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Culinary Dictionary
Cooking Glossary - Food Industry Terminology

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Ta (food industry term): Trading area.

Tab (food industry term): Tabulation. Usually refers to research data.

Tabasco chile: The famous chile from Tabasco, Mexico; seeds were introduced to Louisiana in the 1860s.

Tabasco Sauce: A brand of sauce made from small, hot, red tabasco peppers, vinegar, and salt. Tabasco Sauce is used in a wide variety of dishes.

Tabasco Sauce: A brand-name very hot red sauce made from hot ground peppers, fermented and mixed with vinegar. Tabasco Pepper Sauce is made on Avery Island in Louisiana, United States. This sauce is commonly used with Creole food, chili con carne and eggs.

Tabbouleh, Taboule: A Lebanese salad made of crushed wheat, parsley, tomatoes, onion, mint and sometimes sweet pepper and lemon.

Tabbouleh: A Lebanese salad made of softened bulgur tossed with vegetables and seasoned with lemon and mint.

Table allowance (food industry term): A manufacturer 's allowance to a retailer to display or highlight a product on supplemental tables, such as bottled catsup. Also called a Table Display Allowance (TDA).

Table d'hote: [French] meal of a definite number of courses, selected by the restaurant for a preset price.

Table display (food industry term): A type of supplemental display used to highlight seasonal or featured products, placed in a store's aisles to increase display space.

Table salt: Also called granulated salt, it is produced by boiling and evaporation of brine. It may be iodized and contains anti-caking agents

Tablespoon: A measure of volume in the U.S. system; 1 tablespoon (T.) = 3 teaspoons or 0.05 fluid ounces.

Tabloid (food industry term): A small format newspaper that reports the news in a condensed form.

Taco: A Mexican "sandwich," tacos are filled corn tortillas. Typical fillings may include meat, poultry, tomatoes, lettuce, cheese, onion, guacamole, refried beans and salsa.

Taco: [Mexican] wad or mouthful; fried, toasted or baked tortilla with filling rolled or folded inside. It has either a soft or crisp fried shell.

Tag (food industry term): A message delivered live by an announcer at the end of a TV or radio commercial, usually to mention local stores that sell an advertised item.

Tagging (food industry term): A price or informational sign that highlights an item.

Tagine: A Moroccan dish named after the cooking utensil in which it has been cooked. These stews may contain poultry, fish, meat, or vegetables and are highly spiced with sweet overtones common in North African cuisine.

Tagliarini: A flat ribbon pasta, narrower than tagliatelle, measuring approximately 3mm across.

Tagliatelle: [Italian] a flat ribbon pasta, narrower than fettuccine, measuring approximately 6mm across.

Tahini: A paste of ground sesame seeds and a flavor similar to peanut butter.

Tahini: A light creamy paste made of toasted sesame seeds and sesame oil-- almost like peanut butter. Used in many Middle Eastern dishes, it can be found in Middle Eastern delicatessens or larger supermarkets.

Tailgate: (United States) outdoor snack, meal or beverages originally served from the back of a pick-up truck at any sporting event. Hot food prepared on the grill at a sporting event.

Take (food industry term): A retail store's daily receipts, e.g., cash, checks, credit cards.

Taleggio: A square creamy cheese from the Lombardy region of Italy, with a fat content of almost 50%. Has a mild, salty-sweet flavor, which can become pungent if left to age for too long.

Tallarines: [Spanish] noodles.

Tallow biscuits: Hot biscuits spread with fresh tallow.

Tamal (tamale): [Spanish] any filling enclosed in masa, wrapped in a corn husk or parchment paper, and steamed; the plural is tamales. The cornmeal is spread on a corn husk, then filled with chile-seasoned mixture of meats and red pepper, rolled, tied and steamed.

Tamale: Tamales are filled softened corn husks. The filling may contain a wide variety of ingredients, which are wrapped in a masa dough then placed within a softened corn husk. The husks are then tied and steamed until the filling is cooked. Only the filling (not the husk) is eaten.

Tamalero: [Spanish] tamale-making party.

Tamarind Paste: A vitamin-rich, tangy, prune like pulp from the pods of a tropical Asian tree. It is used as a seasoning in curries and chutneys or made into drinks, jams, or sorbets.

Tamarind: This is the very pungent, tart fruit pod of trees originally from Africa, now common in Asia, India, and the West Indies. The taste is bittersweet with citrus overtones. The pulp is very sticky and difficult to work with. Tamarind paste and concentrate, fresh products, are available in the produce sections of many ethnic markets. They keep for 2-3 weeks, refrigerated. Both products made from the pulp of the tamarind pod, need to be reconstituted.

Tamarindo: [Spanish] sometimes labeled as Indian dates; a The pod is bout four inches long; they have a brown papery outer skin that covers the sticky pulp, fibers and seeds; it makes a wonderful hot weather drink; also great for sauces and chiles when combined with dried chiles; a primary ingredient in both Worcestershire and Pick-a-Peppa sauces; also sold in dried bricks with its seeds, as frozen pulp and puree, and as canned paste; fresh pods can be purchased from later summer through early spring.

Tandoori: A method of cooking chicken or meats in Indian cuisine. The pieces of chicken are skinned, then coated in yogurt mixed with chili powder, turmeric, ginger, spices, onion and chopped garlic. After marinating overnight, the chicken is sprinkle with saffron or chili powder and cooked on a bed of embers in a special cylindrical clay oven called a tandoori.

Tangelo: A cross between a tangerine and a grapefruit with loose skin that can range in color from deep reddish-orange to orange-yellow; very sweet and easy to peel.

Tangerine: A small orange citrus fruit. What the United States calls tangerines are called mandarins elsewhere in the world. They are loose-skinned oranges. The best is the clementine: the small, flattened, seedless fruit that is easier to peel, has less pith, and is sweeter than all other tangerines.

Tangerines: A type of mandarin with thick, rough, orange skin and sweet flesh.

Tapas: In Spain, an assortment of hors d'oeuvres or cocktail snacks.

Tape (food industry term): A register receipt given to a customer detailing the transaction, products, retail prices, coupons and payment.

Tapenade: A condiment from Provence, made with capers, desalted anchovies and pitted black olives. The ingredients are pounded in a mortar and season with olive oil, lemon juice, aromatics, and possibly a drop of brandy.

Tapenade: A paste made from cured black olives seasoned with olive oil, garlic, anchovies, capers, lemon, and marc or cognac. This is common in Province, where it is served with croutons and raw vegetables to dip. This also makes a good sauce for grilled meats and strong flavored fish.

Tapioca: A starch from the root of the cassava plant, tapioca comes in several forms including granules, pellets (pearl tapioca), and flour. The pellets - also called pearl tapioca - are used mainly to make puddings. Instant tapioca and tapioca flour are often used to thicken dishes such as fruit fillings, glazes, soups, and stews.

Tapioca: This is a starchy ingredient derived from the cassava root. Tapioca puddings and custards are made with pearl tapioca, which serves as a thickening agent. Tapioca comes in several forms, including granules and flour, as well as the pellets that are called pearl tapioca. Tapioca starch is often used to make dumpling dough, or as a thickening agent. If necessary, it can be used as a substitute for cornstarch. Store tapioca in a cool dark place.

Taquito: [Spanish] little taco; rolled, deep-fried taco.

Taquitos: (Rolled tacos) Same as tacos except filling is placed inside tortillas and rolled cigar-fashion, then deep-fat fried.

Taramasalata: A Greek dip made of olive oil and fish roe with the consistency similar to that of mayonnaise. American versions commonly use salmon, whitefish or carp roe. This is served with raw vegetables and bread or croutons.

Tare (food industry term): The weight of the packaging subtracted from the weight of the product, so the customer doesn't pay for the container. The allowance for perishable shrinkage between the weight marked on the item when packed and the actual weight when sold.

Taro: A perennial plant grown in tropical regions for its large starchy tuberous rhizomes, Which have twice the calorific value of potato.

Taro: The most flavorful of the "new" tubers sold in many supermarkets and many Latin American and Asian markets. Treat as a potato, but do not overcook or it will become dry.

Tarpon: A large, powerful game fish from the warmer waters of the Atlantic Ocean.

Tarragon: An herb (Artemisia dracunculus) native to Siberia with narrow, pointed, dark green leaves, tiny gray flowers, a distinctive anise-like flavor with undertones of sage and a strong aroma; available fresh and dried.

Tart: A sweet- or savory-filled baked pastry with no top crust.

Tartar Sauce: Also spelled Tartare, this is a mayonnaise-like sauce made with hard-boiled egg yolks and olive oil, to which chives, shallots, pickles, capers, and seasonings are added. Usually served chilled with fish or cold chicken.

Tartare: This is a term which has several meanings. It is often used to describe the preparation of raw beef called steak tartare. Raw beef is chopped finely and served with minced onion, parsley, capers and seasoned with anything from Worcestershire sauce to Tabasco sauce. Tartare sauce describes a mayonnaise based sauce with capers, onion, hard cooked eggs, cornichons and herbs.

Tarte Flamb: An Alsatian pizza with a thin crust topped with fresh white cheese, onions, and bacon. This is also called an Alsatian firepie.

Tarte Tatin: Upside-down apple tart with sugar-and-butter caramelized topping. Best when served immediately after cooking.

Tartufi: [Italian] truffles.

Tasso: A lean and highly-seasoned piece of cured pork or beef, tasso is hard to find outside of Louisiana. It's used like ham or salt pork to flavor pastas, beans, and other dishes.

Tatsoi: Also known as 'spoon cabbage,' tatsoi is a leafy Asian green with a slightly spicy cabbage flavor. It can be used in salads and stir-fries.

Taza: [Spanish] cup.

T-bone steak: A cut from the center section of the tenderloin, directly in front of the porterhouse steak.

Te: [Spanish] tea; usually an herbal tea.

Tea Ball, Tea Infuser: A small, perforated ball, usually made of stainless steel, that holds loose tea. Tea is placed inside through a hinged opening and the ball is put in a cup or teapot to brew when boiling water is added.

Tea towel: Dish towel.

Tear-off pad (food industry term): Printed promotional materials that are bound into a pad and displayed next to a product or at the checkout.

Tear-strip (food industry term): A tape inserted into a package or case for easy opening.

Teff: a tiny, round grain that flourishes in the highlands of Ethiopia. While teff is very nutritious, it contains practically no gluten. This makes teff ill-suited for making raised bread.

Teflon: The trademarked name for a coating used on pots and pans to prevent food from sticking. This nonstick coating can cut down (or eliminate in some cases) the need for oil in cooking, and is helpful to people on low-fat diets.

Tegiquat (food industry term): A anti-germicidal cleaner that kills bacteria, cleans and deodorizes.

Teigemasse: [German] macaroni dishes.

Tejano: [Spanish] Texan; often refers to the early Mexican settlers in Texas.

Tejolote: [Spanish] pestle used to grind items in a molcajete.

Telemarketing (food industry term): Marketing by telephone to solicit customers in order to sell goods and services.

Telephone sales rep (food industry term): A salesperson at a wholesale operation who takes telephone orders for merchandise and also contacts customers to alert them to upcoming promotions, new items and other services. Sometimes called an inside sales rep.

Telera: [Spanish] French roll.

Telxon (food industry term): A combination of a portable electronic terminal and a wand. The wand reads the shelf ticket and identifies the product. Each pass of the wand (left to right) orders one case. If more than 3 cases are needed, a pass (right to left) is made and the quantity is punched into a terminal, which records orders electronically.

Tembleque: [Spanish] a coconut dessert; a good commercial product is the Goya brand.

Tempe, Tempeh: A fermented soybean cake with a yeasty, nutty flavor; popular in Asian cooking and vegetarian diets. These high-protein cakes can usually be found at health food stores.

Temper: Technically, to moderate. In cooking, tempering most often refers to slightly warming beaten eggs, by rapidly stirring a little of the hot ingredients into them, before adding them to the hot mixture so that they will combine, stirring rapidly again, without solidifying. It also refers to the softening of a heavy mixture before folding in a whipped mixture, so that incorporation occurs without deflation.

Temperature: The intensity of heat in a mixture, baked product, or oven; measured in degrees Fahrenheit (0F) for home baking in the United States.

Temporarily out (to) (food industry term): A manufacturer's identifier on an invoice when a product is out-of-stock, not delivered and not billed. The retailer needs to re-order the product on the next order.

Temporary allowance (food industry term): A manufacturer's price reduction to increase sales volume of a product for a specific time period.

Temporary price reduction (tpr) (food industry term): A short-term price reduction to increase sales of a product for a specific time period.

Tempura: In Japanese cooking, a method of deep-frying foods coated in a light batter of rice flour. Foods cooked in a tempura batter are usually served with a type of dipping sauce such as sweet and sour, soy or teriyaki.

Tempura: Japanese dish of batter-dipped, fried seafood or vegetables.

Tenderloin: That portion of the beef between the sirloin and the ribs; also known as short loin. Steaks from the tenderloin include the Porterhouse and the T-bone.

Tenedor: [Spanish] fork.

Tepari: [Spanish] tepary beans.

Tepin: [Spanish] a dried chile; chile tepin; wild form of the pequ n, it grows along the Mexican and U.S. border; round, measuring about 1/2 inch across; have a searing, dry heat; used in sauces, salsas and stews; Substitute pequ ns if these are not available.

Tequila: [Spanish] a pale, sharp-tasting liquor distilled from the agave plant (maguey cactus); the stem of the agave, known also as the century plant, is used in making tequila; it is produced near Tequila in the state of Jalisco, Mexico.

Terg-o-cide (food industry term): A degreaser used to clean equipment.

Teriyaki Sauce: A marinade and sauce traditionally made from soy sauce, wine, sugar, and other seasonings.

Terminal (food industry term): A computer or cash register display.

Terrapin: This eight:inch long freshwater turtle is considered by many to have the best meat among turtles. Its flesh is often pounded and served like steak.

Terrine: A deep covered baking dish, a terrine is often made of earthenware.

Terrine: [French] finely ground meats or fish, etc. See "Pate" for description; an earthenware pot used in cooking and serving pasta.

Test market (food industry term): A market area representative of the average national demographics and buying patterns, which is chosen to test new products, promotions and to forecast sales. See trading area.

Test store (food industry term): A retail store used to test a product to determine buying and merchandising practices. See pilot store, storewide promotion.

Texas butter: A butter substitute of hot lard, flour and water.

Texture: Indicates the appearance of a cut portion of bread or cake.

Thai Chilies: Known as hang prik (Thai), cabe or lombok (Indonesian), cabai or cili (Malaysian), Ot (Vietnamese). Fresh explosive chilies 3 to 4 inches long, and 1/2 to 3/4 inches wide. Their color ranges from the fresh green state to various stages of yellow to red in a ripened state. They are also sold dried and are often soaked in hot water before using.

Thermometer: A device designed to measure temperatures; can be calibrated in Fahrenheit and/or Celsius and can be a column of mercury with temperatures indicated on a glass tube or a stem-type thermometer in which temperatures are noted by an arrow on a dial or a digital readout.

Thermophilic: Cheesemaking term which describes the temperature at which the culture thrives. From the Greek words thermo- meaning heat- and philic, which means loving. Thermophilic cultures require a higher temperature than mesophilic cultures.

Thicken: The process of making a liquid substance dense by adding a thickening agent (ex. flour, gelatin) or by cooking to evaporate some of the liquid.

Thin: To dilute a mixture by adding more liquid.

Third party (food industry term): An independent organization that offers a service that links a supplier and a distributor in some way. The term can apply to providers of EDI, warehousing or logistics services.

Third party reconciliation (food industry term): A process of balancing insurance claims paid versus claims due from a third-party company.

Throughput (food industry term): The products received, stored and shipped by a distribution center.

Thuringer cervelat: A fresh, smoked sausage named after the former German region of Thuringia. Coriander (also called "cilantro") is an important spice used in this variety of sausage.

Thyme: A low-growing herb (Thymus vulgaris) with small purple flowers and tiny, gray-green leaves; the leaves have a strong, slightly lemony flavor and aroma; used fresh or dried.

Ticket price (ticket) (food industry term): A product's retail price.

Tie and high (food industry term): The width and height of freight on pallets and warehouse storage racks. "Tie" refers to the number of dimensions of each tier (layer) of standard pack product while "High" means the total physical height of one or more "Ties" making up the unit load.

Tie-in ad (food industry term): A retailer's advertisements used to meet the promotional requirements of a manufacturer.

Tie-in items (food industry term): See related items.

Tie-in merchandise (food industry term): A multi-product display method in which a high-impulse item is linked to a staple or featured item.

Tie-in promotion (food industry term): A promotion in which two products are displayed together and one item is given away or sold at a lower price with the purchase of the other.

Tie-in sales (food industry term): A retailer's promotion of a product to meet manufacturer requirements during a specified time period.

Tierno: [Spanish] tender.

Tilefish: This low:fat Atlantic fish is delicately flavored and has a flesh that is firm yet tender. Available fresh and frozen, in steaks and fillets. Suitable for just about any cooking method.

Timbale: (TIHMbuhl; tihmBAHL) A highsided, drumshaped mold that can taper toward the bottom. The food baked in the mold is usually a custard based dish. It is unmolded before serving.

Timbale: [French] a molded dish. Also a high-sided pie crust filled with cooked meat, fish or fruit.

Time and attendance systems (food industry term): An electronic system used to plan, monitor and report employees' work hours.

Time and temperature monitoring (ttm) devices (food industry term): Label-sized, chemical-filled packets that are attached to shipping cartons and indicate when the cartons have been exposed to fluctuating temperatures.

Time clock (food industry term): An instrument that records the time an associate begins and ends work. The time is usually displayed on a time card or electronic monitor. Used to calculate hourly wages or weekly wages for hours worked.

Time lag (food industry term): The time between the introduction of a new product and its availability in a retail store.

Timetable (food industry term): The delivery schedule and requirements for a new product promotion.

Tinga: [Spanish] stew.

Tipsy cake, tipsy pudding: Sponge cake soaked with sherry and brandy, covered with custard and almonds.

Tiramisu: An Italian dessert which is very popular in the US. Tiramiso consists of sponge cake, soaked with an espresso syrup and layered with a sweetened mascarpone cheese and chocolate sauce.

To Taste: Common reference to adding salt and pepper to a recipe according to personal taste. Start with a small amount, taste and adjust as necessary.

Toad in the Hole: An English dish consisting of pieces of meat or sausages covered with batter and baked in the oven.

Toast Making an item crisp and hot by grilling or broiling on both sides; usually applies to bakery products, such as bread

Toast points: Toast slices, cut in half diagonally.

Toast: To brown by means of dry heat.

Toast: Most commonly, to brown using a dry heat source such as an oven or toaster. However, many recipes call for toasting seeds, nuts, grains or spices before mixing with other ingredients to add flavor. They may be toasted in an oven or in a skillet, with or without oil, using a low heat, stirring or tossing often, until nicely browned, being very careful not to burn.

Toasting (nuts): Using heat to bring the oils closer to the surface of the nut which brings out more flavor. Method is useful in low fat cooking in order to use less nuts. Toasting also makes removing the skins off of nuts easier. Toasting also gives the nuts a much better flavor.

Tocino: [Spanish] bacon. Cured ham with added color.

Tofc (food industry term): Trailer on flat car.

Tofu: A cake made of bean curd, which is made from soybeans. High in protein, tofu is often used as a meat substitute in vegetarian dishes.

Tofu: Also called bean curd, a bland, cheese- or custard-like food made from processed soy beans. It comes in various degrees of firmness and is a very high source of protein.

There are two broad categories of tofu: firm tofu and soft (or silken) tofu.

Firm tofu is the more versatile of the two varieties.

Silken tofu is best eaten raw or used in soups, most notably miso soup. Silken tofu does not stir fry well. Because of its consistency, it will not absorb the flavors of the meats and vegetables being fried as firm tofu will, and also it tends to crumble.

Both firm and silken tofus are available in most grocery stores in the vegetable section. Tofu is like a dairy product in that it must be refrigerated and has a short shelf life. It is normally sold in plastic tubs, immersed in water. Naturally, the water should be poured off, the tofu rinsed and patted dry before using. Silken tofu often comes inside foil packages from Japan. In this case, the silken tofu is ultra-pasteurized and so has a very long shelf life. Firm tofu is always fresh.

Tofu – fermented soybeans made into a concentrated curd form. Originally from Japan. Tofu is astringent, sweet, cooling and heavy, Tofu is mild tasting and very versatile. It will take on the flavors of any food it is cooked with. Tofu is high in calcium, iron and phosphorus. Good for Kapha, use extra spicing, Vata, should eat in small quantities because it may cause constipation. Pitta, very good for strong Pitta and cooling. Tofu should always be prepared by cooking or warming and needs warming spices cooked with it for easy digestion. Use Cumin and Coriander. Do not overcook tofu. It should be gently cooked and heated. Eat small quantities of tofu (3 or 4 ounces) at a time.

Tofu is made from soybean milk mixed with a thickener and pressed to form a block. Not only is tofu an excellent vegetable protein, but recent discoveries have found estrogen-like compounds that lower risk in breast and prostrate cancers. By promoting calcium retention in bones, soybean products lower the risk of osteoporosis.

Soybeans are the perfect food. They contain very little cholesterol and saturated fats; the fat is mostly unsaturated. Soybeans provide a complete protein, approximately 35% protein, compared to 40% in other legumes. It is high in vitamins A, B1, B2, E, niacin, calcium, lecithin and mineral salts. It contains amino-acids, such as linoleic acid, which is one of the Omega-3 fatty acids, helpful in reducing heart disease. Soybeans contain genistein, a plant-based estrogen known as phytoestrogens, which helps to blocks the growth of tumors and prevent the growth of cancer. Overall, soybeans contribute to a healthy diet, rich in nutrients that help in the prevention of cancer, heart diseases and postmenopausal symptoms.

Toiletries merchandiser (food industry term): A health and beauty care (HBC) rack jobber.

Tomally: The liver of the lobster.

Tomate verde: Mexican green tomato.

Tomate: [Spanish] tomato.

Tomatillos (tomates verdes): [Spanish] frescadillas; plum-sized, bright green fruit, covered with a light green papery husk; they have a citrus-like, acidic flavor; taste best when they are brilliant green in color; often called green tomatoes, they are more closely related to the kiwi fruit than to tomatoes, and are members of the gooseberry family. Also a member of the nightshade family; originally eaten by the Aztecs; the best substitute is small green tomatoes. If using fresh, remove the papery husks. Canned are a good substitute, but rinse well before using.

Tomatillos: Small, green, firm, tomatoes. They are covered with a paper like husk that's removed before cooking. Their acid flavor add a great flavor for sauces.

Tomato: The fleshy fruit of the Lycopersicon esculentum, a vine native to South America and a member of the nightshade family; used like a vegetable, tomatoes are available in a range of sizes, from tiny spheres (currant tomatoes) to large squat ones (beefsteak tomatoes) and colors, from green (unripe) to golden yellow to ruby red.

Tomillo: [Spanish] thyme.

Tonnage items (food industry term): Low-gross profit items that have a high turnover rate. See selective selling.

Tonnage throughput (food industry term): The number of tons of merchandise passing through a distribution center per labor hours for all workers in the center.

Tonno: [Italian] tuna.

Top: To place one food item or mixture on top of another.

Toronja: [Spanish] grapefruit.

Torrejas: [Spanish] egg fritters.

Torrone: Nougat candy.

Torsk: A large saltwater fish related to the cod. It has a firm, lean flesh. Also called "cusk."

Torta Rustica: A large pie similar to coulibiac, filled with salmon, cabbage or spinach, eggs, and mushrooms. Other versions use meat or sausage in the filling. The crust is usually made of bread dough and sprinkled with salt before using.

Torta: Stiffly beaten eggs leavened with baking powder and seasoned with salt and oregano, then deep fried. Served during Lent with chile.

Torta: [Italian] tart.

Torta: [Spanish] hero sandwich; often made with a bolillo; also made with tortillas fried semi-crisp.

Torte: A decorated cake with several layers. The layers of a torte are often made with ground nuts or breadcrumbs, and very little flour.

Torte: Dessert of the cake or meringue type, usually rich in eggs or nuts.

Tortellini: Italian for small twists and used to describe small, stuffed pasta shaped like a ring.

Tortellini: A small, stuffed pasta pocket made from little rounds of dough, then twisted to form dumplings. Fillings can be made with anything and are served sauced or in a simple broth.

Tortelloni: This is a larger version of the tortellini.

Tortilla: [Latin American] a very thin Mexican bread made of corn or wheat flour. They are served both soft and fried. A round, flat unleavened bread made from a dough of wheat flour or corn flour; the staple of all Latin American cookery.

Tortilladora: [Spanish] small handcranked machine for making tortillas.

Tortillas de Harina: Flour tortillas made from wheat flour. Ussually are 7: 10 inches in diameter and 1/4 inch thick. They remain mostly white after cooking on a griddle, but are flecked with brown and puffed in spots. Used for burritos and as an accompaniment to any Southwestern meal.

Tortillas De Mais: Corn tortillas made from masa pressed into a thin pancake, then quickly singed or "blistered" on a hot griddle. Used for enchiladas, tacos, taquitos, chalupas, huevos rancheros, tostadas compuestas.

Tortillas: An unleavened Mexican bread, tortillas are flat and round. They may be made with flour or masa (corn flour).

Tortilleria: [Spanish] establishment where tortillas are made and sold.

Toss: To combine ingredients by gently turning over until until blended. Most commonly refers to a salad, but is used for many other preparations. The easiest and most efficient way to toss is with a good pair of tongs. Alternately, two spoons, forks or one of each may be used.

Tostada: [Spanish] corn tortilla fried crisp and garnished.

Tostadas Compuestas: Corn tortilla cups filled with chile con carne topped with shredded lettuce, chopped tomatoes, and grated cheese.

Tostadas: 1. Open-faced taco. 2. Corn tortillas cut in pieces and fried until crisp. Salted or sprinkled with chile powder. Served for dipping with salsa, guacamole, or chile con queso.

Tostados: [Spanish] fried corn tortillas with toppings; bowls made by frying corn and flour tortillas in a tostado fryer.

Tostones: [Spanish] fried plantain slices.

Total distribution (food industry term): A standardized process where marketing practices are coordinated to eliminate inefficiency and reduce cost.

Total order lead-time (food industry term): See order lead time.

Total taxes on income (food industry term): The federal and state taxes based on net income imposed on supermarket companies.

Tote (food industry term): A plastic container, usually used to ship merchandise such as HBC items.

Totopos, tostaditas: [Spanish] southern Mexican term for tortilla chips.

Touch screen (food industry term): A computer screen with sensors that respond to touch.

Tournedo: A fillet of beef from the heart of the tenderloin, approximately an inch thick. This term is rarely used in America today, being replaced by filet of beef or filet mignon.

Tourte: Similar to pate en croute, these are pies made in a round shape and served cold. They are generally highly seasoned and preparations are indicative to the region they are from.

Tpr (food industry term): Temporary price reduction.

Trade (food industry term): An industry term for the grocery industry which includes wholesalers, retailers, food brokers, vendors and associations.

Trade advertising (food industry term): A manufacturer's advertisement directed toward the retailers or wholesalers who sell their products.

Trade advisory board (food industry term): Retailers invited to serve on an advisory board by manufacturers to discuss industry-related issues, solve problems, and provide input.

Trade association (food industry term): A nonprofit group that serves the information needs of a particular industry and represents its mutual interests, e.g., education, legislation, media relations.

Trade deal (food industry term): See deal.

Trade discount (food industry term): An off-invoice cash discount from a list or suggested resale price

Trade letter (food industry term): A manufacturer's notice describing a promotion, new products, contests, deals, etc. and the policies and procedures for implementation.

Trade margin (food industry term): See margin.

Trade name (food industry term): A product's brand name.

Trade promotion (food industry term): A special manufacturer's offer made to retailers, such as allowances for advertising and/or merchandising.

Trading area (food industry term): A population center or metropolitan area with similar demographics, buying patterns and expectations. See distributing area.

Trading stamps (food industry term): Stamps given at checkout to encourage customer loyalty. Redeemable for cash or products.

Traffic (food industry term): In retailing (Food Industry term): The number of people moving through a retail store or department. In warehousing: The number of product turns.

Traffic builder (food industry term): A product offered below retail price to attract customers.

Traffic flow (food industry term): The shopping pattern designed for a retail store or department.

Traffic pattern (food industry term): The shopping path customers take through a store or department.

Trailer (food industry term): A mail-in incentive attached to a product to increase the sales of a slow-selling product in an otherwise fast-moving category.

Trailer on flat car (tofc) (food industry term): A truck trailer placed on a railroad flat car for shipping. Also known as a piggyback.

Trainee (food industry term): An employee participating in a company-sponsored training program.

Transfer credit (food industry term): A form used to credit a store for merchandise that is transferred out.

Transfers (food industry term): Products exchanged between retail stores in the same chain.

Tray (food industry term): A container consisting typically of a corrugated or chip board, low walled, open box wrapped with plastic film.

Tray-pack (food industry term): A shipping package designed to be displayed by removing the top.

Treacle: [Great Britain] Molasses.

Tree display (food industry term): A freestanding display unit with a center pole and hooks/shelves that resembles a tree.

Trend (food industry term): A pattern of behavior. Also, trend (movement) of sales.

Trennette: Flat noodles, wider than fettuccine, that have one flat edge and one scalloped edge.

Trifle: A popular British dessert made with wine- or liqueur-soaked sponge cake or macaroons, then layered with fruit, jams and whipped cream.

Trigo: [Spanish] wheat.

Trim platters (food industry term): Meat pans, or lugs.

Trim: To remove undesirable portions of a food item (ex. external fat from a cut of beef or stems from grapes) before further preparation or service.

Trimming (food industry term): Removing discolored or damaged leaves or spots to give produce a fresh and uniform appearance.

Tripe: The stomach lining of beef, pork, or sheep. Beef tripe is the most commonly available. Tripe is tough and requires long cooking. It is the prime ingredient for menudo (tripe soup).

Tripe: The edible lining of stomach (beef).

Tripe: linings of the first and second stomach of a cow or ox; it is the main ingredient of traditional menudo.

Trout: A delicately flavored fish that belongs to the same family as salmon and whitefish. Most are freshwater, but some are marine (sea trout). The very popular "rainbow trout" has been transplanted from California to many different countries.

Trout: Fish belonging to the salmon family and generally found in freshwater. The best-known variety, is the rainbow trout, which originates from California. Trout are generally sold weighing less than a pound and are prized for their moderately fatty flesh and delicate flavor.

Truchas: [Spanish] freshwater trout.

Truck farm (food industry term): A local farm that provides fruits and vegetables.

Truckload freight rates (food industry term): The lowest transportation charged for shipping a full truckload.

Truckload order (food industry term): An order that can completely fill a dry or refrigerated truck trailer. Also known as a full truck.

Truffle: This is a tuber of unusual flavor and aroma. It is savored in Italian and French cookery, and due to its scarcity, draws a very high price. The truffle has yet to be successfully cultivated, though a fine substitute is now being grown in California. The black truffle of Perigord and the white truffle of Piedmont are highly prized for their exceptional flavors. The black truffle requires cooking to allow the flavors to be fully achieved. Conversely, the white truffle is best when shaved directly on the dish before eating. The aroma of truffles is strong enough to permeate egg shells when the two are stored together. Due to their short growing season and large demand, truffles can reach a price of up to $800 per pound. Frozen and canned forms are more accessible, but their taste never reaches that of fresh truffles. Also, a very rich chocolate candy.

Truite: [French] trout

Truss: To tie or skewer meat into a neat shape before cooking.

Truss: To tie up, as a bird, so that all parts will remain in place while cooking.

Try out: To heat fat slowly until it liquefies and can be drawn off.

TSP or TVP: Textured soy protein (TSP) or (TVP) is made from defatted soy flour that is compressed and processed into granules or chunks. It is sold as a dried, granular product. When it is rehydrated with boiling water, TSP has a texture similar to ground beef. TSP is also available in chunk-size pieces that take on the consistency of stew meat when rehydrated. It is available in bulk in specialty markets and health food stores. TSP is packaged under various brand names at higher prices in most health food stores. If you purchase the prepackaged variety, note the added sodium content and adjust the recipe accordingly. TSP is also available in rehydrated form in the frozen foods section of many grocery stores under brand names such as Green Giant Recipe Crumbles. One cup of dehydrated TSP is about two cups rehydrated.

Tsukemono: Japanese term for pickled vegetables. The Japanese pickle a variety of vegetables, using various techniques, and serve them with practically every meal, including breakfast.

Tube Pan: A deep, ring-shaped cake pan with a hollow tube in the center; used for baking cakes, particularly angel food and sponge cake.

Tube pan: Ring-shaped tin for baking cakes. Most often used to prepare sponge cakes and angel food cakes.

Tuiles: Crisp, paper thin cookies named for their tile-like appearance. They are often flavored with almond slices, lemon, and vanilla.

Tumeric: A bright yellow spice used primarily in commercial curry powder. It is also used in sweet pickles and for various dishes requiring a yellow color. This is used as a coloring substitute for saffron.

Tuna: A saltwater fish related to the mackerel. Probably the most popular fish used in canning today. Tunas have a distinctive rich:flavored flesh that is moderately high in fat and has a firmly textured flaky but tender flesh.

Tuna: A member of the mackerel family, and a popular fish for canning. There are many varieties of tuna, including albacore, bluefin, yellowfin and bonito.

Tuna: An excellent steak fish (and the most popular canned fish), with tender, flaky, and highly flavorful flesh; Look for bluefin but settle for yellowfin if need be.

Tunas: [Spanish] prickly pear cactus fruits which turn from green to ruby red; their juice is magenta-colored; their exotic flavor is like a blend of pomegranates, cherries and strawberries; the fruit is used in making jelly, candies and syrup.

Tunken: [German] sauces.

Tunnel: To overmix batter. The finished product is riddled with holes or tunnels.

Turbinado sugar: Raw sugar that has been refined to a light tan color by washing it in a centrifuge to remove surface molasses.

Turducken: A Louisiana specialty: a chicken stuffed inside a duck stuffed inside a turkey.

Turkey: An American game bird from the pheasant family that has been domesticated. Self:basting turkeys have been injected with butter or vegetable oil. "Roaster:fryers" (6:

Turmeric: A yellow spice with a warm and mellow flavor, turmeric is related to ginger. Turmeric is used in prepared mustard and curry powder, and it's a popular ingredient in Middle Eastern cooking.

Turmeric: [Indian] a rhizome that is dried and ground, then utilized to spice and color dishes bright yellow. Primarily used in Indian and Southeast Asian cooking.

Turn business (food industry term): Product replenishment during nonpromotional selling periods with manufacturer's shipping volume closely tracking consumer purchases. See promotional business.

Turnip Greens: A strong-flavored green, turnip greens have long been popular in the South. Turnip greens may be boiled, steamed, or stir-fried. In the South, they're often cooked with salt pork or ham hocks and are almost always served with cornbread.

Turnip: A popular root vegetable with dense flesh. Fresh turnips can be found year round and store well. Small younger varieties tend to have a sweeter taste and more delicate flavor.

Turnip: A root vegetable with a sharp flavor that mellows and sweetens when cooked.

Turnover (employee) (food industry term): The rate at which employees are hired and terminated.

Turnover (stock turn) (food industry term): The number of times the total value of products stored in the distribution center at any one time is sold and replaced each year. Computed by dividing the annual cost of goods sold by average inventory on hand at cost.

Turnover buying (food industry term): The purchasing practice of maintaining a minimum stock of products in order to increase return on capital invested. See speculation.

Turnover order (food industry term): A product order obtained by a broker and given to a wholesaler for shipping to the retailer. Also called a missionary order.

Turnover, inventory (food industry term): The rate at which the investment in inventory is converted to sales. In inventory, the term is sometimes used to mean the dollars in sales generated by each dollar invested in inventory (dollar sales divided by dollar inventories).

Turnover, retail (food industry term): The number of times the total value of products displayed in retail stores is sold and replaced each year. For example, if a store sells $5,000 worth of a product at cost to stores each year and maintains a $500 inventory, turnover is 10.

Turnovers: Pastries filled with a savory or sweet mixture, doubled over to the shape of a semicircle, then baked or deep-fried.

Turque: [Spanish] turkey.

Turtle Bean: A small black bean, also known as "black bean." The beans have long been popular in Mexico, the Caribbean, and the Southern U.S.

Turtle: Any of several varieties of shelled reptiles that live on land, in freshwater, or in the sea. Turtles can weigh over 1,000 pounds. Sea or Green Turtles are best known as food.

Tusk: A large saltwater fish related to the cod. It has a firm, lean flesh. Also called "cusk."

Tutti Frutti: [Italian] Dried mixed fruits as added to ice cream.

Tzatziki Sauce: Dipping sauce derived from yogurt, garlic, cucumber, olive oil and lemon juice. Served with calamari.

Tzimmes: Traditionally served on Rosh Hashana, this sweet Jewish dish consists of various combinations of fruits, meat and vegetables. All are flavored with honey and often with cinnamon as well. The flavors of this casserole-style dish develop by cooking it at a very low temperature for a very long time.


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