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Adderall XR Capsules (Shire Us)

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  • AMPHETAMINES HAVE A HIGH POTENTIAL FOR ABUSE. ADMINISTRATION OF AMPHETAMINES FOR PROLONGED PERIODS OF TIME MAY LEAD TO DRUG DEPENDENCE. PARTICULAR ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID TO THE POSSIBILITY OF SUBJECTS OBTAINING AMPHETAMINES FOR NON-THERAPEUTIC USE OR DISTRIBUTION TO OTHERS AND THE DRUGS SHOULD BE PRESCRIBED OR DISPENSED SPARINGLY.

    MISUSE OF AMPHETAMINE MAY CAUSE SUDDEN DEATH AND SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR ADVERSE EVENTS.

    DESCRIPTION

    ADDERALL XR® is a once daily extended-release, single-entity amphetamine product. ADDERALL XR® combines the neutral sulfate salts of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine, with the dextro isomer of amphetamine saccharate and d,l-amphetamine aspartate monohydrate. The ADDERALL XR® capsule contains two types of drug-containing beads designed to give a double-pulsed delivery of amphetamines, which prolongs the release of amphetamine from ADDERALL XR® compared to the conventional ADDERALL® (immediate-release) tablet formulation.

    EACH CAPSULE CONTAINS:
    5 mg 10 mg 15 mg 20 mg 25 mg 30 mg
    Dextroamphetamine Saccharate
    1.25 mg 2.5 mg 3.75 mg 5.0 mg 6.25 mg 7.5 mg
    Amphetamine Aspartate Monohydrate
    1.25 mg 2.5 mg 3.75 mg 5.0 mg 6.25 mg 7.5 mg
    Dextroamphetamine Sulfate USP
    1.25 mg 2.5 mg 3.75 mg 5.0 mg 6.25 mg 7.5 mg
    Amphetamine Sulfate USP
    1.25 mg 2.5 mg 3.75 mg 5.0 mg 6.25 mg 7.5 mg
    Total amphetamine base equivalent
    3.1 mg 6.3 mg 9.4 mg 12.5 mg 15.6 mg 18.8 mg

    Inactive Ingredients and Colors:    The inactive ingredients in ADDERALL XR® capsules include: gelatin capsules, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methacrylic acid copolymer, opadry beige, sugar spheres, talc, and triethyl citrate. Gelatin capsules contain edible inks, kosher gelatin, and titanium dioxide. The 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg capsules also contain FD&C Blue #2. The 20 mg, 25 mg, and 30 mg capsules also contain red iron oxide and yellow iron oxide.

    CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

    Pharmacodynamics

    Amphetamines are non-catecholamine sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity. The mode of therapeutic action in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is not known. Amphetamines are thought to block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.

    Pharmacokinetics

    Pharmacokinetic studies of ADDERALL XR® have been conducted in healthy adult and pediatric (6-12 yrs) subjects, and pediatric patients with ADHD. Both ADDERALL® (immediate-release) tablets and ADDERALL XR® capsules contain d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine salts in the ratio of 3:1. Following administration of ADDERALL® (immediate-release), the peak plasma concentrations occurred in about 3 hours for both d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine.

    The time to reach maximum plasma concentration (T max ) for ADDERALL XR® is about 7 hours, which is about 4 hours longer compared to ADDERALL® (immediate-release). This is consistent with the extended-release nature of the product.


    A single dose of ADDERALL XR® 20 mg capsules provided comparable plasma concentration profiles of both d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine to ADDERALL® (immediate-release) 10 mg bid administered 4 hours apart.

    The mean elimination half-lives for d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine in adults are 10 hours and 13 hours, respectively. In children aged 6 to 12 the mean elimination half-life is 1 hour shorter for d-amphetamine (9 hours) and 2 hours shorter for l-amphetamine (11 hours). Children had higher systemic exposure to amphetamine (C max and AUC) than adults for a given dose of ADDERALL XR®, which was attributed to the higher dose administered to children on a mg/kg body weight basis compared to adults. Upon dose normalization on a mg/kg basis, children showed 30% less systemic exposure compared to adults.

    ADDERALL XR® demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics over the dose range of 20 to 60 mg in adults and 5 to 30 mg in children aged 6 to 12 years. There is no unexpected accumulation at steady state in children.

    Food does not affect the extent of absorption of d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine, but prolongs T max by 2.5 hours (from 5.2 hrs at fasted state to 7.7 hrs after a high-fat meal) for d-amphetamine and 2.1 hours (from 5.6 hrs at fasted state to 7.7 hrs after a high fat meal) for l-amphetamine after administration of ADDERALL XR® 30 mg. Opening the capsule and sprinkling the contents on applesauce results in comparable absorption to the intact capsule taken in the fasted state. Equal doses of ADDERALL XR® strengths are bioequivalent.

    Special Populations

    Pediatric Patients

    Children eliminated amphetamine faster than adults. The elimination half-life (t 1/2 ) is approximately 1 hour shorter for d-amphetamine and 2 hours shorter for l-amphetamine in children than in adults. However, children had higher systemic exposure to amphetamine (C max and AUC) than adults for a given dose of ADDERALL XR®, which was attributed to the higher dose administered to children on a mg/kg body weight basis compared to adults. Upon dose normalization on a mg/kg basis, children showed 30% less systemic exposure compared to adults.

    Gender

    Systemic exposure to amphetamine was 20-30% higher in women (N=20) than in men (N=20) due to the higher dose administered to women on a mg/kg body weight basis. When the exposure parameters (C max and AUC) were normalized by dose (mg/kg), these differences diminished.

    Race

    Formal pharmacokinetic studies for race have not been conducted. However, amphetamine pharmacokinetics appeared to be comparable among Caucasians (N=33), Blacks (N=8) and Hispanics (N=10).

    Clinical Trials

    Children

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted in children aged 6-12 (N=584) who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD (either the combined type or the hyperactive-impulsive type). Patients were randomized to fixed dose treatment groups receiving final doses of 10, 20, or 30 mg of ADDERALL XR® or placebo once daily in the morning for three weeks. Significant improvements in patient behavior, based upon teacher ratings of attention and hyperactivity, were observed for all ADDERALL XR® doses compared to patients who received placebo, for all three weeks, including the first week of treatment, when all ADDERALL XR® subjects were receiving a dose of 10 mg/day. Patients who received ADDERALL XR® showed behavioral improvements in both morning and afternoon assessments compared to patients on placebo.

    In a classroom analogue study, patients (N=51) receiving fixed doses of 10 mg, 20 mg or 30 mg ADDERALL XR® demonstrated statistically significant improvements in teacher-rated behavior and performance measures, compared to patients treated with placebo.

    Adults

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted in adults (N=255) who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD. Patients were randomized to fixed dose treatment groups receiving final doses of 20, 40, or 60 mg of ADDERALL XR® or placebo once daily in the morning for four weeks. Significant improvements, measured with the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), an 18- item scale that measures the core symptoms of ADHD, were observed at endpoint for all ADDERALL XR® doses compared to patients who received placebo for all four weeks. There was not adequate evidence that doses greater than 20 mg/day conferred additional benefit.

    INDICATIONS

    ADDERALL XR® is indicated for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    The efficacy of ADDERALL XR® in the treatment of ADHD was established on the basis of two controlled trials in children aged 6 to 12, and one controlled trial in adults who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ), along with extrapolation from the known efficacy of ADDERALL®, the immediate-release formulation of this substance.

    A diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; DSM-IV) implies the presence of hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment and were present before age 7 years. The symptoms must cause clinically significant impairment, e.g., in social, academic, or occupational functioning, and be present in two or more settings, e.g., school (or work) and at home. The symptoms must not be better accounted for by another mental disorder. For the Inattentive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: lack of attention to details/careless mistakes; lack of sustained attention; poor listener; failure to follow through on tasks; poor organization; avoids tasks requiring sustained mental effort; loses things; easily distracted; forgetful. For the Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: fidgeting/squirming; leaving seat; inappropriate running/climbing; difficulty with quiet activities; "on the go"; excessive talking; blurting answers; can't wait turn; intrusive. The Combined Type requires both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive criteria to be met.

    Special Diagnostic Considerations:    Specific etiology of this syndrome is unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test. Adequate diagnosis requires the use not only of medical but of special psychological, educational, and social resources. Learning may or may not be impaired. The diagnosis must be based upon a complete history and evaluation of the child and not solely on the presence of the required number of DSM-IV characteristics.

    Need for Comprehensive Treatment Program:   ADDERALL XR® is indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include other measures (psychological, educational, social) for patients with this syndrome. Drug treatment may not be indicated for all children with this syndrome. Stimulants are not intended for use in the child who exhibits symptoms secondary to environmental factors and/or other primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. Appropriate educational placement is essential and psychosocial intervention is often helpful. When remedial measures alone are insufficient, the decision to prescribe stimulant medication will depend upon the physician's assessment of the chronicity and severity of the child's symptoms.

    Long-Term Use:    The effectiveness of ADDERALL XR® for long-term use, i.e., for more than 3 weeks in children and 4 weeks in adults, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials. Therefore, the physician who elects to use ADDERALL XR® for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.

    CONTRAINDICATIONS

    Advanced arteriosclerosis, symptomatic cardiovascular disease, moderate to severe hypertension, hyperthyroidism, known hypersensitivity or idiosyncrasy to the sympathomimetic amines, glaucoma.

    Agitated states.

    Patients with a history of drug abuse.

    During or within 14 days following the administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (hypertensive crises may result).

    WARNINGS

    Psychosis:    Clinical experience suggests that, in psychotic patients, administration of amphetamine may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder.

    Long-Term Suppression of Growth:    Data are inadequate to determine whether chronic use of stimulants in children, including amphetamine, may be causally associated with suppression of growth. Therefore, growth should be monitored during treatment, and patients who are not growing or gaining weight as expected should have their treatment interrupted.

    Sudden Death and Pre-existing Structural Cardiac Abnormalities:    Sudden death has been reported in association with amphetamine treatment at usual doses in children with structural cardiac abnormalities. Adderall XR® generally should not be used in children or adults with structural cardiac abnormalities.

    PRECAUTIONS

    General:    The least amount of amphetamine feasible should be prescribed or dispensed at one time in order to minimize the possibility of overdosage.

    Hypertension:    Caution is to be exercised in prescribing amphetamines for patients with even mild hypertension (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ). Blood pressure and pulse should be monitored at appropriate intervals in patients taking ADDERALL XR®, especially patients with hypertension.

    Tics:    Amphetamines have been reported to exacerbate motor and phonic tics and Tourette's syndrome. Therefore, clinical evaluation for tics and Tourette's syndrome in children and their families should precede use of stimulant medications.

    Information for Patients:    Amphetamines may impair the ability of the patient to engage in potentially hazardous activities such as operating machinery or vehicles; the patient should therefore be cautioned accordingly.

    Drug Interactions:    Acidifying agents --Gastrointestinal acidifying agents (guanethidine, reserpine, glutamic acid HCI, ascorbic acid, etc.) lower absorption of amphetamines.

    Urinary acidifying agents --These agents (ammonium chloride, sodium acid phosphate, etc.) increase the concentration of the ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby increasing urinary excretion. Both groups of agents lower blood levels and efficacy of amphetamines.

    Adrenergic blockers --Adrenergic blockers are inhibited by amphetamines.

    Alkalinizing agents --Gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents (sodium bicarbonate, etc.) increase absorption of amphetamines. Co-administration of ADDERALL XR® and gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents, such as antacids, should be avoided. Urinary alkalinizing agents (acetazolamide, some thiazides) increase the concentration of the non-ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby decreasing urinary excretion. Both groups of agents increase blood levels and therefore potentiate the actions of amphetamines.

    Antidepressants, tricyclic --Amphetamines may enhance the activity of tricyclic antidepressants or sympathomimetic agents; d-amphetamine with desipramine or protriptyline and possibly other tricyclics cause striking and sustained increases in the concentration of d-amphetamine in the brain; cardiovascular effects can be potentiated.

    MAO inhibitors --MAOI antidepressants, as well as a metabolite of furazolidone, slow amphetamine metabolism. This slowing potentiates amphetamines, increasing their effect on the release of norepinephrine and other monoamines from adrenergic nerve endings; this can cause headaches and other signs of hypertensive crisis. A variety of toxic neurological effects and malignant hyperpyrexia can occur, sometimes with fatal results.

    Antihistamines --Amphetamines may counteract the sedative effect of antihistamines.

    Antihypertensives --Amphetamines may antagonize the hypotensive effects of antihypertensives.

    Chlorpromazine --Chlorpromazine blocks dopamine and norepinephrine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines, and can be used to treat amphetamine poisoning.

    Ethosuximide --Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of ethosuximide.

    Haloperidol --Haloperidol blocks dopamine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines.

    Lithium carbonate --The anorectic and stimulatory effects of amphetamines may be inhibited by lithium carbonate.

    Meperidine --Amphetamines potentiate the analgesic effect of meperidine.

    Methenamine therapy --Urinary excretion of amphetamines is increased, and efficacy is reduced, by acidifying agents used in methenamine therapy.

    Norepinephrine --Amphetamines enhance the adrenergic effect of norepinephrine.

    Phenobarbital --Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenobarbital; co-administration of phenobarbital may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action.

    Phenytoin --Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenytoin; co-administration of phenytoin may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action.

    Propoxyphene --In cases of propoxyphene overdosage, amphetamine CNS stimulation is potentiated and fatal convulsions can occur.

    Veratrum alkaloids --Amphetamines inhibit the hypotensive effect of veratrum alkaloids.

    Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions:    Amphetamines can cause a significant elevation in plasma corticosteroid levels. This increase is greatest in the evening. Amphetamines may interfere with urinary steroid determinations.

    Carcinogenesis/Mutagenesis and Impairment of Fertility: No evidence of carcinogenicity was found in studies in which d,l-amphetamine (enantiomer ratio of 1:1) was administered to mice and rats in the diet for 2 years at doses of up to 30 mg/kg/day in male mice, 19 mg/kg/day in female mice, and 5 mg/kg/day in male and female rats. These doses are approximately 2.4, 1.5, and 0.8 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose of 30 mg/day [child] on a mg/m 2 body surface area basis.

    Amphetamine, in the enantiomer ratio present in ADDERALL® (immediate-release)(d- to l- ratio of 3:1), was not clastogenic in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test in vivo and was negative when tested in the E. coli component of the Ames test in vitro . d,l-Amphetamine (1:1 enantiomer ratio) has been reported to produce a positive response in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, an equivocal response in the Ames test, and negative responses in the in vitro sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration assays.

    Amphetamine, in the enantiomer ratio present in ADDERALL® (immediate-release) (d- to l- ratio of 3:1), did not adversely affect fertility or early embryonic development in the rat at doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the maximum recommended human dose of 30 mg/day on a mg/m 2 body surface area basis).

    Pregnancy:    Pregnancy Category C. Amphetamine, in the enantiomer ratio present in ADDERALL® (d- to l- ratio of 3:1), had no apparent effects on embryofetal morphological development or survival when orally administered to pregnant rats and rabbits throughout the period of organogenesis at doses of up to 6 and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are approximately 1.5 and 8 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose of 30 mg/day [child] on a mg/m 2 body surface area basis. Fetal malformations and death have been reported in mice following parenteral administration of d-amphetamine doses of 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 times that of a human dose of 30 mg/day [child] on a mg/m 2 basis) or greater to pregnant animals. Administration of these doses was also associated with severe maternal toxicity.

    A number of studies in rodents indicate that prenatal or early postnatal exposure to amphetamine (d- or d,l-), at doses similar to those used clinically, can result in long-term neurochemical and behavioral alterations. Reported behavioral effects include learning and memory deficits, altered locomotor activity, and changes in sexual function.

    There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. There has been one report of severe congenital bony deformity, tracheo-esophageal fistula, and anal atresia (vater association) in a baby born to a woman who took dextroamphetamine sulfate with lovastatin during the first trimester of pregnancy. Amphetamines should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

    Nonteratogenic Effects:    Infants born to mothers dependent on amphetamines have an increased risk of premature delivery and low birth weight. Also, these infants may experience symptoms of withdrawal as demonstrated by dysphoria, including agitation, and significant lassitude.

    Usage in Nursing Mothers:    Amphetamines are excreted in human milk. Mothers taking amphetamines should be advised to refrain from nursing.

    Pediatric Use:    ADDERALL XR® is indicated for use in children 6 years of age and older.

    Use in Children Under Six Years of Age:    Effects of ADDERALL XR® in 3-5 year olds have not been studied. Long-term effects of amphetamines in children have not been well established. Amphetamines are not recommended for use in children under 3 years of age.

    Geriatric Use:    ADDERALL XR® has not been studied in the geriatric population.

    ADVERSE EVENTS

    The premarketing development program for ADDERALL XR® included exposures in a total of 965 participants in clinical trials (635 pediatric patients, 248 adult patients, 82 healthy adult subjects). Of these, 635 patients (ages 6 to 12) were evaluated in two controlled clinical studies, one open-label clinical study, and two single-dose clinical pharmacology studies (N=40). Safety data on all patients are included in the discussion that follows. Adverse reactions were assessed by collecting adverse events, results of physical examinations, vital signs, weights, laboratory analyses, and ECGs.

    Adverse events during exposure were obtained primarily by general inquiry and recorded by clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. Consequently, it is not possible to provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing adverse events without first grouping similar types of events into a smaller number of standardized event categories. In the tables and listings that follow, COSTART terminology has been used to classify reported adverse events.

    The stated frequencies of adverse events represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse event of the type listed.

    Adverse events associated with discontinuation of treatment:    In two placebo-controlled studies of up to 5 weeks duration, 2.4% (10/425) of ADDERALL XR® treated patients discontinued due to adverse events (including 3 patients with loss of appetite, one of whom also reported insomnia) compared to 2.7% (7/259) receiving placebo. The most frequent adverse events associated with discontinuation of ADDERALL XR® in controlled and uncontrolled, multiple-dose clinical trials of pediatric patients (N=595) are presented below. Over half of these patients were exposed to ADDERALL XR® for 12 months or more.

    Adverse event
    % of patients
    discontinuing (n=595)
    Anorexia (loss of appetite)
    2.9
    Insomnia
    1.5
    Weight loss
    1.2
    Emotional lability
    1.0
    Depression
    0.7

    In one placebo-controlled 4-week study among adults with ADHD, patients who discontinued treatment due to adverse events among ADDERALL XR®-treated patients (N=191) were 3.1% (n=6) for nervousness including anxiety and irritability, 2.6% (n=5) for insomnia, 1% (n=2) each for headache, palpitation, and somnolence; and, 0.5% (n=1) each for ALT increase, agitation, chest pain, cocaine craving, elevated blood pressure, and weight loss.

    Adverse event occurring in a controlled trial:    Adverse events reported in a 3-week clinical trial of pediatric patients and a 4-week clinical trial in adults treated with ADDERALL XR® or placebo are presented in the tables below.

    The prescriber should be aware that these figures cannot be used to predict the incidence of adverse events in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors differ from those which prevailed in the clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, and investigators. The cited figures, however, do provide the prescribing physician with some basis for estimating the relative contribution of drug and non-drug factors to the adverse event incidence rate in the population studied.

    Table 1 Adverse Events Reported by More Than 1%
    of Patients Receiving ADDERALL XR® with Higher Incidence
    Than on Placebo in a 584 Patient Clinical Study
    Body System
    Preferred Term
    ADDERALL XR™
    (n=374)
    Placebo
    (n=210)
    General
    Abdominal Pain (stomachache)
    14% 10%
    Accidental Injury
      3%   2%
    Asthenia (fatigue)
      2%   0%
    Fever
      5%   2%
    Infection
      4%   2%
    Viral Infection
      2%   0%
    Digestive System
    Loss of Appetite
    22%   2%
    Diarrhea
      2%   1%
    Dyspepsia
      2%   1%
    Nausea
      5%   3%
    Vomiting
      7%   4%
    Nervous System
    Dizziness
      2%   0%
    Emotional Lability
      9%   2%
    Insomnia
    17%   2%
    Nervousness
      6%   2%
    Metabolic/Nutritional
    Weight Loss
      4%   0%

    Table 2 Adverse Events Reported by 5% or More of Adults Receiving
    ADDERALL XR® with Higher Incidence Than on Placebo in a
    255 Patient Clinical Forced Weekly-Dose Titration Study *
    Body System
    Preferred Term
    ADDERALL XR™ (n=191) Placebo (n=64)
    General
    Asthenia
      6%   5%
    Headache
    26% 13%
    Digestive System
    Loss of Appetite
    33%   3%
    Diarrhea
      6%   0%
    Dry Mouth
    35%   5%
    Nausea
      8%   3%
    Nervous System
    Agitation
      8%   5%
    Anxiety
      8%   5%
    Dizziness
      7%   0%
    Insomnia
    27% 13%
    Cardiovascular System
    Tachycardia
      6%   3%
    Metabolic/Nutritional
    Weight Loss
    11%   0%
    Urgenital System
    Urinary Tract Infection
      5%   0%
    Note: The following events did not meet the criterion for inclusion in Table 2 but were reported by 2% to 4% of adult patients receiving ADDERALL XR® with a higher incidence than patients receiving placebo in this study: infection, photosensitivity reaction, constipation, tooth disorder, emotional lability, libido decreased, somnolence, speech disorder, palpitation, twitching, dyspnea, sweating, dysmenorrhea, and impotence.
    *included doses up to 60 mg.

    The following adverse reactions have been associated with amphetamine use:

    Cardiovascular: Palpitations, tachycardia, elevation of blood pressure, sudden death, myocardial infarction. There have been isolated reports of cardiomyopathy associated with chronic amphetamine use.

    Central Nervous System: Psychotic episodes at recommended doses, overstimulation, restlessness, dizziness, insomnia, euphoria, dyskinesia, dysphoria, depression, tremor, headache, exacerbation of motor and phonic tics and Tourette's syndrome, seizures, stroke.

    Gastrointestinal: Dryness of the mouth, unpleasant taste, diarrhea, constipation, other gastrointestinal disturbances. Anorexia and weight loss may occur as undesirable effects.

    Allergic: Urticaria.

    Endocrine: Impotence, changes in libido.

    DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

    ADDERALL XR® is a Schedule II controlled substance.

    Amphetamines have been extensively abused. Tolerance, extreme psychological dependence, and severe social disability have occurred. There are reports of patients who have increased the dosage to many times that recommended. Abrupt cessation following prolonged high dosage administration results in extreme fatigue and mental depression; changes are also noted on the sleep EEG. Manifestations of chronic intoxication with amphetamines may include severe dermatoses, marked insomnia, irritability, hyperactivity, and personality changes. The most severe manifestation of chronic intoxication is psychosis, often clinically indistinguishable from schizophrenia.

    OVERDOSAGE

    Individual patient response to amphetamines varies widely. Toxic symptoms may occur idiosyncratically at low doses.

    Symptoms:    Manifestations of acute overdosage with amphetamines include restlessness, tremor, hyperreflexia, rapid respiration, confusion, assaultiveness, hallucinations, panic states, hyperpyrexia and rhabdomyolysis. Fatigue and depression usually follow the central nervous system stimulation. Cardiovascular effects include arrhythmias, hypertension or hypotension and circulatory collapse. Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Fatal poisoning is usually preceded by convulsions and coma.

    Treatment:    Consult with a Certified Poison Control Center for up to date guidance and advice. Management of acute amphetamine intoxication is largely symptomatic and includes gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal, administration of a cathartic and sedation. Experience with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis is inadequate to permit recommendation in this regard. Acidification of the urine increases amphetamine excretion, but is believed to increase risk of acute renal failure if myoglobinuria is present. If acute severe hypertension complicates amphetamine overdosage, administration of intravenous phentolamine has been suggested. However, a gradual drop in blood pressure will usually result when sufficient sedation has been achieved. Chlorpromazine antagonizes the central stimulant effects of amphetamines and can be used to treat amphetamine intoxication.

    The prolonged release of mixed amphetamine salts from ADDERALL XR® should be considered when treating patients with overdose.

    DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    Dosage should be individualized according to the therapeutic needs and response of the patient. ADDERALL XR® should be administered at the lowest effective dosage.

    Children

    In children with ADHD who are 6 years of age and older and are either starting treatment for the first time or switching from another medication, start with 10 mg once daily in the morning; daily dosage may be adjusted in increments of 5 mg or 10 mg at weekly intervals. When in the judgment of the clinician a lower initial dose is appropriate, patients may begin treatment with 5 mg once daily in the morning. The maximum recommended dose for children is 30 mg/day; doses greater than 30 mg/day of ADDERALL XR® have not been studied in children. Amphetamines are not recommended for children under 3 years of age. ADDERALL XR® has not been studied in children under 6 years of age.

    Adults

    In adults with ADHD who are either starting treatment for the first time or switching from another medication, the recommended dose is 20 mg/day.

    Patients Currently Using ADDERALL® - Based on bioequivalence data, patients taking divided doses of immediate-release ADDERALL®, for example twice a day, may be switched to ADDERALL XR® at the same total daily dose taken once daily. Titrate at weekly intervals to appropriate efficacy and tolerability as indicated.

    ADDERALL XR® capsules may be taken whole, or the capsule may be opened and the entire contents sprinkled on applesauce. If the patient is using the sprinkle administration method, the sprinkled applesauce should be consumed immediately; it should not be stored. Patients should take the applesauce with sprinkled beads in its entirety without chewing. The dose of a single capsule should not be divided. The contents of the entire capsule should be taken, and patients should not take anything less than one capsule per day.

    ADDERALL XR® may be taken with or without food.

    ADDERALL XR® should be given upon awakening. Afternoon doses should be avoided because of the potential for insomnia.

    Where possible, drug administration should be interrupted occasionally to determine if there is a recurrence of behavioral symptoms sufficient to require continued therapy.

    HOW SUPPLIED

    ADDERALL XR® 5 mg Capsules: Clear/blue (imprinted ADDERALL XR 5 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 54092-381-01

    ADDERALL XR® 10 mg Capsules: Blue/blue (imprinted ADDERALL XR 10 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 54092-383-01

    ADDERALL XR® 15 mg Capsules: Blue/white (imprinted ADDERALL XR 15 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 54092-385-01

    ADDERALL XR® 20 mg Capsules: Orange/orange (imprinted ADDERALL XR 20 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 54092-387-01

    ADDERALL XR® 25 mg Capsules: Orange/white (imprinted ADDERALL XR 25 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 54092-389-01

    ADDERALL XR® 30 mg Capsules: Natural/orange (imprinted ADDERALL XR 30 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 54092-391-01

    Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.

    Store at 25° C (77° F). Excursions permitted to 15-30° C (59-86° F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]

    ANIMAL TOXICOLOGY

    Acute administration of high doses of amphetamine (d- or d,l-) has been shown to produce long-lasting neurotoxic effects, including irreversible nerve fiber damage, in rodents. The significance of these findings to humans is unknown.

    Manufactured for: Shire Us Inc., Newport, KY 41071

    Made in USA

    For more information call 1-800-828-2088, or visit www.adderallxr.com

    ADDERALL® and ADDERALL XR® are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office

    Copyright ©2004 Shire Us Inc.

    403980

    381 0107 004                    Rev. 9/04

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