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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

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adenomyosis (ad′e-no-mi-o′sis)
Endometriosis, especially when the endometrial tissue invades the myometrium. The ectopic occurrence or diffuse implantation of adenomatous tissue in muscle (usually smooth muscle). [G. aden, gland, + mys, muscle, + -osis condition]
    a. uteri: a benign invasion of myometrium by endometrial tissue.
adenoneural
Of or relating to a gland and nerve, e.g., adenoneural junction.

adenopathy (ad-e-nop′a-the)
Swelling or morbid enlargement of the lymph nodes. [adeno- + G. pathos, suffering]

adenophlegmon (ad′e-no-fleg′mon)
Acute inflammation of a gland and the adjacent connective tissue. [adeno- + G. phlegmone, inflammation]

Adenophorasida (ad′e-no-fo-ras′i-da)
A class of nematodes lacking lateral canals opening into the excretory system and phasmids, with few or no caudal papillae, eggs unsegmented, and with polar plugs or hatching in utero. It includes the genera Trichuris, Capillaria, and Trichinella among important parasites of humans and domestic animals. SEE ALSO: Secernentasida. SYN: Adenophorea, Aphasmidia. [G. aden, gland, + phor, thief]

Adenophorea (ad′e-no-fo′re-a)
SYN: Adenophorasida.

adenosalpingitis (ad′e-no-sal-pin-ji′tis)
SYN: salpingitis isthmica nodosa.

adenosarcoma (ad′e-no-sar-ko′ma)
A malignant neoplasm arising simultaneously or consecutively in mesodermal tissue and glandular epithelium of the same part. müllerian a. a tumor of the uterus or ovaries, of low-grade malignancy, composed of benign-appearing glands and a sarcomatous stroma.

adenose (ad′e-nos)
Relating to a gland or like a gland.

adenosine (Ado) (a-den′o-sen)
1. A condensation product of adenine and d-ribose; a nucleoside found among the hydrolysis products of all nucleic acids and of the various adenine nucleotides. A. accumulates in severe combined immunodeficiency disease. 2. A potent coronary vasodilator used in place of exercise for radionuclide myocardial perfusion studies. SYN: 9-β-d-ribofuranosyladenine. a. cyclic phosphate a. 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate. a. deaminase an enzyme found in mammalian tissues, capable of catalyzing the deamination of a., forming inosine and ammonia. A deficiency of a. deaminase can lead to one form of severe combined immunodeficiency disease. a. diphosphate a. 5′-diphosphate. a. kinase enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from MgATP to a., forming MgADP and AMP. An important step in nucleoside salvage. a. monophosphate (AMP) specifically, a.-5′-monophosphate. See adenylic acid. a. nucleosidase an enzyme hydrolyzing a. to adenine and d-ribose. a. phosphate specifically, a. 3′- or 5′-phosphate. See adenylic acid. a. tetraphosphate a condensation product of a. with tetraphosphoric acid at the 5′ position. a. triphosphate SYN: a. 5′-triphosphate.

adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)
An activator of phosphorylase kinase and an effector of other enzymes, formed in muscle from ATP by adenylate cyclase and broken down to 5′-AMP by a phosphodiesterase; the first compound referred to as a “second messenger.” It is a metabolic regulator. A related compound (2′,3′) is also known. SYN: cyclic adenylic acid, cyclic AMP, cyclic phosphate.

adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic phosphate phosphodiesterase
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic phosphate forming 5′-AMP. A crucial step in the regulation of cellular adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic phosphate levels. Inhibited by caffeine. SYN: cAMP phosphodiesterase.

adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP)
A condensation product of adenosine with pyrophosphoric acid, formed from ATP by the hydrolysis of the terminal phosphate group of the latter compound.

adenosine 3′-phosphate
3′-Adenylic acid. See adenylic acid.

adenosine 5′-phosphate
5′-Adenylic acid. See adenylic acid.

adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS)
An intermediate in the formation of urinary ethereal sulfates, notable for containing a “high-energy” sulfate bond; the 3′-OH of adenosine is replaced by &cbond;OPO3H2, the 5′-OH by &cbond;OP(O2H)&cbond;OSO3H. SYN: active sulfate.

adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (APS)
An intermediate in the formation of PAPS (active sulfate). a. kinase the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of active sulfate from a. and ATP.

adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) (a-den′o-sen-tri-fos′fa-tas)
An enzyme that catalyzes the release of the terminal phosphate group of adenosine 5′-triphosphate; visualized cytochemically in various cell membranes, mitochondria, and in the A band of striated muscle sarcomeres associated with myosin.

adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)
Adenosine (5)pyrophosphate;adenosine with triphosphoric acid esterified at its 5′ position; immediate precursors of adenine nucleotides in RNA. The primary energy currency of a cell. SYN: adenosine triphosphate.

adenosis (ad-e-no′sis)
1. A rarely used term for a more or less generalized glandular disease. 2. Glandular tissue in one or more sites in which it is not usually found. blunt duct a. a. of the breast in which the ducts are enlarged but not increased in number. fibrosing a. SYN: sclerosing a.. microglandular a. a. of the breast in which irregular clusters of small tubules are present in adipose or fibrous tissues, resembling tubular carcinoma but lacking stromal fibroblastic proliferation. sclerosing a. a nodular, benign breast lesion occurring most frequently in relatively young women and consisting of hyperplastic distorted lobules of acinar tissue with increased collagenous stroma; the changes may be difficult to distinguish microscopically from carcinoma. Also, a benign nodular microscopic lesion of the prostate consisting of acimar tissue with increased stroma; the basal cell layer shows characteristic smooth muscle metaplasia. SYN: adenofibrosis, fibrosing adenomatosis, fibrosing a..

adenosyl (a-den′o-sil)
The radical of adenosine minus an H or OH from one of the ribosyl OH groups, usually the 5′, e.g., S-a.-l-methionine.

adenosylcobalamin (a-den′o-sil-ko-bal′a-min)
A derivative of vitamin B12. Its impaired biosynthesis can lead to methylmalonic acidemia.

adenotomy (ad-e-not′o-me)
Incision of a gland. [adeno- + G. tome, a cutting]

adenotonsillectomy (ad′e-no-ton-si-lek′to-me)
Operative removal of tonsils and adenoids.

adenous (ad′e-nus)
Rarely used term for adenose.

Adenoviridae (ad′e-no-vir′i-de)
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses, commonly known as adenoviruses, that develop in the nuclei of infected cells in mammals and birds. The virion is 70 to 90 nm in diameter, naked, and ether-resistant; the capsids are icosahedral and composed of 252 capsomeres. The family includes two genera, Mastadenovirus and Aviadenovirus.

adenovirus (ad′e-no-vi′rus)
Adenoidal-pharyngeal-conjunctival or A-P-C virus;any virus of the family Adenoviridae. More than 40 types are known to infect humans causing upper respiratory symptoms, acute respiratory disease, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, hemorrhagic cystitis, and serious infections in neonates. SYN: A-P-C virus, adenoidal-pharyngeal-conjunctival virus. [G. aden, gland, + virus] canine a. 1 a virus causing infectious canine hepatitis in dogs. SYN: Rubarth disease virus.

adenyl (ad′e-nil)
The radical or ion of adenine; often used for adenylyl, as in adenylosuccinic acid.

adenylate (a-den′i-lat)
Salt or ester of adenylic acid. a. cyclase an enzyme acting on ATP to form 3′,5′-cyclic AMP plus pyrophosphate. A crucial step in the regulation and formation of second messengers. SYN: 3′,5′-cyclic AMP synthetase. a. kinase adenylic acid kinase;a phosphotransferase that catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of a molecule of ADP by MgADP, yielding MgATP and AMP. SYN: adenylic acid kinase, myokinase.

adenyl cyclase (ad′e-nil si′klas)
An enzyme that converts adenosine monophosphate to cyclic adenosine monophosphate, an intracellular second messenger of neural and hormonal activation.

adenylic acid (ad-e-nil′ik)
A condensation product of adenosine and phosphoric acid; a nucleotide found among the hydrolysis products of all nucleic acids. 3′-A. (adenosine 3′-monophosphate) and 5′-a. (adenosine 5′-monophosphate [AMP]) differ in the place of attachment of the phosphoric acid to the d-ribose; deoxyadenylic acid differs in having H instead of OH at the 2′ position of d-ribose. SEE ALSO: AMP. SYN: adenine nucleotide. cyclic a. SYN: adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate. a. deaminase SYN: AMP deaminase. a. kinase SYN: adenylate kinase.

adenylosuccinase (ad′e-nil-o-suk′sin-as)
SYN: adenylosuccinate lyase.

adenylosuccinate lyase (ad′e-nil-o-suk′sin-at)
Adenylylsuccinate lyase;an enzyme catalyzing the nonhydrolytic cleavage of adenylosuccinic acid producing AMP and fumarate and also of 4-(N-succinocarboxamido)-5-aminoimidazole nucleotide to yield fumarate and aminoimidazole carboxamide ribosyl-5-phosphate. Both are steps in purine nucleotide biosynthesis. SYN: adenylosuccinase, adenylylosuccinate lyase.

adenylosuccinate synthase
A ligase catalyzing the formation of adenylosuccinate, GDP, and Pi from inosinic acid, aspartate, and GTP. An important enzyme in purine nucleotide biosynthesis. SYN: adenylylosuccinate synthase, IMP-aspartate ligase.

adenylosuccinic acid (sAMP) (ad′e-nil-o-suk′sin-ik)
A condensation product of aspartic acid and inosine 5′-monophosphate; an intermediate in the biosynthesis of adenylic acid. Formally, it is adenylic acid with succinic acid replacing an H of the NH2 group, forming a C&cbond;N. SYN: adenylylosuccinic acid, N-succinyladenylic acid.

adenylyl (a-den′i-lil)
The radical of adenylic acid minus an OH from the phosphoric group; often shortened to adenyl in compound names, such as adenylosuccinic acid. a. cyclase former name for adenylate cyclase.

adenylylosuccinate lyase (a-den′i-lil-o-suk′sin-at)
SYN: adenylosuccinate lyase.

adenylylosuccinate synthase
SYN: adenylosuccinate synthase.

adenylylosuccinic acid (a-den′i-lil-o-suk′sin-ik)
SYN: adenylosuccinic acid.

adenylylsulfate kinase
See adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate kinase.

adeps, gen. adipisadipes (ad′eps, ad′i-pis, -pez)
1. Denoting fat or adipose tissue. 2. The rendered fat of swine, lard, used in the preparation of ointments. SYN: lard. SEE ALSO: a. lanae. [L. lard, fat] a. lanae the greasy substance obtained from the wool of the sheep Ovis aries (family Bovidae). Used as an emollient base for creams and ointments. SYN: hydrous wool fat, lanolin, wool wax. [L. fat of wool] a. renis obsolete term for the layer of adipose tissue (“fatty capsule”) surrounding the kidney (perirenal fat).

adermia (a-der′me-a)
Congenital defect of absence of skin. [G. a- priv. + derma, skin]

ADH
Abbreviation for antidiuretic hormone; alcohol dehydrogenase.

adherence (ad-her′ens)
1. The act or quality of sticking to something. SEE ALSO: adhesion. 2. The extent to which a patient continues an agreed-upon mode of treatment without close supervision. Cf.:compliance (2) , maintenance. [L. adhaereo, to stick to] immune a. the binding of cells via antigen-antibody complexes that have triggered complement fixation; a. is to appropriate complement receptors.

adhesins (ad-he′zins)
Microbial surface antigens that frequently exist in the form of filamentous projections (pili or fimbriae) and bind to specific receptors on epithelial cell membranes; usually classified according to their ability to induce agglutination of erythrocytes from various species, their differential attachment to epithelial cells of various origins, or their susceptibility to reversal of such binding activities in the presence of mannose. [L. ad-haereo, pp. ad-haesum, to stick to, + -in]

adhesio, pl .adhesiones (ad-he′ze-o, ad-he-ze-o′nez) [TA]
SYN: adhesion (1) . [L.] a. interthalamica [TA] SYN: interthalamic adhesion.

adhesiolysis (ad-hez-e-ol′o-sis)
Severing of adhesive band(s); done by laparoscopy or laparotomy. [adhesion + lysis]

adhesion (ad-he′zhun) [TA]
1. The process of adhering or uniting of two surfaces or parts, especially the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound. SYN: adhesio [TA] , conglutination (1) . 2. In the pleural cavity and peritoneal cavity, inflammatory bands that connect opposing serous surfaces. 3. Physical attraction of unlike molecules for one another. 4. Molecular attraction existing between the surfaces of bodies in contact. [L. adhaesio,, fr. adhaereo, to stick to] amnionic adhesions SYN: amnionic band. fibrinous a. 1. an a. that consists of fine threads of fibrin resulting from an exudate of plasma or lymph, or an extravasation of blood. 2. multiple fine or thin threads of fibrin. fibrous a. strong fibrous strands resulting from the organization of fibrinous adhesions, often after previous operative procedure; commonly seen in patients with mechanical bowel obstruction. interthalamic a. [TA] the variable connection between the two thalamic masses across the third ventricle; absent in about 20% of human brains. SYN: adhesio interthalamica [TA] , massa intermedia&star, commissura cinerea, commissura grisea (1) , intermediate mass. primary a. SYN: healing by first intention. secondary a. SYN: healing by second intention.

adhesiotomy (ad-he-se-ot′o-me)
Surgical section or lysis of adhesions.

adhesive (ad-he′siv)
1. Relating to, or having the characteristics of, an adhesion. 2. Any material that adheres to a surface or causes adherence between surfaces.

adhib.
Abbreviation for L. adhibendus, to be administered.

adiabatic (a-de-a-ba′tik)
Referring to a thermodynamic process in which there is no gain or loss of heat between the system and its surroundings. [G. adiabatos, impassable, fr. a priv. + diabaino, to go through]

adiadochocinesia, adiadochocinesis (a-di′a-do-ko-si-ne′se-a, -sis)
SYN: adiadochokinesis. [G. a-priv. + diadochos, successive, + kinesis, movement]

adiadochokinesis (a-di′a-do-ko-kin-e′sis)
Inability to perform rapid alternating movements. One of the clinical manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction. SEE ALSO: dysdiadochokinesia. Cf.:diadochokinesia. SYN: adiadochocinesia, adiadochocinesis, dysdiadochokinesis. [G. a- priv. + diadochos, successive, + kinesis, movement]

adiaphoresis (a′di-a-fo-re′sis)
SYN: anhidrosis. [G. a- priv. + diaphoresis, perspiration]

adiaphoretic (a-di′a-fo-ret′ik)
SYN: anhidrotic.

adiaphoria (a-di-a-fo′re-a)
Failure to respond to stimulation after a series of previously applied stimuli. [G. a- priv. + dia, through, + phoros, bearing]

adiaspiromycosis (a′de-a-spi′ro-mi-ko′sis)
A rare pulmonary mycosis of humans and of rodents and other animals that dig in soil or are aquatic, caused by the fungus Emmonsia parva var. crescens.

adiaspore (a′de-a-spor)
A fungus spore which, when growing in the lungs of an animal or incubated in vitro at elevated temperatures, increases greatly in size without eventual reproduction or replication. [G. a- priv. + dia, through, + sporos, seed]

adiastole (a-di-as′to-le)
Absence or imperceptibility of the diastolic movement of the heart; diastolic ventricular functional abnormality. Mostly European usage. [G. a- priv. + diastole, dilation]

adiathermancy (a-di-a-ther′man-se)
Impermeability to heat. [G. dia-thermaino, to warm through, fr. a- priv. + dia, through, + therme, heat]

Adie
William J., Australian physician, 1886–1935. See A. pupil, A. syndrome, Holmes-A. pupil, Holmes-A. syndrome.

adiemorrhysis (ad′i-em-or′i-sis)
Arrest of the capillary circulation. [G. a- priv. + dia, through, + haima, blood, + rhysis, a flowing]

Adinida (a-din′i-da)
A suborder of dinoflagellates, in which the flagella are free and do not lie in furrows. [G. a- priv. + dien, a whirling]

adip-, adipo-
Fat, fatty. Corresponds to G. lip-, lipo-. SEE ALSO: lipo-. [L. adeps, adipis, soft animal fat, lard, grease; fatty tissue; obesity; akin to G. aleipha, unguent, anointing-oil, oil, fat, pitch, resin; lipos, animal fat, lard, tallow, vegetable oil]

adiphenine hydrochloride (a-dif′e-nen)
A spasmolytic agent used to decrease spasm of the biliary tract, gastrointestinal tract, uterus, and ureter.

adipic acid (a-dip′ik)
Hexanedioic acid;the dicarboxylic acid, HOOC(CH2)4COOH.

Adipiodone
SYN: iodipamide.




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