram of the cervical sympathetic. (Testut.)

Figure 845 - Plan of right sympathetic cord and splanchnic nerves. (Testut.)

Figure 846 - Thoracic portion of the sympathetic trunk.

Figure 847 - Abdominal portion of the sympathetic trunk, with the celiac and hypogastric plexuses. (Henle.)

Figure 848 - The celiac ganglia with the sympathetic plexuses of the abdominal viscera radiating from the ganglia. (Toldt.)

Figure 849 - Lower half of right sympathetic cord. (Testut after Hirschfeld.)

Figure 850 - Vertical section of papilla foliata of the rabbit, crossing the folia. (Ranvier.)

Figure 851 - Taste-bud, highly magnified.

Figure 852 - Cartilages of the nose. Side view.

Figure 853 - Cartilages of the nose, seen from below.

Figure 854 - Bones and cartilages of septum of nose. Right side.

Figure 855 - Lateral wall of nasal cavity.

Figure 856 - Lateral wall of nasal cavity; the three nasal conchæ have been removed.

Figure 857 - Section of the olfactory mucous membrane. (Cadiat.)

Figure 858 - Nerves of septum of nose. Right side

Figure 859 - Coronal section of nasal cavities.

Figure 860 - —Specimen from a child eight days old. By sagittal sections removing the lateral portion of frontal bone, lamina papyracea of ethmoid, and lateral portion of maxilla—the sinus maxillaris, cellulæ ethmoidales, anterior and posterior, infundibulum ethmoidale, and the primitive sinus frontalis are brought into view. (Davis.) 141

Figure 861 - Specimen from a child one year, four months, and seven days old. Lateral view of frontal, ethmoidal, and maxillary sinus areas. (Davis.)

Figure 862 - Specimen from a child eight years, eight months, and one day old. Lateral view of frontal, ethmoidal and maxillary sinus areas, the lateral portion of each having been removed by sagittal cuts. Note that the sinus frontalis developed directly from the infundibulum ethmoidale. Note also the incomplete septa in the sinus maxillaris. (Davis.)

Figure 863 - Transverse section of head of chick embryo of forty-eight hours’ incubation. (Duval.)

Figure 864 - Transverse section of head of chick embryo of fifty-two hours’ incubation. (Duval.)

Figure 865 - Optic cup and choroidal fissure seen from below, from a human embryo of about four weeks. (Kollmann.)

Figure 866 - Horizontal section through the eye of an eighteen days’ embryo rabbit. X 30. (Kölliker.)

Figure 867 - Sagittal section of eye of human embryo of six weeks. (Kollmann.)

Figure 868 - Section of developing eye of trout. (Szily.)

Figure 869 - Horizontal section of the eyeball.

Figure 870 - Enlarged general view of the iridial angle. (Arthur Thomson.)

Figure 871 - Vertical section of human cornea from near the margin. (Waldeyer.) Magnified. 1. Epithelium. 2. Anterior elastic lamina. 3. substantia propria. 4. Posterior elastic lamina. 5. Endothelium of the anterior chamber. a. Oblique fibers in the anterior layer of the substantia propria. b. Lamellæ the fibers of which are cut across, producing a dotted appearance. c. Corneal corpuscles appearing fusiform in section. d. Lamellæ the fibers of which are cut longitudinally. e. Transition to the sclera, with more distinct fibrillation, and surmounted by a thicker epithelium. f. Small bloodvessels cut across near the margin of the cornea.

Figure 872 - The choroid and iris. (Enlarged.)

Figure 873 - The arteries of the choroid and iris. The greater part of the sclera has been removed. (Enlarged.)

Figure 874 - The veins of the choroid. (Enlarged.)

Figure 875 - Interior of anterior half of bulb of eye.

Figure 876 - Vessels of the choroid, ciliary processes, adn iris of a child. (Arnold.) Magnified 10 times. a. Capillary net-work of the posterior part of the choroid, ending at b, the ora serrata. c. Arteries of the corona ciliaris, supplying the ciliary processes, d, and passing into the iris e. f. The capillary net-work close to the pupillary margin of the iris.

Figure 877 - Diagram of the blood vessels of the eye, as seen in a horizontal section. (Leber, after Stöhr.). Course of vasa centralia retinæ: a. Arteria. a. 147 Vena centralis retinæ. B. Anastomosis with vessels of outer coats. C. Anastomosis with branches of short posterior ciliary arteries. D. Anastomosis with chorioideal vessels. Course of vasa ciliar. postic. brev.: I. Arteriæ, and I1. Venæ ciliar. postic. brev. II. Episcleral artery. II1. Episcleral vein. III. Capillaries of lamina choriocapillaris. Course of vasa ciliar. postic. long.: 1. a. ciliar. post. longa. 2. Circulus iridis major cut across. 3. Branches to ciliary body. 4. Branches to iris. Course of vasa ciliar. ant.: a. Arteria. a1. Vena ciliar. ant. b. Junction with the circulus iridis major. c. Junction with lamina choriocapill. d. Arterial, and d1. Venous episcleral branches. e. Arterial, and e1. Venous branches to conjunctiva scleræ. f. Arterial, and f1. Venous branches to corneal border. V. Vena vorticosa. S. Transverse section of sinus venosus scleræ.

Figure 878 - Iris, front view.

Figure 879 - Interior of posterior half of bulb of left eye. The veins are darker in appearance than the arteries.

Figure 880 - The terminal portion of the optic nerve and its entrance into the eyeball, in horizontal section. (Toldt.)

Figure 881 - Section of retina. (Magnified.)

Figure 882 - Plan of retinal neurons. (After Cajal.)

Figure 883 - The upper half of a sagittal section through the front of the eyeball.

Figure 884 - The crystalline lens, hardened and divided. (Enlarged.)

Figure 885 - Diagram to show the direction and arrangement of the radiating lines on the front and back of the fetal lens. A. From the front. B. From the back.

Figure 886 - Profile views of the lens at different periods of life. 1. In the fetus. 2. In adult life. 3. In old age.

Figure 887 - Section through the margin of the lens, showing the transition of the epithelium into the lens fibers. (Babuchin.)

Figure 888 - Sagittal section of right orbital cavity.

Figure 889 - Muscles of the right orbit.

Figure 890 - Dissection showing origins of right ocular muscles, and nerves entering by the superior orbital fissure.

Figure 891 - The right eye in sagittal section, showing the fascia bulbi (semidiagrammatic). (Testut.)

Figure 892 - Front of left eye with eyelids separated to show medial canthus.

Figure 893 - Sagittal section through the upper eyelid. (After Waldeyer.) a. Skin. b. Orbicularis oculi. b’. Marginal fasciculus of Orbicularis (ciliary bundle). c. Levator palpebræ. d. Conjunctiva. e. Tarsus. f. Tarsal gland. g. Sebaceous gland. h. Eyelashes. i. Small hairs of skin. Sweat glands. k. Posterior tarsal glands.

Figure 894 - The tarsi and their ligaments. Right eye; front view.

Figure 895 - The tarsal glands, etc., seen from the inner surface of the eyelids.

Figure 896 - The lacrimal apparatus. Right side.

Figure 897 - Alveoli of lacrimal gland.

Figure 898 - Section through the head of a human embryo, about twelve days old, in the region of the hind-brain. (Kollmann.)

Figure 899 - Section through hind-brain and auditory vesicles of an embryo more advanced than that of Fig. 898. (After His.)

Figure 900 - Lateral views of membranous labyrinth and acoustic complex. X 25 dia. (Streeter.) absorpt. focu, area of wall where absorption is complete; amp., ampulla membranacea; crus, crus commune; d. sc. lat., ductus semicircularis lateralis; d. sc. post., ductus semicircularis posterior; d. sc. sup., ductus semicircular superior; coch. or cochlea, ductus cochlearis; duct. endolymph, ductus endolymphaticus; d. reuniens, ductus reuniens Henseni; endol. or endolymphs appendix endolymphaticus; rec. utr., recessus utriculi; sacc., sacculus; sac. endol., saccus endolymphaticus; sinus utr. lat., sinus utriculi lateralis; utric., utriculus; vestib. p., vestibular pouch.

Figure 901 - Median views of membranous labyrinth and acoustic complex in human embryos. X 25 dia. (Streeter.)

Figure 902 - Transverse section through head of fetal sheep, in the region of the labyrinth. X 30. (After Boettcher.)

Figure 903 - Transverse section of the cochlear duct of a fetal cat. (After Boettcher and Ayres.)

Figure 904 - The auricula. Lateral surface.

Figure 905 - Cranial surface of cartilage of right auricula.

Figure 906 - The muscles of the auricula.

Figure 907 - External and middle ear, opened from the front. Right side.

Figure 908 - Horizontal section through left ear; upper half of section.

Figure 909 - Right tympanic membrane as seen through a speculum.

Figure 910 - The tympanic membrane viewed from within. (Testut.) The malleus has been resected immediately beyond its lateral process, in order to show the tympanomalleolar folds and the membrana flaccida. 1. Tympanic membrane. 2. Umbo. 3. Handle of the malleus. 4. Lateral process. 5. Anterior tympanomalleolar fold. 6. Posterior tympanomalleolar fold. 7. Pars flaccida. 8. Anterior pouch of Tröltsch. 9. Posterior pouch of Tröltsch. 10. Fibrocartilaginous ring. 11. Petrotympanic fissure. 12. Auditory tube. 13. Iter chordæ posterius. 14. Iter chordæ anterius. 15. Fossa incudis for short crus of the incus. 16. Prominentia styloidea.

Figure 911 - View of the inner wall of the tympanum (enlarged.)

Figure 912 - The right membrana tympani with the hammer and the chorda tympani, viewed from within, from behind, and from above. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 913 - Coronal section of right temporal bone.

Figure 914 - The medial wall and part of the posterior and anterior walls of the right tympanic cavity, lateral view. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 915 - Auditory tube, laid open by a cut in its long axis. (Testut.)

Figure 916 - Left malleus. A. From behind. B. From within.

Figure 917 - Left incus. A. From within. B. From the front.

Figure 918 - A. Left stapes. B. Base of stapes, medial surface.

Figure 919 - Chain of ossicles and their ligaments, seen from the front in a vertical, transverse section of the tympanum. (Testut.)

Figure 920 - Right osseous labyrinth. Lateral view.

Figure 921 - Interior of right osseous labyrinth.

Figure 922 - Position of the right bony labyrinth of the ear in the skull, viewed from above. The temporal bone is considered transparent and the labyrinth drawn in from a corrosion preparation. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 923 - The cochlea and vestibule, viewed from above. All the hard parts which form the roof of the internal ear have been removed with the saw.

Figure 924 - The membranous labyrinth. (Enlarged.)

Figure 925 - Right human membranous labyrinth, removed from its bony enclosure and viewed from the antero-lateral aspect. (G. Retzius.)

Figure 926 - The same from the postero-medial aspect. 1. Lateral semicircular canal; 1’, its ampulla; 2. Posterior canal; 2’, its ampulla. 3. Superior canal; 3’, its ampulla. 4. Conjoined limb of superior and posterior canals (sinus utriculi superior). 5. Utricle. 5’. Recessus utriculi. 5”. Sinus utriculi posterior. 6. Ductus endolymphaticus. 7. Canalis utriculosaccularis. 8. Nerve to ampulla of superior canal. 9. Nerve to ampulla of lateral canal. 10. Nerve to recessus utriculi (in Fig. 925, the three branches appear conjoined). 10’. Ending of nerve in recessus utriculi. 11. Facial nerve. 12. Lagena cochleæ. 13. Nerve of cochlea within spiral lamina. 14. Basilar membrane. 15. Nerve fibers to macula of saccule. 16. Nerve to ampulla of posterior canal. 17. Saccule. 18. Secondary membrane of tympanum. 19. Canalis reuniens. 20. Vestibular end of ductus cochlearis. 23. Section of the facial and acoustic nerves within internal acoustic meatus (the separation between them is not apparent in the section). (G. Retzius.)

Figure 927 - Transverse section of a human semicircular canal and duct (after Rüdinger).

Figure 928 - Diagrammatic longitudinal section of the cochlea.

Figure 929 - Floor of ductus cochlearis.

Figure 930 - Limbus laminæ spiralis and membrana basilaris. (Schematic.) 1, 1’. Upper and lower lamellæ of the lamina spiralis ossea. 2. Limbus laminæ spiralis, with a, the teeth of the first row; b, b’, the auditory teeth of the other rows; c, c’, the interdental grooves and the cells which are lodged in them. 3. Sulcus spiralis internus, with 3’, its labium vestibulare, and 3”, its labium tympanicum. 4. Foramina nervosa, giving passage to the nerves from the ganglion spirale or ganglion of Corti. 5. Vas spirale. 6. Zona arcuata, and 6’, zona pectinata of the basilar membrane, with a, its hyaline layer, B, its connective-tissue layer. 7. Arch of spiral organ, with 7’, its inner rod, and 7”, its outer rod. 8. Feet of the internal rods, from which the cells are removed. 9. Feet of the external rods. 10. Vestibular membrane, at its origin. (Testut.)

Figure 931 - Section through the spiral organ of Corti. Magnified. (G. Retzius.)

Figure 932 - The lamina reticularis and subjacent structures. (Schematic.) A. Internal rod of Corti, with a, its plate. B. External rod (in yellow). C. Tunnel of Corti. D. Membrana basilaris. E. Inner hair cells. 1, 1’. Internal and external borders of the membrana reticularis. 2, 2’, 2”. The three rows of circular holes (in blue). 3. First row of phalanges (in yellow). 4, 4’, 4”. Second, third, and fourth rows of phalanges (in red). 6, 6’, 6”. The three rows of outer hair cells (in blue). 7, 7’, 7”. Cells of Deiters. 8. Cells of Hensen and Claudius. (Testut.)

Figure 933 - Part of the cochlear division of the acoustic nerve, highly magnified. (Henle.)

Figure 934 - End-bulb of Krause. (Klein.)

Figure 935 - Pacinian corpuscle, with its system of capsules and central cavity. a. Arterial twig, ending in capillaries, which form loops in some of the intercapsular spaces, and one penetrates to the central capsule. b. The fibrous tissue of the stalk. n. Nerve tube advancing to the central capsule, there losing its white matter, and stretching along the axis to the opposite end, where it ends by a tuberculated enlargement.

Figure 936 - Papilla of the hand, treated with acetic acid. Magnified 350 times. A. Side view of a papilla of the hand. a. Cortical layer. b. Tactile corpuscle. c. Small nerve of the papilla, with neurolemma. d. Its two nervous fibers running with spiral coils around the tactile corpuscle. e. Apparent termination of one of these fibers. B. A tactile papilla seen from above so as to show its transverse section. a. Cortical layer. b. Nerve fiber. c. Outer layer of the tactile body, with nuclei. d. Clear interior substance.

Figure 937 - Nerve ending of Ruffini. (After A. Ruffini.)

Figure 938 - Organ of Golgi (neurotendinous spindle) from the human tendo calcaneus. (After Ciaccio.)

Figure 939 - Middle third of a terminal plaque in the muscle spindle of an adult cat. (After Ruffini.)

Figure 940 - A diagrammatic sectional view of the skin (magnified).

Figure 941 - Section of epidermis. (Ranvier.)

Figure 942 - The distribution of the bloodvessels in the skin of the sole of the foot. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 943 - Longitudinal section through nail and its nail groove (sulcus).

Figure 944 - Section of skin, showing the epidermis and dermis; a hair in its follicle; the Arrector pili muscle; sebaceous glands.

Figure 945 - Transverse section of hair follicle.

Figure 946 - Body of a sudoriferous-gland cut in various deirections. a. Longitudinal section of the proximal part of the coiled tube. b. Transverse section of the same. c. Longitudinal section of the distal part of the coiled tube. d. Transverse section of the same. (Klein and Noble Smith.)

Figure 947 - The head and neck of a human embryo thirty-two days old, seen from the ventral surface. The floor of the mouth and pharynx have been removed. (His.)

Figure 948 - Lung buds from a human embryo of about four weeks, showing commencing lobulations. (His.)

Figure 949 - Lungs of a human embryo more advanced in development. (His.)

Figure 950 - The cartilages of the larynx. Posterior view.

Figure 951 - The ligaments of the larynx. Antero-lateral view.

Figure 952 - Ligaments of the larynx. Posterior view.

Figure 953 - Sagittal section of the larynx and upper part of the trachea.

Figure 954 - Coronal section of larynx and upper part of trachea.

Figure 955 - The entrance to the larynx, viewed from behind.

Figure 956 - Laryngoscopic view of interior of larynx.

Figure 957 - Side view of the larynx, showing muscular attachments.

Figure 958 - Muscles of larynx. Posterior view.

Figure 959 - Muscles of larynx. Side view. Right lamina of thyroid cartilage removed.

Figure 960 - Muscles of the larynx, seen from above. (Enlarged.)

Figure 961 - Front view of cartilages of larynx, trachea, and bronchi.

Figure 962 - Bronchi and bronchioles. The lungs have been widely separated and tissue cut away to expose the air-tubes. (Testut.)

Figure 963 - Transverse section of the trachea, just above its bifurcation, with a bird’s-eye view of the interior.

Figure 964 - Transverse section of trachea.

Figure 965 - Front view of thorax, showing the relations of the pleuræ and lungs to the chest wall. Pleura in blue; lungs in purple.

Figure 966 - Lateral view of thorax, showing the relations of the pleuræ and lungs to the chest wall. Pleura in blue; lungs in purple.

Figure 967 - Transverse section through the upper margin of the second thoracic vertebra. (Braune.)

Figure 968 - A transverse section of the thorax, showing the contents of the middle and the posterior mediastinum. The pleural and pericardial cavities are exaggerated since normally there is no space between parietal and visceral pleura and between pericardium and heart.

Figure 969 - The middle and posterior mediastina. Left side.

Figure 970 - Front view of heart and lungs.

Figure 971 - Pulmonary vessels, seen in a dorsal view of the heart and lungs. The lungs have been pulled away from the median line, and a part of the right lung has been cut away to display the air-ducts and bloodvessels. (Testut.)

Figure 972 - Mediastinal surface of right lung.

Figure 973 - Mediastinal surface of left lung.

Figure 974 - Part of a secondary lobule from the depth of a human lung, showing parts of several primary lobules. 1, bronchiole; 2, respiratory bronchiole; 3, alveolar duct; 4, atria; 5, alveolar sac; 6, alveolus or air cell: m, smooth muscle; a, branch pulmonary artery; v, branch pulmonary vein; s, septum between secondary lobules. Camera drawing of one 50 μ section. X 20 diameters. (Miller.)

Figure 975 - Schematic longitudinal section of a primary lobule of the lung (anatomical unit); r. b., respiratory bronchiole; al. d., alveolar duct; at., atria; a. s., alveolar sac; a, alveolus or air cell; p. a.: pulmonary artery: p. v., pulmonary vein; l., lymphatic; l. n., lymph node. (Miller.)

Figure 976 - Section of lung of pig embryo, 13 cm. long, showing the glandular character of the developing alveoli (J. M. Flint.) X 70. a. Interstitial connective tissue. b. A bronchial tube. c. An Alveolus. l. lymphatic clefts. q. Pleura.

Figure 977 - Human embryo about fifteen days old. Brain and heart represented from right side. Digestive tube and yolk sac in median section. (After His.)

Figure 978 - Head end of human embryo of about thirty to thirty-one days. (From model by Peters.)

Figure 979 - Floor of pharynx of human embryo about twenty-six days old. (From model by Peters.)

Figure 980 - Floor of pharynx of human embryo of about the end of the fourth week. (From model by Peters.)

Figure 981 - Floor of pharynx of human embryo about thirty days old. (From model by Peter.)

Figure 982 - Sketches in profile of two stages in the development of the human digestive tube. (His.) A X 30. B X 20.

Figure 983 - Front view of two successive stages in the development of the digestive tube. (His.)

Figure 984 - The primitive mesentery of a six weeks’ human embryo, half schematic. (Kollmann.)

Figure 985 - Abdominal part of digestive tube and its attachment to the primitive or common mesentery. Human embryo of six weeks. (After Toldt.)

Figure 986 - Reconstruction of a human embryo of 17 mm. (After Mall.)

Figure 987 - Diagrams to illustrate two stages in the development of the digestive tube and its mesentery. The arrow indicates the entrance to the bursa omentalis.

Figure 988 - Final disposition of the intestines and their vascular relations. (Jonnesco.) A. Aorta. H. Hepatic artery. M, Col. Branches of superior mesenteric artery. m, m’. Branches of inferior mesenteric artery. S. Splenic artery.

Figure 989 - Schematic figure of the bursa omentalis, etc. Human embryo of eight weeks. (Kollmann.)

Figure 990 - Diagrams to illustrate the development of the greater omentum and transverse mesocolon.

Figure 991 - Tail end of human embryo from fifteen to eighteen days old. (From model by Keibel.)

Figure 992 - Cloaca of human embryo from twenty-five to twenty-seven days old. (From model by Keibel.)

Figure 993 - Tail end of human embryo, from eight and a half to nine weeks old. (From model by Keibel.)

Figure 994 - Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx.

Figure 995 - Side view of the teeth and jaws.

Figure 996 - Permanent teeth of upper dental arch, seen from below.

Figure 997 - Permanent teeth of right half of lower dental arch, seen from above.

Figure 998 - Maxillæ at about one year. (Noyes.)

Figure 999 - The complete temporary dentition (about three years), showing the relation of the developing permanent teeth. (Noyes.)

Figure 1000 - The complete temporary dentition and the first permanent molar. Note the relation of the bicuspids to the temporary molars. (In the seventh year.) (Noyes.)

Figure 1001 - Front view of the skull shown in Fig. 1000. Note the relation of the permanent incisors and cuspids to each other and the roots of the temporary teeth. (Noyes.)

Figure 1002 - Permanent teeth. Right side. (Burchard.)

Figure 1003 - The permanent teeth, viewed from the right. The external layer of bone has been partly removed and the maxillary sinus has been opened. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 1004 - Deciduous teeth. Left side.

Figure 1005 - Vertical section of a tooth in situ. X 15. c is placed in the pulp cavity, opposite the neck of the tooth; the part above it is the crown, that below is the root. 1. Enamel with radial and concentric markings. 2. Dentin with tubules and incremental lines. 3. Cement or crusta petrosa, with bone corpuscles. 4. Dental periosteum. 5. Mandible.

Figure 1006 - Vertical section of a molar tooth.

Figure 1007 - Vertical section of a premolar tooth. (Magnified.)

Figure 1008 - Transverse section of a portion of the root of a canine tooth. X 300.

Figure 1009 - Sagittal section through the first lower deciduous molar of a human embryo 30 mm. long. (Röse.) X 100. L.E.L. Labiodental lamina, here separated from the dental lamina. Z.L. Placed over the shallow dental furrow, points to the dental lamina, which is spread out below to form the enamel germ of the future tooth. P.p. Bicuspidate papilla, capped by the enamel germ. Z.S. Condensed tissue forming dental sac. M.E. Mouth epithelium

Figure 1010 - Similar section through the canine tooth of an embryo 40 mm. long. (Röse.) X 100. L.F. Labio dental furrow. The other lettering as in Fig. 1009.

Figure 1011 - Vertical section of the mandible of an early human fetus. X 25.

Figure 1012 - Longitudinal section of the lower part of a growing tooth, showing the extension of the layer of adamantoblasts beyond the crown to mark off the limit of formation of the dentin of the root. (Röse.) ad. Adamantoblasts, continuous below with ep.sch., the epithelial sheath of Hertwig. d. Dentin. en. Enamel. od. Odontoblasts. p. Pulp.

Figure 1013 - The mouth cavity. The apex of the tongue is turned upward, and on the right side a superficial dissection of its under surface has been made.

Figure 1014 - The mouth cavity. The cheeks have been slit transversely and the tongue pulled forward.

Figure 1015 - Circumvallate papilla in vertical section, showing arrangement of the taste-buds and nerves.

Figure 1016 - A filiform papilla. Magnified

Figure 1017 - Section of a fungiform papilla. Magnified.

Figure 1018 - Semidiagrammatic view of a portion of the mucous membrane of the tongue. Two fungiform papillæ are shown. On some of the filiform papillæ the epithelial prolongations stand erect, in one they are spread out, and in three they are folded in.

Figure 1019 - Extrinsic muscles of the tongue. Left side.

Figure 1020 - Coronal section of tongue, showing intrinsic muscles. (Altered from Krause.)

Figure 1021 - Vertical section of papilla foliata of the rabbit, passing across the folia. (Ranvier.)

Figure 1022 - Right parotid gland. Posterior and deep aspects.

Figure 1023 - Right parotid gland. Deep and anterior aspects.

Figure 1024 - Dissection, showing salivary glands of right side.

Figure 1025 - Section of submaxillary gland of kitten. Duct semidiagrammatic. X 200.

Figure 1026 - Human submaxillary gland. (R. Heidenhain.) At the right is a group of mucous alveoli, at the left a group of serous alveoli.

Figure 1027 - Section through one of the crypts of the tonsil. (Stöhr.) Magnified. e. Stratified epithelium of general surface, continued into crypt. f, f. Nodules of lymphoid tissue—opposite each nodule numbers of lymph cells are passing into or through the epithelium. s, s. Cells which have thus escaped to mix with the saliva as salivary corpuscles.

Figure 1028 - Dissection of the muscles of the palate from behind.

Figure 1029 - Front of nasa part of pharynx, as seen with the laryngoscope.

Figure 1030 - Muscles of the pharynx and cheek.

Figure 1031 - Muscles of the pharynx, viewed from behind, together with the associated vessels and nerves. (Modified after Testut.)

Figure 1032 - The position and relation of the esophagus in the cervical region and in the posterior mediastinum. Seen from behind. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 1033 - Section of the human esophagus. (From a drawing by V. Horsley.) Moderately magnified. The section is transverse and from near the middle of the gullet. a. Fibrous covering. b. Divided fibers of longitudinal muscular coat. c. Transverse muscular fibers. d. Submucous or areolar layer. e. Muscularis mucosæ. f. Mucous membrane, with vessels and part of a lymphoid nodule. g. Stratified epithelial lining. h. Mucous gland. i. Gland duct. m’. Striated muscular fibers cut across.

Figure 1034 - Front view of the thoracic and abdominal viscera. a. Median plane. b b. Lateral planes. c c. Trans tubercular plane. d d. Subcostal plane. e e. Transpyloric plane.

Figure 1035 - Vertical disposition of the peritoneum. Main cavity, red; omental bursa, blue.

Figure 1036 - Posterior view of the anterior abdominal wall in its lower half. The peritoneum is in place, and the various cords are shining through. (After Joessel.)

Figure 1037 - The peritoneum of the male pelvis. (Dixon and Birmingham.)

Figure 1038 - Horizontal disposition of the peritoneum in the lower part of the abdomen.

Figure 1039 - Horizontal disposition of the peritoneum in the upper part of the abdomen.

Figure 1040 - Diagram devised by Delépine to show the lines along which the peritoneum leaves the wall of the abdomen to invest the viscera.

Figure 1041 - Superior and inferior duodenal fossæ. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 1042 - Duodenojejunal fossa. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 1043 - Superior ileocecal fossa. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 1044 - Inferior ileocecal fossa. The cecum and ascending colon have been drawn lateralward and downward, the ileum upward and backward, and the vermiform process downward. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 1045 - The cecal fossa. The ileum and cecum are drawn backward and upward. (Souligoux.)

Figure 1046 - Outline of stomach, showing its anatomical landmarks.

Figure 1047 - Diagram showing shape and position of empty stomach. Erect posture. (Hertz.)

Figure 1048 - Diagram showing shape and position of moderately filled stomach. Erect posture. (Hertz.)

Figure 1049 - Diagram showing shape and position of distended stomach. Erect posture. (Hertz.)

Figure 1050 - Interior of the stomach.

Figure 1051 - The longitudinal and circular muscular fibers of the stomach, viewed from above and in front. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 1052 - The oblique muscular fibers of the stomach, viewed from above and in front. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 1053 - Section of mucous membrane of human stomach, near the cardiac orifice. (v. Ebner, after J. Schaffer.) X 45. c. Cardiac glands. d. Their ducts. cr. Gland similar to the intestinal glands, with goblet cells. mm. Mucous membrane. m. Muscularis mucosæ. m’. Muscular tissue within the mucous membrane.

Figure 1054 - A pyloric gland, from a section of the dog’s stomach. (Ebstein.) m. Mouth. n. Neck. tr. A deep portion of a tubule cut transversely.

Figure 1055 - A fundus gland. A. Transverse section of gland.

Figure 1056 - The duodenum and pancreas.

Figure 1057 - Interior of the descending portion of the duodenum, showing bile papilla.

Figure 1058 - Section of duodenum of cat. (After Schäfer.) X 60.

Figure 1059 - Vertical section of a villus from the dog’s small intestine. X 80.

Figure 1060 - Transverse section of a villus, from the human intestine. (v. Ebner.) X 350. a. Basement membrane, here somewhat shrunken away from the epithelium. b. Lacteal. c. Columnar epithelium. d. Its striated border. e. Goblet cells. f. Leucocytes in epithelium. f’. Leucocytes below epithelium. g. Bloodvessels. h. Muscle cells cut across.

Figure 1061 - Villi of small intestine, showing bloodvessels and lymphatic vessels. (Cadiat.)

Figure 1062 - An intestinal gland from the human intestine. (Flemming.)

Figure 1063 - Vertical section of a human aggregated lymphatic nodule, injected through its lymphatic canals. a. Villi with their chyle passages. b. Intestinal glands. c. Muscularis mucosæ. d. Cupola or apex of solitary nodule. e. Mesial zone of nodule. f. Base of nodule. g. Points of exit of the lacteals from the villi, and entrance into the true mucous membrane. h. Retiform arrangement of the lymphatics in the mesial zone. i. Course of the latter at the base of the nodule. k. Confluence of the lymphatics opening into the vessels of the submucous tissue. l. Follicular tissue of the latter.

Figure 1064 - Transverse section through the equatorial plane of three aggregated lymphatic nodules from the rabbit.

Figure 1065 - No caption.

Figure 1066 - No caption.

Figure 1067 - No caption.

Figure 1068 - No caption.

Figure 1069 - No caption.

Figure 1070 - —Diagrams showing the arrangement and variations of the loops of the mesenteric vessels for various segments of the small intestine of average length. Nearest the duodenum the mesenteric loops are primary, the vasa recta are long and regular in distribution, and the translucent spaces (lunettes) are extensive. Toward the ileocolic junction, secondary and tertiary loops are observed, the vessels are smaller and become obscured by numerous fat-tabs. (After Monks.)

Figure 1071 - The myenteric plexus from the rabbit. X 50.

Figure 1072 - The plexus of the submucosa from the rabbit. X 50.

Figure 1073 - The cecum and vermiform process, with their arteries.

Figure 1074 - Transverse section of human vermiform process. X 20.

Figure 1075 - Interior of the cecum and lower end of ascending colon, showing colic valve.

Figure 1076 - Iliac colon, sigmoid or pelvic colon, and rectum seen from the front, after removal of pubic bones and bladder.

Figure 1077 - The posterior aspect of the rectum exposed by removing the lower part of the sacrum and the coccyx.

Figure 1078 - Coronal section of rectum and anal canal.

Figure 1079 - Coronal section through the anal canal. (Symington.) B. Cavity of urinary bladder. V.D. Ductus deferens. S.V. Seminal vesicle. R. Second part of rectum. A.C. Anal canal. L.A. Levator ani. I.S. Sphincter ani internus. E.S. Sphinear ani externus.

Figure 1080 - The interior of the anal cami and lower part of the rectum, showing the columns of Morgagni and the anal valves between their lower ends. The columns were more numerous in the specimen than usual. (Cunningham.)

Figure 1081 - Inner wall of the lower end of the rectum and anus. On the right the mucous membrane has been removed to show the dilatation of the veins and how they pass through the muscular wall to anastomose with the external hemorrhoidal plexus. (Luschka.)

Figure 1082 - Section of mucous membrane of human rectum. (Sobotta.) X 60.

Figure 1083 - The bloodvessels of the rectum and anus, showing the distribution and anastomosis on the posterior surface near the termination of the gut. (Poirier and Charpy)

Figure 1084 - Varieties of oblique inguinal hernia.

Figure 1085 - The superior surface of the liver. (From model by His.)

Figure 1086 - Inferior surface of the liver. (From model by His.)

Figure 1087 - Posterior and inferior surfaces of the liver. (From model by His.)

Figure 1088 - Liver with the septum transversum. Human embryo 3 mm. long. (After model and figure by His.)

Figure 1089 - Longitudinal section of a hepatic vein. (After Kiernan.)

Figure 1090 - Longitudinal section of a small portal vein and canal. (After Kiernan.)

Figure 1091 - Section of injected liver (dog).

Figure 1092 - A single lobule of the liver of a pig. X 60.

Figure 1093 - Section across portal canal of pig. X 250.

Figure 1094 - Bile capillaries of rabbit. shown by Golgi’s method. X 450.

Figure 1095 - The gall-bladder and bile ducts laid open. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 1096 - Transverse section of gall-bladder.

Figure 1097 - Transverse section through the middle of the first lumbar vertebra, showing the relations of the pancreas. (Braune.)

Figure 1098 - The duodenum and pancreas.

Figure 1099 - The pancreas and duodenum from behind. (From model by His.)

Figure 1100 - The pancreatic duct.

Figure 1101 - Pancreas of a human embryo of five weeks. (Kollmann.)

Figure 1102 - Pancreas of a human embryo at end of sixth week. (Kollmann.)

Figure 1103 - Schematic and enlarged cross-section through the body of a human embryo in the region of the mesogastrium. Beginning of third month. (Toldt.)

Figure 1104 - Section through same region as in Fig. 1103, at end of third month. (Toldt.)

Figure 1105 - Section of pancreas of dog. X 250.

Figure 1106 - Section of the urogenital fold of a chick embryo of the fourth day. (Waldeyer.)

Figure 1107 - Enlarged view from the front of the left Wolffian body before the establishment of the distinction of sex. (From Farre, after Kobelt.) a, a, b, c, d. Tubular structure of the Wolffian body. e. Wolffian duct. f. Its upper extremity. g. Its termination in x, the urogenital sinus. h. The duct of Müller. i. Its upper, funnel-shaped extremity. k. Its lower end, terminating in the urogenital sinus. l. The genital gland.

Figure 1108 - Broad ligament of adult, showing epoöphoron. (From Farre, after Kobelt.) a, a. Epoöphoron formed from the upper part of the Wolffian body. b. Remains of the uppermost tubes sometimes forming appendices. c. Middle set of tubes. d. Some lower atrophied tubes. e. Atrophied remains of the Wolffian duct. f. The terminal bulb or hydatid. h. The uterine tube, originally the duct of Müller. i. Appendix attached to the extremity. l. The ovary.

Figure 1109 - Urogenital sinus of female human embryo of eight and a half to nine weeks old. (From model by Keibel)

Figure 1110 - Diagrams to show the development of male and female generative organs from a common type. (Allen Thomson.)

Figure 1111 - Transverse section of human embryo eight and a half to nine weeks old. (From model by Keibel.)

Figure 1112 - Longitudinal section of ovary of cat embryo of 9.4 cm. long. Schematic. (After Cœrt.)

Figure 1113 - Section of the ovary of a newly born child. (Waldeyer.)

Figure 1114 - Section of a genital cord of the testis of a human embryo 3.5 cm. long. (Felix and Bühler.)

Figure 1115 - Tail end of human embryo twenty-five to twenty-nine days old. (From model by Keibel.)

Figure 1116 - Tail end of human embryo thirty-two to thirty-three days old. (From model by Keibel.)

Figure 1117 - Tail end of human embryo; from eight and a half to nine weeks old. (From model by Keibel.)

Figure 1118 - Primitive kidney and bladder, from a reconstruction. (After Schreiner.)

Figure 1119 - Stages in the development of the external sexual organs in the male and female. (Drawn from the Ecker-Ziegler models.)

Figure 1120 - The relations of the viscera and large vessels of the abdomen. (Seen from behind, the last thoracic vertebra being well raised.)

Figure 1121 - Posterior abdominal wall, after removal of the peritoneum, showing kidneys, suprarenal capsules, and great vessels. (Corning).

Figure 1122 - The anterior surfaces of the kidneys, showing the areas of contact of neighboring viscera.

Figure 1123 - The posterior surfaces of the kidneys, showing areas of relation to the parietes.

Figure 1124 - The relations of the kidneys from behind.

Figure 1125 - Sagittal section through posterior abdominal wall, showing the relations of the capsule of the kidney. (After Gerota).

Figure 1126 - Transverse section, showing the relations of the capsule of the kidney. (After Gerota.)

Figure 1127 - Vertical section of kidney.

Figure 1128 - Scheme of renal tubule and its vascular supply.

Figure 1129 - Distribution of bloodvessels in cortex of kidney.

Figure 1130 - Glomerulus.

Figure 1131 - Longitudinal section of descending limb of Henle’s loop. a. Membrana propria. b. Epithelium.

Figure 1132 - Section of cortex of human kidney.

Figure 1133 - Transverse section of pyramidal substance of kidney of pig, the bloodvessels of which are injected. a. Large collecting tube, cut across, lined with cylindrical epithelium. b. Branch of collecting tube, cut across, lined with cubical epithelium. c, d. Henle’s loops cut across. e. Bloodvessels cut across. D. Connective tissue ground substance.

Figure 1134 - Transverse section of ureter.

Figure 1135 - Median sagitta section of male pelvis.

Figure 1136 - Male pelvic organs seen from right side. Bladder and rectum distended; relations of peritoneum to the bladder and rectum shown in blue. The arrow points to the rectovesical pouch.

Figure 1137 - Sagittal section through the pelvis of a newly born male child.

Figure 1138 - Sagittal section through the pelvis of a newly born female child.

Figure 1139 - Median sagittal section of female pelvis.

Figure 1140 - The interior of bladder.

Figure 1141 - Vertical section of bladder wall.

Figure 1142 - The male urethra laid open on its anterior (upper) surface.

Figure 1143 - The scrotum. On the left side the cavity of the tunica vaginalis has been opened; on the right side only the layers superficial to the Cremaster have been removed. (Testut.)

Figure 1144 - The scrotum. The penis has been turned upward, and the anterior wall of the scrotum has been removed. On the right side, the spermatic cord, the infundibuliform fascia, and the Cremaster muscle are displayed; on the left side, the infundibuliform fascia has been divided by a longitudinal incision passing along the front of the cord and the testicle, and a portion of the parietal layer of the tunica vaginalis has been removed to display the testicle and a portion of the head of the epididymis, which are covered by the visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis. (Toldt.)

Figure 1145 - Transverse section through the left side of the scrotum and the left testis. The sac of the tunica vaginalis is represented in a distended condition. (Diagrammatic.) (Delépine.)

Figure 1146 - The spermatic cord in the inguinal canal. (Poirier and Charpy.)

Figure 1147 - Spermatic veins. (Testut.)

Figure 1148 - The right testis, exposed by laying open the tunica vaginalis.

Figure 1149 - Vertical section of the testis, to show the arrangement of the ducts.

Figure 1150 - Transverse section of a tubule of the testis of a rat. X 250.

Figure 1151 - Section of epididymis of guinea-pig. X 255.

Figure 1152 - Fundus of the bladder with the vesiculæ seminales.

Figure 1153 - Vesiculæ seminales and ampullæ of ductus deferentes, seen from the front. The anterior walls of the left ampulla, left seminal vesicle, and prostatic urethra have been cut away.

Figure 1154 - The constituent cavernous cylinders of the penis. The glans and anterior part of the corpus cavernosum urethræ are detached from the corpora cavernosa penis and turned to one side.

Figure 1155 - Transverse section of the penis.

Figure 1156 - Vertical section of bladder, penis, and urethra.

Figure 1157 - Section of corpus cavernosum penis in a non-distended condition. (Cadiat.) a. Trabeculæ of connective tissue, with many elastic fibers and bundles of plain muscular tissue, some of which are cut across (c). b. Blood sinuses.

Figure 1158 - Diagram of the arteries of the penis. (Testut.)

Figure 1159 - Veins of the penis. (Testut.)

Figure 1160 - Prostate with seminal vesicles and seminal ducts, viewed from in front and above. (Spalteholz.)

Figure 1161 - Uterus and right broad ligament, seen from behind. The broad ligament has been spread out and the ovary drawn downward.

Figure 1162 - Adult ovary, epoöphoron, and uterine tube. (From Farre, after Kobelt.) a, a. Epoöphoron formed from the upper part of the Wolffian body. b. Remains of the uppermost tubes sometimes forming hydatids. c. Middle set of tubes. d. Some lower atrophied tubes. e. Atrophied remains of the Wolffian duct. f. The terminal bulb or hydatid. h. The uterine tube. i. Hydatid attached to the extremity. l. The ovary.

Figure 1163 - Section of the ovary. (After Schrön.) 1. Outer covering. 1’. Attached border. 2. Central stroma. 3. Peripheral stroma. 4. Bloodvessels. 5. Vesicular follicles in their earliest stage. 6, 7, 8. More advanced follicles. 9. An almost mature follicle. 9’. Follicle from which the ovum has escaped. 10. Corpus luteum.

Figure 1164 - Section of vesicular ovarian follicle of cat. X 50.

Figure 1165 - Female pelvis and its contents, seen from above and in front.

Figure 1166 - Sagittal section of the lower part of a female trunk, right segment. SM. INT. Small intestine. (Testut.)

Figure 1167 - Posterior half of uterus and upper part of vagina.

Figure 1168 - Sagittal section through the pelvis of a newly born female. child.

Figure 1169 - Vertical section of mucous membrane of human uterus. (Sobotta.)

Figure 1170 - The arteries of the internal organs of generation of the female, seen from behind. (After Hyrtl.)

Figure 1171 - External genital organs of female. The labia minora have been drawn apart.

Figure 1172 - Dissection of the lower half of the mamma during the period of lactation. (Luschka.)

Figure 1173 - Section of portion of mamma.

Figure 1174 - The thyroid gland and its relations.

Figure 1175 - Scheme showing development of branchial epithelial bodies. (Modified from Koh.) I, II, III, IV. Branchial pouches.

Figure 1176 - Section of thyroid gland of sheep. X 160.

Figure 1177 - Parathyroid glands. (Halsted and Evans.)

Figure 1178 - The thymus of a full-time fetus, exposed in situ.

Figure 1179 - Minute structure of thymus. Follicle of injected thymus from calf, four days old, slightly diagrammatic, magnified about 50 diameters. The large vessels are disposed in two rings, one of which surrounds the follicle, the other lies just within the margin of the medulla. (Watney.) A and B. From thymus of camel, examined without addition of any reagent. Magnified about 400 diameters. A. Large colorless cell, containing small oval masses of hemoglobin. Similar cells are found in the lymph glands, spleen, and medulla of bone. B. Colored blood corpuscles.

Figure 1180 - The hypophysis cerebri in position. Shown in sagittal section.

Figure 1181 - Median sagittal through the hypophysis of an adult monkey. Semidiagrammatic. (Herring.)

Figure 1182 - Vertical sections of the heads of early embryos of the rabbit. Magnified. (From Mihalkovics.) A. From an embryo 5 mm. long. B. From an embryo 6 mm. long. C. Vertical section of the anterior end of the notochord and hypophysis, etc., from an embryo 16 mm. long. In A the buccopharyngeal membrane is still present. In B it is in the process of disappearing, and the stomodeum now communicates with the primitive pharynx. am. Amnion. c. Fore-brain. ch. Notochord. f. Anterior extremity of fore-gut, i. h. Heart. if. Infundibulum. m. Wall of brain cavity. mc. Mid-brain. mo. Hind-brain. p. Original position of hypophyseal diverticulum, py. ph. Pharynx. sp.e. Sphenoethmoidal. bc. Central. sp.o. Sphenoöccipital parts of basis cranii. tha. Thalamus.

Figure 1183 - Suprarenal glands viewed from the front.

Figure 1184 - Suprarenal glands viewed from behind.

Figure 1185 - Section of a part of a suprarenal gland. (Magnified.)

Figure 1186 - Section of part of human glomus caroticum. (Schaper.) Highly magnified. Numerous bloodvessels are seen in section among the gland cells.

Figure 1187 - Section of an irregular nodule of the glomus coccygeum. (Sertoli.) X 85. The section shows the fibrous covering of the nodule, the bloodvessels within it, and the epithelial cells of which it is constituted.

Figure 1188 - The visceral surface of the spleen.

Figure 1189 - Transverse section of the spleen, showing the trabecular tissue and the splenic vein and its tributaries.

Figure 1190 - Transverse section of the human spleen, showing the distribution of the splenic artery and its branches.

Figure 1191 - Transverse section of a portion of the spleen.

Figure 1192 - Section of the spleen, showing the termination of the small bloodvessels.

Figure 1193 - Side view of head, showing surface relations of bones.

Figure 1194 - Anterolateral view of head and neck.

Figure 1195 - Front view of neck.

Figure 1196 - Diagrammatic section of scalp.

Figure 1197 - Drawing of a cast by Cunningham to illustrate the relations of the brain to the skull.

Figure 1198 - Relations of the brain and middle meningeal artery to the surface of the skull. 1. Nasion. 2. Inion. 3. Lambda. 4. Lateral cerebral fissure. 5. Central sulcus. AA. Reid’s base line. B. Point for trephining the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery. C. Suprameatal triangle. D. Sigmoid bend of the transverse sinus. E. Point for trephining over the straight portion of the transverse sinus, exposing dura mater of both cerebrum and cerebellum. Outline of cerebral hemisphere indicated in blue; course of middle meningeal artery in red.

Figure 1199 - Outline of bones of face, showing position of air sinuses.

Figure 1200 - Outline of side of face, showing chief surface markings.

Figure 1201 - The mouth cavity. The cheeks have been slit transversely and the tongue pulled forward.

Figure 1202 - The mouth cavity. The apex of the tongue is turned upward, and on the right side a superficial dissection of its under surface has been made.

Figure 1203 - Front of nasal part of pharynx, as seen with the laryngoscope.

Figure 1204 - Laryngoscopic view of interior of larynx

Figure 1205 - Front of left eye with eyelids separated to show medial canthus.

Figure 1206 - The interior of the posterior half of the left eyeball.

Figure 1207 - The auricula or pinna. Lateral surface.

Figure 1208 - The right tympanic membrane as seen through a speculum.

Figure 1209 - Left temporal bone showing surface markings for the tympanic antrum (red), transverse sinus (blue), and facial nerve (yellow).

Figure 1210 - Side of neck, showing chief surface markings.

Figure 1211 - Surface anatomy of the back.

Figure 1212 - Diagram showing the relation of the medulla spinalis to the dorsal surface of the trunk. The bones are outlined in red.

Figure 1213 - Sagittal section of vertebral canal to show the lower end of the medulla spinalis and the flum terminale. (Testut.) Li, Lv. First and fifth lumbar vertebra. S\??\ Second sacral vertebra. 1. Dura mater. 2. Lower part of subarachnoid cavity. 3. Lower extremity of medulla spinalis. 4. Filum terminale internum, and 5. Filum terminale externum. 6. Attachment of filum terminale to first segment of cooccyx.

Figure 1214 - Scheme showing the relations of the regions of attachment of the spinal nerves to the vertebral spinous processes. (After Reid.)

Figure 1215 - The left side of the thorax.

Figure 1216 - Front of thorax, showing surface relations of bones, lungs (purple), pleura (blue), and heart (red outline). P. Pulmonary valve. A. Aortic valve. B. Bicuspid valve. T. Tricuspid valve.

Figure 1217 - Side of thorax, showing surface markings for bones, lungs (purple), pleura (blue), and spleen (green).

Figure 1218 - Diagram showing relations of opened heart to front of thoracic wall. Ant. Anterior segment of tricuspid valve. A O. Aorta. A.P. Anterior papillary muscle. In. Innominate artery. L.C.C. Left common carotid artery. L.S. Left subclavian artery. L.V. Left ventricle. P.A. Pulmonary artery. R.A. Right atrium. R.V. Right ventricle. V.S. Ventricular septum.

Figure 1219 - Surface anatomy of the front of the thorax and abdomen.

Figure 1220 - Surface lines of the front of the thorax and abdomen.

Figure 1221 - With the patient in the erect posture.

Figure 1222 - With the patient lying down.

Figure 1223 - Front of abdomen, showing surface markings for liver, stomach, and great intestine.

Figure 1224 - Topography of thoracic and abdominal viscera.

Figure 1225 - Front of abdomen, showing surface markings for duodenum, pancreas, and kidneys. A A’. Plane through joint between body and xiphoid process of sternum. B B’. Plane midway between A A’ and transpyloric plane. C C’. Plane midway between transpyloric and transtubercular planes.

Figure 1226 - Back of lumbar region, showing surface markings for kidneys, ureters, and spleen. The lower portions of the lung and pleura are shown on the right side.

Figure 1227 - Front of abdomen, showing surface markings for arteries and inguinal canal.

Figure 1228 - Median sagittal section of male pelvis.

Figure 1229 - External genital organs of female. The labia minora have been drawn apart.

Figure 1230 - Median sagittal section of female pelvis.

Figure 1231 - Front of right upper extremity.

Figure 1232 - Back of right upper extremity.

Figure 1233 - The mucous sheaths of the tendons on the front of the wrist and digits.

Figure 1234 - The mucous sheaths of the tendons on the back of the wrist.

Figure 1235 - Front of right upper extremity, showing surface markings for bones, arteries, and nerves.

Figure 1236 - Back of right upper extremity, showing surface markings for bones and nerves.

Figure 1237 - Palm of left hand, showing position of skin creases and bones, and surface markings for the volar arches.

Figure 1238 - Front and medial aspect of right thigh.

Figure 1239 - Back of left lower extremity.

Figure 1240 - Lateral aspect of right leg.

Figure 1241 - The mucous sheaths of the tendons around the ankle. Lateral aspect.

Figure 1242 - The mucous sheaths of the tendons around the ankle. Medial aspect.

Figure 1243 - Nélaton’s line and Bryant’s triangle.

Figure 1244 - Left gluteal region, showing surface markings for arteries and sciatic nerve.

Figure 1245 - Front of right thigh, showing surface markings for bones, femoral artery and femoral nerve.

Figure 1246 - Lateral aspect of right leg, showing surface markings for bones, anterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries, and deep peroneal nerve.

Figure 1247 - Back of left lower extremity, showing surface markings for bones, vessels, and nerves.
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Human Body > List of Illustrations


TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. Embryology

II. Osteology

III. Syndesmology

IV. Myology

V. Angiology

VI. The Arteries

VII. The Veins

VIII. The Lymphatic System

IX. Neurology

X. The Organs of the Senses and the Common Integument

XI. Splanchnology

XII. Surface Anatomy and Surface Markings

BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

SUBJECT INDEX





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