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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

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ampullar (am-pul′ar)
Relating in any sense to an ampulla.

ampullitis (am-pul-li′tis)
Inflammation of any ampulla, especially of the dilated extremity of the vas deferens or of the ampulla of Vater. [ampulla + G. itis, inflammation]

ampullula (am-pul′oo-la)
A circumscribed dilation of any minute lymphatic or blood vessel or duct. [Mod. L. dim. of L. ampulla]

amputation (am-pu-ta′shun)
1. The cutting off of a limb or part of a limb, the breast, or other projecting part. 2. In dentistry, removal of the root of a tooth, or of the pulp, or of a nerve root or ganglion; a modifying adjective is therefore used (pulp a.; root a.). [L. amputatio, fr. am-puto, pp. -atus, to cut around, prune] A-E a. acronym for above-the-elbow a.. A-K a. acronym for above-the-knee a.. Alanson a. a circular a., the stump shaped like a cone. amnionic a. SYN: congenital a.. aperiosteal a. a. with removal of periosteum from bone at the site of a.. B-E a. acronym for below-the-elbow a.. Bier a. osteoplastic a. of tibia and fibula. B-K a. acronym for below-the-knee a.. bloodless a. a. in which, by means of a tourniquet, the escape of blood from the cut surfaces is minimal. SYN: dry a.. Callander a. tenontoplastic a. through the femur at the knee. SYN: knee disarticulation a.. Carden a. transcondylar a. of the leg, the femur is sawed through the condyles just above the articular surface. central a. a. in which the flaps are so united that the cicatrix runs across the end of the stump. cervical a. a. of the uterine cervix. Chopart a. a. through the midtarsal joint; i.e., between the tarsal navicular and the calcaneocuboid joints. cinematic a. SYN: cineplastic a.. cineplastic a. a method of a. of an extremity whereby the muscles and tendons are so arranged in the stump that they are able to execute independent movements and to communicate motion to a specially constructed prosthetic apparatus. SYN: cinematic a., cineplastics, kineplastic a.. circular a. a. performed by a circular incision through the skin, the muscles being similarly divided higher up, and the bone higher still. SYN: guillotine a., linear a.. congenital a. [MIM*217100] a. produced in utero; attributed to the pressure of constricting bands (amniotic). SEE ALSO: a. (1) . SYN: amnionic a., intrauterine a., spontaneous a. (1) . a. in continuity a. through a segment of a limb, not at a joint. double flap a. a. in which a flap is cut from the soft parts on either side of the limb. dry a. SYN: bloodless a.. Dupuytren a. a. of the arm at the shoulder joint. eccentric a. a. with the scar of the stump off-center. SYN: excentric a.. elliptical a. circular a. in which the sweep of the knife is not exactly vertical to the axis of the limb, the outline of the cut surface being therefore elliptical. excentric a. SYN: eccentric a.. Farabeuf a. 1. a. of the leg, the flap being large and on the outer side; 2. a. of the foot; disarticulation of the foot through the subtalar joint and the talo-navicular joint. flap a. an a. in which flaps of the muscular and cutaneous tissues are made to cover the end of the bone. SYN: flap operation (1) . flapless a. an a. without any tissue to cover the stump forequarter a. a. of the arm with removal of the scapula and a portion of the clavicle. SYN: interscapulothoracic a.. Gritti-Stokes a. supracondylar a. of the femur, the patella being preserved and applied to the end of the bone, its articular cartilage being removed so as to obtain union. SYN: Gritti operation. guillotine a. SYN: circular a.. Guyon a. a. above the malleoli, a modification of Syme a.. Hancock a. a. of the foot through the astragalus. Hey a. a. of the foot in front of the tarsometatarsal joint. hindquarter a. SYN: hemipelvectomy. immediate a. a. necessitated by irreparable injury to the limb, performed within 12 hours after the injury. intermediate a. an a. formerly performed during the period between trauma or incipient gangrene and suppuration. SYN: primary a.. interscapulothoracic a. SYN: forequarter a.. intrauterine a. SYN: congenital a.. Jaboulay a. SYN: hemipelvectomy. kineplastic a. SYN: cineplastic a.. Kirk a. a. at the lower end of the femur, using the tendon of the quadriceps extensor to cover the end of the bone. knee disarticulation a. SYN: Callander a.. Krukenberg a. a cineplastic a. at the carpus with the distal end of the forearm used to create a forklike stump between radius and ulna; especially valuable in the blind because the stump has proprioception. Le Fort a. a modification of Pirogoff a.; the calcaneus is sawed through horizontally instead of vertically so that the patient steps on the same part of the heel as before. linear a. SYN: circular a.. Lisfranc a. a. of the foot at the tarsometatarsal joint, the sole being preserved to make the flap. SYN: Lisfranc operation. Mackenzie a. a modification of Syme a. at the ankle joint, the flap being taken from the inner side. major a. a. of the lower or upper extremity above the ankle or the wrist, respectively. Malgaigne a. SYN: subastragalar a.. Mikulicz-Vladimiroff a. an osteoplastic resection of the foot in which the talus and calcaneus are excised, the anterior row of tarsal bones being united to the lower end of the tibia, the articular surfaces of both being removed; the lower end of the stump is therefore the anterior portion of the foot, the patient walking thereafter on tiptoe. SYN: Vladimiroff-Mikulicz a.. minor a. a. of a hand or foot or any parts of either. multiple a. a. of two or more limbs or parts of limbs performed at the same operation. oblique a. a. in which the line of section through an extremity is at other than a right angle; this yields an oval appearance to the cut surface (hence sometimes, though rarely, referred to as an oval a.). osteoplastic a. an a., e.g., through the tarsus, in which the cut surface of another bone is brought in apposition with the one primarily divided so that the two unite, thus giving a better stump. pathologic a. a. necessitated by cancer or other disease of the limb and not by an injury. Pirogoff a. a. of the foot; the lower articular surfaces of the tibia and fibula are sawed through and the ends covered with a portion of the os calcis which has also been sawed through from above posteriorly downward and forward. primary a. SYN: intermediate a.. pulp a. SYN: pulpotomy. quadruple a. a. of both arms and both legs. racket a. a circular or slightly oval a., in which a long incision is made in the axis of the limb. rectangular a. a. in which the flaps are fashioned in the shape of a rectangle. root a. surgical removal of one or more roots of a multirooted tooth, the remaining root canal(s) usually being treated endodontically. SYN: radectomy, radiectomy, radisectomy. secondary a. a. performed some time after a previous a. that has failed to heal satisfactorily. spontaneous a. 1. SYN: congenital a.. 2. a. as the result of a pathologic process rather than external trauma. Stokes a. a modification of the Gritti-Stokes a. in that the line of section of the femur is slightly higher. subastragalar a. a. of the foot in which only the astragalus is retained. SYN: Malgaigne a.. subperiosteal a. a. in which the periosteum is stripped back from the bone and replaced afterward, forming a periosteal flap over the cut end. Syme a. a. of the foot at the ankle joint, the malleoli being sawed off, and a flap being made with the soft parts of the heel. SYN: Syme operation. tarsotibial a. a. through the ankle joint. transverse a. a. in which the line of section through the extremity is at right angles to the long axis. traumatic a. a. resulting from accidental or nonsurgical injury; may be complete or incomplete. Tripier a. a modification of Chopart a., in that a part of the calcaneus is also removed. Vladimiroff-Mikulicz a. SYN: Mikulicz-Vladimiroff a..

amputee (am′pu-te)
A person with an amputated limb or part of limb.

amrinone lactate (am′ri-non)
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor with inotropic and vasodilator activity, used in management of congestive heart failure.

Amsler
Marc, Swiss ophthalmologist, 1891–1968. See A. chart, A. grid, A. test.

amu
Abbreviation for atomic mass unit.

amuck (a-muk′)
SYN: amok (2) .

amusia (a-mu′ze-a)
A form of aphasia characterized by an inability to produce or recognize music. [G. a- priv. + mousa, music] instrumental a. loss of ability to play a musical instrument. motor a. inability to produce music. sensory a. inability to interpret or appreciate musical sounds. vocal a. the inability to sing, although speech is intact.

Amussat
Jean Z., French surgeon, 1796–1856. See A. valve, A. valvula.

amychophobia (am′i-ko-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of being scratched. [G. amyche, a scratch, + phobos, fear]

Amycolatopsis (am-e-ko-la-top′sis)
A genus of Gram-positive, filamentous bacteria, defined as a separate genus in 1986, that tends to break up into square fragments; recovered from soil and vegetable matter; A. is rare human pathogen that has been recovered from various clinical specimens, including spinal fluid. The type species is A. orientalis. A. orientalis lurida a bacterial species that produces ristocetin.

amyelencephalia (a-mi′el-en-se-fa′le-a)
Congenital absence of both brain and spinal cord. [G. a- priv. + myelos, marrow, + enkephalos, brain]

amyelencephalic, amyelencephalous (a-mi′el-en-se-fal′ik, -sef′a-lus)
Denoting or characteristic of amyelencephalia.

amyelia (a-mi-e′le-a)
Congenital absence of the spinal cord, found in association with anencephaly. [G. a- priv. + myelos, marrow]

amyelic (a-mi-e′lik)
SYN: amyelous.

amyelinated (a-mi′e-li-na′ted)
SYN: unmyelinated.

amyelination (a-mi′e-li-na′shun)
Failure of formation of myelin sheath of a nerve.

amyelinic (a-mi′e-lin′ik)
SYN: unmyelinated.

amyeloic, amyelonic (a-mi-e-lo′ik, a-mi-e-lon′ik)
1. SYN: amyelous. 2. In hematology, sometimes used to indicate the absence of bone marrow or the lack of functional participation of bone marrow in hemopoiesis. [G. a- priv. + myelos, marrow]

amyelous (a-mi′e-lus)
Without spinal cord. SYN: amyelic, amyeloic (1) , amyelonic.

amygdala, gen. and pl. amygdalae (a-mig′da-la, -le)
1. Term for the lymphatic tonsils (pharyngeal, palatine, lingual, laryngeal, and tubal). 2. General term describing a nucleus in the temporal lobe, amygdaloid body. [L. fr. G. amygdale, almond; in Mediev. & Mod. L., a tonsil] a. cerebelli obsolete term for cerebellar tonsil.

amygdalase (a-mig′da-las)
SYN: β-d-glucosidase.

amygdalin (a-mig′da-lin)
A cyanogenic glucoside present in almonds and seeds of other plants of the family Rosaceae; the principal component of laetrile. Emulsin splits a. into benzaldehyde, d-glucose, and hydrocyanic acid. SYN: amygdaloside. [G. amygdala, almond, + -in]

amygdaline (a-mig′da-lin)
1. Relating to an almond. 2. [TA] Relating to a tonsil, or to the brain structure called amygdala or amygdaloid complex [TA]. 3. SYN: tonsillar.

amygdaloid (a-mig′da-loyd)
Resembling an almond or a tonsil. [amygdala + G. eidos, appearance]

amygdalose (a-mig′dal-os)
SYN: gentiobiose.

amygdaloside (a-mig′da-lo-sid)
SYN: amygdalin.

amyl (a′mil)
The radical formed from a pentane, C5H12, by removal of one H. Several isomeric forms exist, the more important being CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2&cbond; (a. or pentyl); (CH3)2CHCH2CH2&cbond; (isoamyl or isopentyl); CH3CH2CH2CH(CH)3&cbond; and (CH3CH2)2CH&cbond; (secondary a. or pentyl); and CH3CH2C(CH3)2&cbond; (tertiary a. or pentyl). SYN: pentyl (1) . a. alcohol used as a solvent for varnishes and oils; highly toxic, with irritating vapors. SEE ALSO: fusel oil. a. hydrate SYN: amylene hydrate. a. nitrite a vasodilator used in angina pectoris and cyanide poisoning. tertiary a. alcohol SYN: amylene hydrate. a. valerate used as a sedative; formerly used in the treatment of gallstones because of its solvent action on cholesterol. SYN: apple oil.

amyl-
1. See amylo-. 2. Pentyl- See amyl.

amylaceous (am′i-la′shus)
Starchy.

amylase (am′il-as)
One of a group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related 1,4-α-glucans.

α-amylase
A glucanohydrolase yielding α-glucose and maltose in a random manner from 1,4-α-glucans. An amylase that has been used clinically as a digestive aid. SYN: glycogenase, ptyalin, Taka-diastase.

amylasuria (am-i-la-soo′re-a)
The excretion of amylase (sometimes termed diastase) in the urine, especially increased amounts likely in acute pancreatitis. SYN: diastasuria.

amylemia (am-i-le′me-a)
The hypothetical presence of starch in the circulating blood. [amylo- + G. haima, blood]

amylene (am′i-len)
A flammable liquid hydrocarbon formed by the decomposition of amyl alcohol; has anesthetic properties but undesirable side actions. SYN: trimethylethylene. a. chloral a hypnotic. a. hydrate an obsolete hypnotic used as a solvent for tribromoethanol. SYN: amyl hydrate, tertiary amyl alcohol.

amylin (am′i-lin)
The cellulose of starch; the insoluble envelope of starch grains.

amylo-
Starch; of polysaccharide nature or origin. [G. amylon, unmilled; starch, fr. a- + myle, a mill]

amylodextrin (am-i-lo-deks′trin)
End product of hydrolysis of amylopectin by β-amylase; further hydrolysis requires amylo-1,6-glucosidase, which attacks the branch points. Identified by its color reaction with iodine (a. turns blue). Cf.:achroodextrin, erythrodextrin.

amylogenesis (am-i-lo-jen′e-sis)
Biosynthesis of starch. [amylo- + G. genesis, production]

amylogenic (am-i-lo-jen′ik)
Relating to amylogenesis.

amylo-1,4:1,6-glucantransferase
SYN: 1,4-α-d-glucan-branching enzyme.

amyloglucosidase (am-i-lo-gloo′ko-si-das)
SYN: exo-1,4-α-d-glucosidase.

amylo-1,6-glucosidase
An enzyme hydrolyzing α-d-1,6 links (branch points) in chains of 1,4-linked α-d-glucose residues, hence the term debranching enzyme or factor; deficiency causes type III glycogenosis. SYN: dextrin 6-α-d-glucosidase.

amyloid (am′i-loyd)
1. Any of a group of chemically diverse proteins that appears microscopically homogeneous, but is composed of linear nonbranching aggregated fibrils arranged in sheets when seen under the electron microscope; it stains dark brown with iodine, produces a characteristic green birefringence in polarized light after staining with Congo red, is metachromatic with either methyl violet (pink-red) or crystal violet (purple-red), and fluoresces yellow after thioflavine T staining; a. occurs characteristically as pathologic extracellular deposits (amyloidosis), especially in association with reticuloendothelial tissue; the chemical nature of the proteinaceous fibrils is dependent upon the underlying disease process. 2. Resembling or containing starch. [amylo- + G. eidos, resemblance]

amyloidoma (am′il-oyd-o′ma)
A tumor within which amyloid is produced. [amyloid + G. -oma,tumor]

amyloidosis (am′i-loy-do′sis)
1. A disease characterized by extracellular accumulation of amyloid in various organs and tissues of the body; may be local or generalized; may be primary or secondary. 2. The process of deposition of amyloid protein. [amyloid + G. -osis, condition] a. of aging characterized by deposition of Congo-red staining material, derived from a variety of proteins, especially in nervous tissue, myocardium and pancreas. Associated with Alzheimer syndrome; intractable congestive heart failure may result. chronic a. a. of long duration. a. cutis SYN: lichenoid a.. familial a. SYN: familial amyloid neuropathy. focal a. SYN: nodular a.. hereditary a. SYN: familial amyloid neuropathy. lichen a. SYN: lichenoid a.. lichenoid a. (lik′en-oyd) localized cutaneous a. with pruritic brownish-red papules, often scaling, most commonly on the lower legs in middle age, due to amyloid infiltration of the papillary dermis. SYN: a. cutis, lichen a.. [G. leichen, lichen, a lichen-like eruption + eidos, resemblance] light chain-related a. the most common form of primary a. in which the fibrillar amyloid deposits are derived from the amino terminal variable region of the light chains of immunoglobulin; seen in B-lymphocyte and plasma-cell dyscrasias (especially multiple myeloma) and other forms of gammopathy. macular a. a localized form of a. cutis characterized by pruritic symmetrical brown reticulated macules, especially on the upper back; microscopically, amyloid is deposited as small subepidermal globules. a. of multiple myeloma foci of a. in mesenchymal tissues of some persons with multiple myeloma; no direct relation between amyloid and Bence Jones protein is conclusively known. nodular a. a localized form of a. in which amyloid occurs as hard masses or nodules beneath the skin or mucous membranes, e.g., in the larynx, often with local plasma cell infiltration; may be associated with plasma cell dyscrasia or systemic a.. SYN: amyloid tumor, focal a.. primary a. several forms of a. are known, following autosomal dominant [MIM *104750, *105120, *105150, *105200, *105210, *105250] recessive [MIM 204850 and *204900], and X-linked [MIM 301220] inheritance and not associated with other recognized disease. Tends to involve diffusely the arterial walls and mesenchymal tissues in the tongue, lungs, intestinal tract, skin, skeletal muscle, and myocardium, interfering with vital functions; the amyloid frequently does not manifest the usual affinity for Congo red, and sometimes provokes a foreign-body type of inflammatory reaction in the adjacent tissue. renal a. renal deposits of amyloid, especially in glomerular capillary walls, which may cause albuminuria and the nephrotic syndrome. SYN: amyloid nephrosis (1) . secondary a. a. occurring in association with another chronic inflammatory disease; organs chiefly involved are the liver, spleen, and kidneys, and the adrenal glands less frequently. senile a. a common form of a. in very old people, usually mild and limited to the heart or seminal vesicles. SEE ALSO: a. of aging.

amylolysis (am-i-lol′i-sis)
Hydrolysis of starch into soluble products. [amylo- + G. lysis, dissolution]

amylolytic (am-i-lo-lit′ik)
Relating to amylolysis.

amylomaltase (am-i-lo-mal′tas)
SYN: 4-α-d-glucanotransferase.

amylopectin (am-i-lo-pek′tin)
A branched-chain polyglucose (glucan) in starch containing both 1,4 and 1,6 linkages. Cf.:amylose.

amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase
Former name for α-dextrin endo-1,6-α-glucosidase.

amylopectin 1,6-glucosidase
Former name for an enzyme now known to be at least two enzymes, α-dextrin endo-glucanohydrolase and isoamylase.

amylopectinosis (am′i-lo-pek-tin-o′sis)
See type 4 glycogenosis. [amylopectin + G. -osis, condition]

amylophagia (am′i-lo-fa′je-a)
A morbid craving for starch. SYN: starch-eating. [amylo- + G. phago, to eat]

amyloplast (am′i-lo-plast)
A granule in the protoplasm of a plant cell that is the center of a starch-forming process. SYN: amylogenic body. [amylo- + G. plastos, formed]




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