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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


ajowan oil (aj′o-wan)
A volatile oil distilled from the fruit of Carum copticum, one of the sources of thymol; a carminative, aromatic, and expectorant. SYN: ptychotis oil.

akanthion (a-kan′the-on)
SYN: acanthion.

akaryocyte (a-kar′e-o-sit)
A cell without a nucleus (karyon), such as the erythrocyte. SYN: acaryote, akaryote. [G. a- priv. + karyon, kernel, + kytos, a hollow (cell)]

akaryote (a-kar′e-ot)
SYN: akaryocyte. [G. a- priv. + karyon, kernel]

akathisia (ak-a-thiz′e-a)
A syndrome characterized by an inability to remain in a sitting posture, with motor restlessness and a feeling of muscular quivering; may appear as a side effect of antipsychotic and neuroleptic medication. SYN: acathisia. [G. a- priv. + kathisis, a sitting]

akembe (a-kem′be)
SYN: onyalai.

A. Olof, Swedish radiologist, 1885–1958. See Åkerlund deformity.

akinesia (a-ki-ne′se-a, a-ki-)
1. Absence or loss of the power of voluntary movement, due to an extrapyramidal disorder. 2. Obsolete term denoting the postsystolic interval of rest of the heart. 3. A neurosis accompanied by paretic symptoms. SYN: akinesis. [G. a- priv. + kinesis, movement] a. algera a condition marked by severe generalized pain produced by any movement; often of psychogenic origin. [G. algos, pain] a. amnestica loss of muscular power from disuse.

akinesic (a-ki-ne′sik, a-ki-)
SYN: akinetic.

akinesis (a-ki-ne′sis, a-ki-)
SYN: akinesia.

akinesthesia (a-kin′es-the′ze-a)
Inability to perceive movement or position. Absence of the sense of perception of movement or of the muscular sense. [G. a- priv. + kinesis, motion, + aisthesis, sensation]

akinetic (a-ki-net′ik, -ki-net′ik)
Relating to or suffering from akinesia. SYN: akinesic.

akiyami (ah-ke-yah′me)
SYN: hasamiyami.

aklomide (ak′lo-mid)
A coccidiostat used in veterinary practice.

See acnemia.

Abbreviation for Adair-Koshland-Némethy-Filmer model.

Symbol for aluminum.

Abbreviation for δ-aminolevulinic acid.

Symbol for alanine or its mono- or diradical.

ala, gen. and pl. alae (a′la, a′le)
1. [TA] SYN: wing. 2. Pronounced, longitudinal cuticular ridges in nematodes, usually found in larval stages (Ascaris lumbricoides), although occasionally present in adult worm (Enterobius vermicularis). [L. wing] a. auris SYN: auricle (1) . a. cerebelli SYN: wing of central lobule. a. cinerea SYN: vagal (nerve) trigone. a. cristae galli [TA] SYN: a. of crista galli. a. of crista galli [TA] a small lateral expansion of the ethmoid bone from the front of the crista galli on each side that articulates with the frontal bone and forms the foramen cecum. SYN: a. cristae galli [TA] , alar process, wing of crista galli. a. of ilium [TA] the upper flaring portion of the ilium. SYN: a. ossis ilii [TA] , wing of ilium&star. alae lingulae cerebelli SYN: lingula of cerebellum. a. lobulis centralis [TA] SYN: wing of central lobule. a. major ossis sphenoidalis [TA] SYN: greater wing of sphenoid (bone). a. minor ossis sphenoidalis [TA] SYN: lesser wing of sphenoid (bone). a. nasi [TA] SYN: a. of nose. a. of nose [TA] the outer, more or less flaring, wall of each nostril. SYN: a. nasi [TA] , pinna nasi, wing of nose. a. orbitalis SYN: lesser wing of sphenoid (bone). a. ossis ilii [TA] SYN: a. of ilium. a. sacralis [TA] SYN: a. of sacrum. a. of sacrum [TA] the upper surface of the lateral part of the sacrum adjacent to the body. SYN: a. sacralis [TA] , wing of sacrum&star. a. temporalis SYN: greater wing of sphenoid (bone). a. of vomer [TA] an everted lip on either side of the upper border of the vomer, between which fits the rostrum of the sphenoid bone. SYN: a. vomeris [TA] , wing of vomer. a. vomeris [TA] SYN: a. of vomer.

alacrima (a-lak′re-ma)
Deficiency of tear secretion. [G. a- priv. + L. lacrima, tear]

Daniel, French physician, *1925. See A. syndrome.

Théophile, French neurologist, 1890–1980. See Foix-A. myelitis, Foix-A. syndrome.

alalia (a-la′le-a)
Mutism; inability to speak. See aphonia. [G. a- priv. + lalia, talking]

alalic (a-lal′ik)
Relating to alalia.

alanine (A, Ala) (al′a-nen)
2-Aminopropionic acid; α-aminopropionic acid;the l-stereoisomer is one of the amino acids widely occurring in proteins.

alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
An enzyme transferring amino groups from l-alanine to 2-ketoglutarate, or the reverse (from l-glutamate to pyruvate); there is a d-alanine transaminase that effects the same reaction, but using d-alanine and d-glutamate. Serum concentration is increased in viral hepatitis and myocardial infarction. SYN: alanine transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase.

alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase
An enzyme that reversibly catalyzes the transfer of an amino group of l-alanine to glyoxylate, thus producing pyruvate and glycine. An inherited disorder that results in an alteration of a. activity is associated with primary hyperoxaluria type I.

alanine-oxomalonate aminotransferase
An enzyme that accomplishes the reversible transfer of the amino groups from l-alanine to oxomalonate, an action similar to that of alanine aminotransferase, producing pyruvate and aminomalonate.

alanine racemase
An enzyme, requiring pyridoxal phosphate as coenzyme, that catalyzes the reversible racemization of l-alanine to d-alanine; found in various microorganisms, where it plays a role in the biosynthesis of the d-amino acids present in the capsular proteins.

alanine transaminase
SYN: alanine aminotransferase.

alanosine (a-lan′o-sen)
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces alanosinicus; possesses antineoplastic and antiviral activity.

Edward, British surgeon, 1747–1823. See A. amputation.

alantin (a-lan′tin)
SYN: inulin.

alantol (al′an-tol)
A yellowish liquid obtained by distillation from the root of Inula helenium or elecampane; used internally as an irritating tonic and externally as a mild rubefacient. SYN: inulol.

alant starch (a-lant′)
SYN: inulin.

alanyl (al′a-nil)
The acyl radical of alanine.

alar (a′lar)
1. Relating to a wing; winged. 2. SYN: axillary. 3. Relating to the wings (ala) of such structures as the nose, sphenoid, sacrum, etc.

Acronym for a philosophy of use of radiation based on using dosages as low as reasonably achievable to attain the desired diagnostic, therapeutic, or other goal.

alarmone (a-lar′mon)
A biochemical whose synthesis increases under certain stress conditions (for example, a nutritional deficiency affecting certain enzymes). [alarm + -mone]

alastrim (a-las′trim)
A mild form of smallpox caused by a less virulent strain of the virus. SYN: Cuban itch, Kaffir pox, milkpox, pseudosmallpox, pseudovariola, variola minor, West Indian smallpox, whitepox. [Pg. alastrar, to scatter over]

alba (al′ba)
SYN: white matter. [fem. of L. albus, white]

Albarran y Dominguez
Joaquin, Cuban urologist, 1860–1912. See Albarran glands, under gland, Albarran test, A. tubules, under tubule.

albedo (al-be′do)
A white area of the retina due to edema or infarction. [L. whiteness]

Heinrich E., German radiologist, 1865–1921. See Albers-Schönberg disease.

Eduard, Austrian surgeon, 1841–1900. See A. suture.

Henry, U.S. physician, 1878–1930. See A. stain.

albicans, pl .albicantia (al′bi-kanz, -kan′te-a)
1. SYN: white. 2. SYN: corpus a.. [L.]

albiduria (al-bi-doo′re-a)
The passing of pale or white urine of low specific gravity, as in chyluria. SYN: albinuria. [L. albidus, whitish, + G. ouron, urine]

albidus (al′bi-dus)
White, whitish. [L.]

Giuseppe, Italian physiologist, 1827–1911. See A. nodules, under nodule.

albinism (al′bi-nizm)
A group of inherited (usually autosomal recessive) disorders with deficiency or absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes, or eyes only, due to an abnormality in production of melanin. See ocular a., piebaldism. [albino + ism] Åland Island a. SYN: ocular a. 2. cutaneous a. [MIM*126070] SYN: piebaldism. Forsius-Eriksson a. SYN: ocular a. 2. Nettleshop-Falls a. SYN: ocular a. 1. ocular a. [MIM*300650 & *300700] absence of pigment chiefly in the iris, choroid, and retinal epithelium. ocular a. 1 [MIM*300500] type of ocular a. characterized by depigmentation of the fundus and prominent choroidal vessels, nystagmus, and titubation; vision is usually impaired; caused by mutation in the OA1 gene on chromosome Xp; X-linked inheritance. SYN: Nettleshop-Falls a.. ocular a. 2 [MIM*300600] type of ocular a. characterized by hypoplasia of the fovea, marked impairment of vision, nystagmus, myopia, astigmatism, and protanomalous color blindness, in addition to a. of the fundus. SYN: Åland Island a., Forsius-Eriksson a.. ocular a. 3 [MIM*203310] type of ocular a. characterized by impaired vision, translucent irides, congenital nystagmus, photophobia, albinotic fundi with hyperplasia of the fovea, and strabismus; caused by mutation in the pinkeye gene (P) on 6q; autosomal recessive inheritance. ocular ALBINISM with late-onset sensorineural deafness [MIM*300650] x-linked inheritance. ocular a. with sensorineural deafness [MIM*103470] Waardenburg syndrome, type II.. See Waardenburg syndrome. oculocutaneous a. a disorder characterized by deficiency of pigment in skin, hair, and eyes, photophobia, nystagmus, and decreased visual acuity; there are two groups: tyrosinase-negative [MIM*203100] in which there is absence of tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-positive [MIM*203200] in which normal tyrosinase cannot enter pigment cells; the compound heterozygote is normal so the two forms are not allelic. There are several forms of autosomal recessive inheritance: type IA is characterized by absence of tyrosinase with life-long complete absence of melanin, marked photophobia, and nystagmus, caused by mutation in the tyrosinase gene (TYR) on chromosome 11q. Type II has normal tyrosinase activity and is the most common; hair darkens and nevi and freckles develop; caused by mutation in the oculocutaneous abinism gene (OCA2) on 15q. Type III is characterized by absent tyrosinase but pigmentation of the iris in the first decade; caused by mutation in the tyrosine-related protein-1gene (TYRP1) on 9p. Type IV is found in Africans with normal tyrosinase and type V is associated with red hair. Type VI is synonymous to Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome [MIM*203300], with low to absent tyrosinase and hemorrhage due to platelet deficiency, caused by mutation in the Hermansky-Pudlak gene (HPS) on 10q. rufous a. SYN: xanthism.

albino (al-bi′no)
An individual with albinism. [Pg., little white one, fr. albo, white, fr. L. albus + -ino, dim. suffix]

albinotic (al-bi-not′ik)
Pertaining to albinism.

albinuria (al-bi-noo′re-a)
SYN: albiduria.

Albinus, Weiss
Bernhard S., German anatomist and surgeon, 1697–1770. See A. muscle.

albocinereous (al-bo-si-ne′re-us)
Relating to both the white and the gray matter of the brain or spinal cord. [L. albus, white, + cinereus, ashen, fr. cinis (ciner-), ashes]

Karl M.P., German anatomist, 1851–1894. See A. bone.

Fuller, U.S. physician, 1900–1969. See A. disease, A. syndrome, A. hereditary osteodystrophy, Forbes-A. syndrome, McCune-A. syndrome.

albuginea (al-bu-jin′e-a)
A white fibrous tissue layer, such as the tunica a.. See tunica a., tunica a. of corpus spongiosum, tunica a. of corpora cavernosa, tunica a. oculi, tunica a. of testis. [L. albugineus, fr. albugo, white spot]

albugineotomy (al-bu-jin-e-ot′o-me)
Incision into any tunica albuginea. [albuginea + G. tome, cutting]

albugineous (al-bu-jin′e-us) 1. Resembling boiled white of egg. 2. Relating to any tunica albuginea. [L. albugineus, fr. albugo, white spot]

albumen (al-bu′men) SYN: ovalbumin. [see albumin]

albumin (al-bu′min) A type of simple protein, varieties of which are widely distributed throughout the tissues and fluids of plants and animals; a. is soluble in pure water, precipitable from solution by strong acids, and coagulable by heat in acid or neutral solution. [L. albumen (-min-), the white of egg]
  • a. A the normal or common type of human serum a.
  • acetosoluble a. SYN: Patein a.
  • a. B inherited a. variants, under variant.
  • Bence Jones a. Bence Jones proteins, under protein.
  • blood a. SYN: serum a.
  • bovine serum a. (BSA) a source of a. commonly used in in vitro biologic studies.
  • dried human a. SYN: normal human serum a..
  • egg a. SYN: ovalbumin.
  • a. Ghent inherited a. variants, under variant.
  • iodinated 131I human serum a. a sterile, buffered, isotonic solution prepared to contain not less than 10 mg of radioiodinated normal human serum a. per ml, and adjusted to provide not more than 1 mCi of radioactivity per ml; used as a diagnostic aid in the measurement of blood volume and cardiac output.
  • iodinated 125I serum a. a sterile, buffered, isotonic solution prepared to contain not less than 10 mg of radioiodinated normal human serum a. per ml, and adjusted to provide not more than 1 mCi of radioactivity per ml; used as a diagnostic aid in determining blood volume and cardiac output. SYN: radioiodinated serum a..
  • macroaggregated a. (MAA) conglomerates of human serum a. in a suspension; usually refers to particles 10 to 50 μm in size; used as a tagged agent for lung scintigraphy.
  • a. Mexico inherited a. variants, under variant.
  • a. Naskapi inherited a. variants, under variant.
  • native a. a. existing in its natural state, the two principal forms being serum a. and egg a.; it is soluble in water and not precipitated by diluted acids.
  • normal human serum a. a sterile preparation of serum a. obtained by fractionating blood plasma proteins from healthy persons; used as a transfusion material and to treat edema due to hypoproteinemia. SYN: dried human a..
  • Patein a. a substance resembling serum a., but soluble in acetic acid. SYN: acetosoluble a..
  • plasma a. SYN: serum a..
  • radioiodinated serum a. (RISA) SYN: iodinated 125I serum a..
  • a. Reading inherited a. variants, under variant.
  • serum a. the principal protein in plasma, present in blood plasma and in serous fluids. Participates in fatty acid transport and helps regulate the osmotic pressure of blood. It will also bind hormones, bilirubin, and drugs. SYN: blood a., plasma a., seralbumin.
  • a. tannate an astringent powder obtained by the action of tannic acid on a.; contains about 50% tannic acid; used as an astringent disinfectant in diarrhea and as a dusting powder.


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