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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


albuminate (al-bu′min-at)
The product of the reaction between native albumin and dilute acids or dilute bases, thereby resulting in acid albuminates or alkali albuminates; both types are characterized by solubility in dilute acid or alkali, and relative insolubility in water, dilute solutions of salts, and alcohol.

albuminaturia (al-bu′mi-na-too′re-a)
The presence of an abnormally large quantity of albuminates in the urine when voided. [albuminate + G. ouron, urine]

albuminiferous (al-bu-min-if′er-us)
Producing albumin. [albumin + L. fero, to bear]

albuminiparous (al-bu-min-ip′ar-us)
Forming albumin. [albumin + L. pario, to bring forth]

albuminogenous (al-bu-min-oj′en-us)
Producing or forming albumin.

albuminoid (al-bu′min-oyd)
1. Resembling albumin. 2. Any protein. 3. A simple type of protein, insoluble in neutral solvents, present in horny and cartilaginous tissues and in the lens of the eye; e.g., keratin, elastin, collagen. SYN: glutinoid, scleroprotein.

albuminolysis (al-bu-min-ol′i-sis)
Proteolysis; often, specifically the proteolysis of albumins. [albumin + G. lysis, dissolution]

albuminoptysis (al-bu-mi-nop′ti-sis)
Albuminous expectoration. [albumin + G. ptysis, a spitting]

albuminorrhea (al-bu-min-o-re′a)
SYN: albuminuria. [albumin + G. rhoia, a flow]

albuminous (al-bu′min-us)
Relating to, containing, or consisting of albumin.

albuminuria (al-bu-mi-noo′re-a)
    Presence of protein in urine, chiefly albumin but also globulin; usually indicative of disease, but sometimes resulting from a temporary or transient dysfunction. SYN: albuminorrhea, proteinuria (2) . [albumin + G. ouron, urine]
  • adolescent a. functional a. occurring at about the time of puberty; it is usually cyclic or orthostatic a..
  • adventitious a. a. resulting from the presence of blood escaping somewhere in the urinary tract, of chyle, or of some other albuminous fluid, not caused by filtration of albumin from the blood through the kidneys. SYN: false a..
  • a. of athletes a form of functional a. following excessive muscular exertion.
  • Bamberger a. obsolete term for hematogenous a. that is sometimes observed during the later phases of advanced anemia.
  • benign a. a collective term for types that are not the result of pathologic changes in the kidneys. SYN: essential a..
  • cardiac a. a. caused by congestive heart failure.
  • colliquative a. an a. that is at first slight in degree, but unexpectedly becomes greatly increased during convalescence from highly febrile disease, e.g., typhoid fever.
  • cyclic a. a functional a. sometimes observed intermittently in cycles of 12–36 hours' duration, chiefly in younger persons; the degree of a. is usually slight. SYN: recurrent a..
  • dietetic a. the excretion of protein in the urine following the ingestion of certain foods.
  • essential a. SYN: benign a..
  • false a. SYN: adventitious a..
  • febrile a. a. associated with fever.
  • functional a. a collective term denoting types of benign a. that are associated with physical exertion or other conditions in which there are physiologic changes such as during pregnancy or adolescence. SYN: physiologic a. (2) .
  • intermittent a. functional a. occurring at intervals, such as cyclic a. or a. of athletes.
  • lordotic a. so-called on the theory that the a. results from pressure due to lordosis in the lumbar spine.
  • neuropathic a. a. associated with epilepsy or other convulsive disorders, trauma to the brain, and cerebral hemorrhage.
  • orthostatic a. the appearance of albumin in the urine when the patient is erect and its disappearance when recumbent. SYN: orthostatic proteinuria, postural proteinuria, postural a..
  • physiologic a. 1. presence of slight traces of protein in otherwise normal urine; 2. SYN: functional a..
  • postrenal a. a. caused by disease distal to the kidney.
  • postural a. SYN: orthostatic a..
  • prerenal a. a. caused by disease other than disease of the kidney or genitourinary tract.
  • recurrent a. SYN: cyclic a..
  • regulatory a. transitory a. occurring after unusual physical exertion.
  • transient a. a. of a temporary or short-lived nature.
albuminuric (al-bu-mi-noo′rik)
Relating to or characterized by albuminuria.

albuterol (al-bu′ter-ol)
A sympathomimetic bronchodilator with relatively selective effects on β2 receptors, by inhalation. SYN: salbutamol.

Alcaligenes (al-ka-lij′en-ez)
A genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, nonfermenting bacteria (family Achromobacteraceae) which are either motile and peritrichous or nonmotile. They are strictly aerobic; some strains are capable of anaerobic respiration in the presence of nitrate or nitrite; their metabolism is respiratory, never fermentative; they do not use carbohydrates. Found mostly in the intestinal canal, decaying materials, dairy products, water, and soil; they can be isolated from human respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and wounds in hospitalized patients with compromised immune systems; occasionally the cause of opportunistic infections, including nosocomial septicemia. Type species is A. faecalis. [alkali + G. -gen, producing]

alcapton (al-kap′ton)
SYN: homogentisic acid.

alcaptonuria, alkaptonuria (al-kap-to-noo′re-a) [MIM*203500]
Excretion of homogentisic acid (alkapton) in the urine due to congenital lack of the enzyme homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, which mediates an essential step in the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine; urine turns dark if allowed to stand or is alkalinized (a result of formation of polymerization products of homogentisic acid); frequently occurs throughout relatively long periods or may recur and subside at irregular intervals; arthritis and ochronosis are late complications; autosomal recessive inheritance; caused by mutation in the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene (HGD) on chromosome 3q. [alkapton + G. ouron, urine]

alcaptonuric, alkaptonuric (al-kap-to-noo-rik;)
1. Relating to alcaptonuria. 2. A person with alcaptonuria.

Alcian blue (al′se-an) [C.I. 74240]
A complex phthalocyanin dye used as a stain to distinguish sulfomucins from sialomucins and uronic acid mucins, to demonstrate sulfated polysaccharides, and to detect glycoproteins in electrophoresis; often used in combination with PAS or aldehyde fuchsin.

alclofenac (al-klo′fe-nak)
An anti-inflammatory agent.

alclometasone (al-klo-met′a-son)
A potent corticosteroid used as the 17,21-dipropionate in topical therapy for psoriasis and other deep-seated dermatoses.

Benjamin, Irish anatomist, 1801–?. See A. canal.

alcogel (al′ko-jel)
A hydrogel, with alcohol instead of water as the dispersion medium.

alcohol (al′ko-hol)
1. One of a series of organic chemical compounds in which a hydrogen (H) attached to carbon is replaced by a hydroxyl (OH); alcohols react with acids to form esters and with alkali metals to form alcoholates. For individual alcohols not listed here, see specific name. 2. CH3CH2OH;made from sugar, starch, and other carbohydrates by fermentation with yeast, and synthetically from ethylene or acetylene. It has been used in beverages and as a solvent, vehicle, and preservative; medicinally, it is used externally as a rubefacient, coolant, and disinfectant, and has been used internally as an analgesic, stomachic, sedative, and antipyretic. SYN: ethanol, ethyl a., grain a., rectified spirit, wine spirit. 3. The azeotropic mixture of CH3CH2OH and water (92.3% by weight of ethanol at 15.56°C). [Ar. al, the, + kohl, fine antimonial powder, the term being applied first to a fine powder, then to anything impalpable (spirit)] absolute a. 1. 100% a., water having been removed; SYN: anhydrous a.. 2. a. with a minimum admixture of water, at most 1%. SYN: dehydrated a.. acid a. ethyl a. (70%) containing 1% hydrochloric acid. anhydrous a. SYN: absolute a. (1) . bile a. one of a group of polyhydroxylated alcohols derived from cholestane. dehydrated a. SYN: absolute a. (2) . denatured a. ethyl a. rendered unfit for consumption as a beverage by the addition of one or several chemicals for commercial purposes ( e.g., methanol, aldehol, sucrose octa-acetate). SYN: industrial methylated spirit, methylated spirit. dihydric a. a. containing two OH groups in its molecule; e.g., ethylene glycol. dilute a. an a. in water mixtures of various concentrations, e.g., 90, 80, 70, 60, 50, 45, 25, and 20% v/v of C2H5OH. fatty a. a long chain a., analogous to the fatty acids, of which the fatty a. may be viewed as a reduction product; e.g., octadecanol from stearic acid. It is often found esterified in waxes. SYN: wax a.. grain a. SYN: a. (2) . methyl a. CH3OH;a flammable, toxic, mobile liquid, used as an industrial solvent, antifreeze, and in chemical manufacture; ingestion may result in severe acidosis, visual impairment, and other effects on the central nervous system. SYN: carbinol, methanol, pyroligneous a., pyroligneous spirit, pyroxylic spirit, wood a., wood naphtha, wood spirit. monohydric a. an a. containing one OH group. multiple a. an a. containing more than one OH group. polyoxyethylene alcohols used as emulsifying and wetting agents, antistats, solubilizers, defoamers, and other industrial applications. Laureth 9 as spermaticide; pharmaceutic aid (surfactant). primary a. an a. characterized by the univalent radical, &cbond;CH2OH. pyroligneous a. SYN: methyl a.. rubbing a. an alcoholic mixture intended for external use; it usually contains 70% by volume of absolute a. or isopropyl a.; the remainder consists of water, denaturants (with and without coal tar colors), and perfume oils; used as a rubefacient for muscle and joint aches and pains. secondary a. an a. characterized by the bivalent atom group, sugar a. sugar a.. tertiary a. an a. characterized by the trivalent atom group, trihydric a. an a. containing three OH groups; e.g., glycerol. unsaturated alcohols those alcohols whose carbon chains contain one or more double or triple bonds. wax a. SYN: fatty a..

alcohol acids
A group of compounds that contain both the carboxyl and hydroxy radicals; e.g., glycolic acid.

alcoholate (al-ko-hol′at)
1. A tincture or other preparation containing alcohol. 2. A chemical compound in which the hydrogen in the OH group of an alcohol is replaced by an alkali metal; e.g., sodium methylate, CH3ONa.

alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)
An oxidoreductase that reversibly converts an alcohol to an aldehyde (or ketone) with NAD+ as the H acceptor. For example, ethanol + NAD+ ⇆ acetaldehyde + NADH. SEE ALSO: a. (acceptor), a. (NADP+).

alcohol dehydrogenase (acceptor)
An oxidoreductase that reversibly converts primary alcohols to aldehydes with an H acceptor other than NADP+.

alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+)
An oxidoreductase reversibly converting alcohols to aldehydes (or ketones) with NAD(P)+ as H acceptor. SYN: aldehyde reductase.

alcoholic (al-ko-hol′ik)
1. Relating to, containing, or produced by alcohol. 2. One who suffers from alcoholism. 3. One who abuses or is dependent upon alcohol.

alcoholism (al′ko-hol-izm)
Chronic alcohol abuse, dependence, or addiction; chronic excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages resulting in impairment of health and/or social or occupational functioning, and increasing adaptation to the effects of alcohol requiring increasing doses to achieve and sustain a desired effect; specific signs and symptoms of withdrawal usually are shown upon sudden cessation of such drinking. SYN: alcohol addiction. acute a. a temporary deterioration in mental function, accompanied by muscular incoordination and paresis, induced by the rapid ingestion of alcoholic beverages. SYN: intoxication (2) . chronic a. a pathologic condition, affecting chiefly the nervous and gastroenteric systems, associated with impairment in social and occupational functioning, caused by the habitual use of alcoholic beverages in toxic amounts.

alcoholization (al′ko-hol-i-za′shun)
Permeation or saturation with alcohol.

alcoholophobia (al′ko-hol-o-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of alcohol, or of becoming an alcoholic. [alcohol + G. phobos, fear]

alcoholysis (al-ko-hol′i-sis)
Splitting of a chemical bond with the addition of the elements of alcohol at the point of splitting. [alcohol + G. lysis, dissolution]

alcuronium chloride (al-kur-o′ne-um)
A skeletal muscle relaxant active as a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, resembling curare.

Abbreviation for adrenoleukodystrophy.

aldadiene (al-da-di′en)
A metabolite of spironolactone that contains double bonds between C-4 and C-5 and between C-6 and C-7; formed upon removal of the 7α-acetylthiol side chain from spironolactone and as potent a diuretic as the parent compound.

aldaric acid (al′dar-ik)
One of a group of sugar acids characterized by the formula HOOC&cbond;(CHOH)n&cbond;COOH; e.g., saccharic acid.

aldehol (al′de-hol)
An oxidation product of kerosene; used for denaturing ethyl alcohol.

aldehyde (al′de-hid)
A compound containing the radical &cbond;CH&dbond;O, reducible to an alcohol (CH2OH), oxidizable to a carboxylic acid (COOH); e.g., acetaldehyde. activated glycol a. 2-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)thiamin pyrophosphate;an intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism and in transketolization. active a. any a. derivative of thiamin pyrophosphate. angular a. the a. group attached to carbon 13 (between rings C and D) of the steroid nucleus in aldosterone. a. reductase SYN: alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+).

aldehyde dehydrogenase (acylating)
An oxidoreductase converting an aldehyde and CoA to acyl-CoA with NAD+ as H acceptor.

aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+)
An oxidoreductase reversibly converting aldehydes to acids with NADP+ as H acceptor.

aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(P)+)
An oxidoreductase reversibly converting aldehydes to acids with NAD+ or NADP+ as H acceptor.

aldehyde-lyases [EC 4.1.2.x]
Enzymes catalyzing the reversal of an aldol condensation.

Albert von. See A. anomaly, A. bodies, under body.

aldimine (al′de-men)
SYN: Schiff base.

alditol (al′di-tol)
The polyalcohol derived by reduction of an aldose; e.g., sorbitol. SEE ALSO: aldose reductase.

aldobiuronic acid (al′do-bi-u-ron′ik)
Condensation products of an aldose and a uronic acid; such groupings occur among the components of various mucopolysaccharides, notably hyaluronic acid.

aldocortin (al′do-kor′tin)
SYN: aldosterone.

aldohexose (al-do-heks′os)
A 6-carbon sugar characterized by the (potential) presence of an aldehyde group in the molecule; e.g., glucose, galactose.

aldoketomutase (al′do-ke-to-mu′tas)
SYN: lactoylglutathione lyase.

aldol (al′dol)
See a. condensation.

aldolase (al′do-las)
1. Generic term for aldehyde-lyase. 2. Name sometimes applied to fructose-bisphosphate a..

aldonic acids (al-don′ik)
Monosaccharide derivatives in which the aldehyde group has been oxidized to a carboxyl group. They may form lactones ( e.g., galactonic acid). SYN: glyconic acids.

aldopentose (al-do-pen′tos)
A monosaccharide with five carbon atoms, of which one is a (potential) aldehyde group; e.g., ribose.

aldose (al′dos)
A monosaccharide potentially containing the characteristic group of the aldehydes, &cbond;CHO; a polyhydroxyaldehyde. a. mutarotase SYN: a. 1-epimerase. a. reductase polyol dehydrogenase (NADP+);an oxidoreductase that reversibly converts aldoses to alditols ( e.g., glucose to sorbitol) with NADPH as hydrogen donor. An important step in the metabolism of sorbitol and in the formation of diabetic cataracts. SEE ALSO: d-sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

aldose 1-epimerase
An enzyme catalyzing the reversible interconversion of α- and β-aldoses ( e.g., α- and β-d-glucose); also acts on l-arabinose, d-xylose, d-galactose, maltose, and lactose. SYN: aldose mutarotase, mutarotase.

aldoside (al′do-sid)
A glucoside in which the sugar moiety is an aldose.

aldosterone (al-dos′ter-on)
A mineralocorticoid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex; its major action is to facilitate potassium exchange for sodium in the distal renal tubule, causing sodium reabsorption and potassium and hydrogen loss; the principal mineralocorticoid. It exists in equilibrium with the aldehyde form. SYN: aldocortin.

aldosteronism (al-dos′ter-on-izm)
A disorder caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone. SYN: hyperaldosteronism. idiopathic a. SYN: primary a.. primary a. an adrenocortical disorder caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone and characterized by headaches, nocturia, polyuria, fatigue, hypertension, potassium depletion, hypokalemic alkalosis, hypervolemia, and decreased plasma renin activity; may be associated with small benign adrenocortical adenomas. SYN: Conn syndrome, idiopathic a.. secondary a. a. resulting not from a defect intrinsic to the adrenal cortex but from a stimulation of hormonal secretion caused by extra-adrenal disorders; associated with increased plasma renin activity and occurs in heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis, and hypoproteinemia.

aldosteronogenesis (al-dos′ter-on-o-jen′e-sis)
Formation of the hormone, aldosterone. [aldosterone + G. genesis, production]

aldotetrose (al-do-tet′ros)
A four-carbon aldose; e.g., threose, erythrose.

aldotriose (al-do-tri′os)
A three-carbon aldose; e.g., d- or l-glyceraldehyde.

aldoxime (al-doks′em)
A compound derived by the reaction of an aldose with hydroxylamine, thus containing the a. group –HC&dbond;NOH.


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