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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


androstanedione (an-dro-stan′di-on)
5α-Androstane-3,17-dione;a steroid metabolite, of which the 5β isomer is also known. It is a precursor of both testosterone and estrone. It is secreted by the adrenals.

androstene (an′dro-sten)
Androstane with an unsaturated ( i.e., &cbond;CH&dbond;CH&cbond;) bond in the molecule.

androstenediol (an-dro-sten′di-ol)
5-Androsten-3β,17β-diol;a steroid metabolite differing from androstanediol by possessing a double bond between C-5 and C-6.

androstenedione (an-dro-sten′di-on)
4-Androstene-3,17-dione;androstanedione with a double bond between C-4 and C-5; an androgenic steroid of weaker biological potency than testosterone; secreted by the testis, ovary, and adrenal cortex.

A substance that is a postulated pheromone; it is found in male sweat where it is oxidized to androstenone. In tests, women like the dry musky smell of a., but find androstenone to have a chemical, urinelike odor that is unpleasant; however, ovulating women react neutrally.

androstenolone (an-dro-sten-o-lon)
SYN: dehydro-3-epiandrosterone.

androsterone (an-dros′ter-on)
cis-A.; 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one;a steroid metabolite, found in male urine, having weak androgenic potency. Formed in testes from progesterone.

anecdotal (a-nek′do-tal)
Report of clinical experiences based in individual cases, rather than an organized investigation with appropriate controls, etc. [G. anekdota, unpublished items, fr. an- priv + ekidomi, to publish]

anechoic (an-e-ko′ik)
The property of being echo-free or appearing without echoes on a sonographic image; a cyst filled with clear fluid appears a.. See transonic. SYN: echo-free. [G. an- priv. + echo + ic]

Dominique, French surgeon, 1679–1725. See A. method.

anelectrotonic (an-e-lek-tro-ton′ik)
Relating to anelectrotonus.

anelectrotonus (an′e-lek-trot′o-nus)
Changes in excitability and conductivity in a nerve or muscle cell in the neighborhood of the anode during the passage of a constant electric current. [anelectrode + G. tonos, tension]

anemia (a-ne′me-a)
Any condition in which the number of red blood cells per mm3, the amount of hemoglobin in 100 ml of blood, and/or the volume of packed red blood cells per 100 ml of blood are less than normal; clinically, generally pertaining to the concentration of oxygen-transporting material in a designated volume of blood, in contrast to total quantities as in oligocythemia, oligochromemia, and oligemia. A. is frequently manifested by pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, shortness of breath, palpitations of the heart, soft systolic murmurs, lethargy, and fatigability. [G. anaimia, fr. an- priv. + haima, blood] achlorhydric a. a form of chronic hypochromic microcytic a. associated with achlorhydria or achylia gastrica; observed most frequently in women in the third to fifth decades. SYN: Faber a., Faber syndrome. achrestic a. a form of chronic progressive macrocytic a. that can be fatal in which the changes in bone marrow and circulating blood closely resemble those of pernicious a., but in which there is only transient or no response to therapy with vitamin B12; glossitis, gastrointestinal disturbances, central nervous system disease, and pyrexia are not observed, and there is only little bleeding or hemolysis. [G. a- priv. + chresis, a using] acquired hemolytic a. nonhereditary acute or chronic a. associated with or caused by extracorpuscular factors, e.g., certain infectious agents, chemicals (including autoantibodies or therapeutic agents), burns, toxic materials from higher plant and animal forms (including snake venoms). Addison a. SYN: pernicious a.. addisonian a. SYN: pernicious a.. angiopathic hemolytic a. a rare postpartum a. of unknown etiology with uremia and nephrosclerosis; may be a rare complication following use of contraceptive steroids. aplastic a. a. characterized by a greatly decreased formation of erythrocytes and hemoglobin, usually associated with pronounced granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia, as a result of hypoplastic or aplastic bone marrow. SYN: a. gravis, Ehrlich a.. asiderotic a. SYN: chlorosis. autoimmune hemolytic a. 1. cold-antibody type, caused by hemagglutinating antibody (usually IgM class) maximally active at 4°C; and resulting from severe hemolysis in cold hemagglutinin disease; 2. warm-antibody type (which is the most common), acquired hemolytic a. due to serum autoantibodies (usually IgG class), maximally active at 37°C, that react with the patient's red blood cells; it varies in severity, occurs in all age groups of both sexes, and may be idiopathic or secondary to neoplastic, autoimmune, or other disease. Bartonella a. a. occurring in infection with Bartonella bacilliformis and characterized by an acute febrile a. of rapid onset and high mortality. Occurs in central Andean mountains of northern South America; vector is phlebotomine sandfly, Lutzomyia. Belgian Congo a. SYN: kasai. Biermer a. SYN: pernicious a.. brickmaker's a. a. associated with hookworm disease. chlorotic a. SYN: chlorosis. congenital a. SYN: erythroblastosis fetalis. congenital aplastic a. SYN: Fanconi a.. congenital dyserythropoietic a. a group of anemias characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis, bone marrow erythroblastic multinuclearity, and secondary hemochromatosis. Three types are described: type I [MIM224120], macrocytic, megaloblastic a. with erythroblastic internuclear chromatin bridges; type II, [MIM*224100], normoblastic a. with multinucleated erythroblasts; type III, macrocytic a. with erythroblastic multinuclearity and gigantoblasts [MIM*105600]. Both types I and II are autosomal recessively inherited, type III is of autosomal dominant inheritance. congenital hemolytic a. accelerated destruction of red blood cells due to an inherited defect, such as in the membrane in hereditary spherocytosis. congenital hypoplastic a. [MIM*205900] a macrocytic a. resulting from congenital hypoplasia of the bone marrow, which is grossly deficient in erythroid precursors while other elements are normal; a. is progressive and severe, but leukocyte and platelet counts are normal or slightly reduced; survival of transfused erythrocytes is normal; minor congenital anomalies are found in some patients. Both autosomal dominant and recessive forms have been described, caused by mutation in the gene encoding ribosomal protein S19 (RBS19) on chromosomal 19q. SYN: congenital nonregenerative a., Diamond-Blackfan a., Diamond-Blackfan syndrome, erythrogenesis imperfecta, familial hypoplastic a., pure red cell a.. congenital nonregenerative a. SYN: congenital hypoplastic a.. Cooley a. SYN: thalassemia major. cow milk a. a. occurring in infants fed cow milk without iron supplementation, attributed to digestive tract allergic reaction leading to blood loss and hence iron deficiency. deficiency a. SYN: nutritional a.. Diamond-Blackfan a. SYN: congenital hypoplastic a.. dilution a. SYN: hydremia. dimorphic a. a. in which two distinct forms of red cells are circulating. diphyllobothrium a. a rare form of macrocytic a. associated with Diphyllobothrium latum infection, especially in Finland. SYN: fish tapeworm a.. drepanocytic a. SYN: sickle cell a.. dyshemopoietic a. any a. resulting from defective function of the bone marrow. Ehrlich a. SYN: aplastic a.. elliptocytary a. (e-lip′to-si′tar-e) a. with elliptocytosis; a heterogeneous group of inherited anemias having in common elliptical red cells on blood smear. The defect may reside in dysfunction or deficiency of proteins of the red cell membrane skeleton. SYN: elliptocytotic a.. elliptocytotic a. (e-lip′to-si-tot′ik) SYN: elliptocytary a.. erythroblastic a. a. characterized by the presence of large numbers of nucleated red cells (normoblasts and erythroblasts) in the peripheral blood. Seen in newborns with hemolytic a., due to isoimmunization, such as that caused by Rh or ABO incompatibility. SEE ALSO: erythroblastosis fetalis. SYN: erythronormoblastic a.. erythronormoblastic a. (e-rith′ro-nor′mo-blast- ik) SYN: erythroblastic a.. essential a. obsolete term for pernicious a.; also used formerly for any type of a. of unknown mechanism. Faber a. SYN: achlorhydric a.. false a. SYN: pseudoanemia. familial hypoplastic a. SYN: congenital hypoplastic a.. familial microcytic a. [MIM*206200] a rare type of autosomal recessive hypochromic microcytic a. associated with a defect of iron metabolism characterized by high serum iron, hepatic iron deposits, and absence of stainable bone marrow iron stores. familial pyridoxine-responsive a. [MIM*206000] a rare autosomal recessive hereditary hypochromic a.; responsive to pyridoxine. Fanconi a. a type of idiopathic refractory a. characterized by pancytopenia, hypoplasia of the bone marrow, and congenital anomalies, occurring in members of the same family (an autosomal recessive trait in at least five nonallelic types [MIM*227650, 227660, 227645, 227646, 600901]); the a. is normocytic or slightly macrocytic, macrocytes and target cells may be found in the circulating blood, and the leukopenia usually is due to neutropenia. Congenital anomalies include short stature; microcephaly; hypogenitalism; strabismus; anomalies of the thumbs, radii, and kidneys and urinary tract; mental retardation; and microphthalmia. SYN: congenital aplastic a., congenital pancytopenia, Fanconi pancytopenia, Fanconi syndrome (1) . fish tapeworm a. SYN: diphyllobothrium a.. folic acid deficiency a. a. due to deficiency of folic acid, characterized by large-sized red blood cells (macrocytosis) and presence of large nuclei in erythroid precursor cells (megaloblasts) in the bone marrow. goat's milk a. nutritional a. in infants maintained chiefly with goat's milk, which is relatively poor in iron content. a. gravis SYN: aplastic a.. ground itch a. a. associated with hookworm disease. Heinz body a. See unstable hemoglobin hemolytic a.. hemolytic a. any a. resulting from an increased rate of erythrocyte destruction. hemolytic a. of newborn SYN: erythroblastosis fetalis. hemorrhagic a. a. resulting directly from loss of blood. hookworm a. a. associated with heavy infestation by Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus. hypochromic a. a. characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal; the individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they do under optimal conditions and stain more faintly. hypochromic microcytic a. a. due to iron deficiency or thalassemia, and characterized by lower than normal mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. hypoferric a. SYN: iron deficiency a.. hypoplastic a. progressive nonregenerative a. resulting from greatly depressed, inadequately functioning bone marrow; as the process persists, aplastic a. may occur. infectious a. a. developing as a complication of infection; probably results from depressed formation and short survival of erythrocytes and abnormal iron metabolism. iron deficiency a. hypochromic microcytic a. characterized by low serum iron, increased serum iron-binding capacity, decreased serum ferritin, and decreased marrow iron stores. SYN: hypoferric a.. isochromic a. SYN: normochromic a.. lead a. a. associated with poisoning from lead; thought to result from a defect in synthesis of hemoglobin based on the failure of iron being combined in the porphyrin ring. leukoerythroblastic a. SYN: leukoerythroblastosis. local a. a. resulting from a decreased supply of blood to a part, as in the occlusion of a vessel. macrocytic a. any a. in which the average size of circulating erythrocytes is greater than normal, i.e., the mean corpuscular volume is 94 cu μm3 or more (normal range, 82–92 cu μm3), including such syndromes as pernicious a., sprue, celiac disease, macrocytic a. of pregnancy, a. of diphyllobothriasis, and others. SYN: megalocytic a.. macrocytic achylic a. SYN: pernicious a.. macrocytic a. of pregnancy an a. occurring in pregnancy, related to folate deficiency and characterized by a low level of hemoglobin and a reduced number of erythrocytes, which are larger than normal (macrocytes). macrocytic a. tropical the macrocytic, megaloblastic a. of tropical sprue. malignant a. SYN: pernicious a.. Marchiafava-Micheli a. SYN: paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. megaloblastic a. any a. in which there is a predominant number of megaloblastic erythroblasts, and relatively few normoblasts, among the hyperplastic erythroid cells in the bone marrow (as in pernicious a.). megalocytic a. SYN: macrocytic a.. metaplastic a. pernicious a. in which the various formed elements in the blood are changed, e.g., multisegmented, unusually large neutrophils (macropolycytes), immature myeloid cells, bizarre platelets. microangiopathic hemolytic a. hemolysis due to intravascular fragmentation of red blood cells; may be due to microcirculatory lesions or the insertion of cardiac or intravascular prosthetic devices. microcytic a. any a. in which the average size of circulating erythrocytes is smaller than normal, i.e., the mean corpuscular volume is 80 cu μm or less (normal range, 82–92 cu μm). microdrepanocytic a. SYN: sickle cell-thalassemia disease. milk a. a type of hypochromic microcytic a., resulting from deficiency of iron, occurring in infants maintained on a milk diet for too long a time. mountain a. term sometimes used for mountain sickness. myelophthisic a., myelopathic a. SYN: leukoerythroblastosis. neonatal a. SYN: erythroblastosis fetalis. a. neonatorum SYN: erythroblastosis fetalis. normochromic a. any a. in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocytes is within the normal range, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is from 32 to 36%. SYN: isochromic a.. normocytic a. any a. in which the erythrocytes are normal in size, i.e., the mean corpuscular volume ranges from 82 to 92 cu μm. nutritional a. any a. resulting from a dietary deficiency of materials essential to red blood cell formation, e.g., iron, vitamins (especially folic acid), protein. SYN: deficiency a.. nutritional macrocytic a. macrocytic, megaloblastic a. due to deficiency of either folate or vitamin B12. osteosclerotic a. a. due to compromise of erythropoiesis due to osteosclerosis. pernicious a. [MIM*361000] a chronic progressive a. of older adults (occurring more frequently during the fifth and later decades, rarely prior to 30 years of age), due to failure of absorption of vitamin B12, usually resulting from a defect of the stomach accompanied by mucosal atrophy and associated with lack of secretion of “intrinsic” factor; characterized by numbness and tingling, weakness, and a sore smooth tongue, as well as dyspnea after slight exertion, faintness, pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, anorexia, diarrhea, loss of weight, and fever; laboratory studies usually reveal greatly decreased red blood cell counts, low levels of hemoglobin, numerous characteristically oval shaped macrocytic erythrocytes (color index greater than normal, but not truly hyperchromic), and hypo- or achlorhydria, in association with a predominant number of megaloblasts and relatively few normoblasts in the bone marrow; the leukocyte count in peripheral blood may be less than normal, with relative lymphocytosis and hypersegmented neutrophils; a low level of vitamin B12 is found in peripheral red blood cells; administration of vitamin B12 results in a characteristic reticulocyte response, relief from symptoms, and an increase in erythrocytes, provided that pernicious a. is not complicated by another disease; the condition is not actually “pernicious,” as it was prior to the availability of therapy with vitamin B12. At least two autosomal recessive forms are known. In one there is a defect of intrinsic factor [MIM*26100] and in the other a defective absorption of vitamin B12 from the intestine [MIM*261100]. SYN: Addison a., Addison-Biermer disease, addisonian a., Biermer a., Biermer disease, macrocytic achylic a., malignant a.. physiologic a. an obsolete term for apparent a. caused by increased fluid volume of the blood (overhydration). polar a. a form of a. sometimes observed in natives of temperate climates when they migrate to the Arctic or Antarctic regions. posthemorrhagic a. an acute a. caused by fairly sudden and rapid loss of blood, as by traumatic laceration of a relatively large vessel, erosion of an artery in a duodenal ulcer, or hemorrhage in an ectopic pregnancy. SYN: traumatic a.. primary erythroblastic a. SYN: thalassemia major. primary refractory a. any of a group of anemic conditions in which there is persistent, frequently advanced a. that is not successfully treated by any means except blood transfusions, and that is not associated with another primary disease. pure red cell a. SYN: congenital hypoplastic a.. radiation a. hypoplastic a. sometimes occurring after high-level acute or low-level chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. refractory a. progressive a. unresponsive to therapy other than transfusion. See primary refractory a., secondary refractory a.. scorbutic a. a. occurring in patients with scurvy, usually due to coincident nutritional deficiency; e.g., the “megaloblastic a. of scurvy” is due to concomitant folic acid deficiency. secondary refractory a. any persistent a. that is successfully treated only by blood transfusions, and that is associated with another condition. sickle cell a. [MIM*141900] an autosomal recessive a. characterized by crescent- or sickle-shaped erythrocytes and accelerated hemolysis, due to substitution of a single amino acid (valine for glutamic acid) in the sixth position of the β-chain of hemoglobin the gene of which is on chromosome 11; affected homozygotes have 85–95% Hb S and severe a., while heterozygotes (said to have sickle cell trait) have 40–45% Hb S, the rest being normal Hb A; low oxygen tension causes polymerization of the abnormal β-chains, thus distorting the shape of the red blood cells to the sickle form. Homozygotes develop “crisis” episodes of severe pain due to microvascular occlusions, bone infarcts, leg ulcers, and atrophy of the spleen associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, especially streptococcal pneumonia. Occurs most commonly in individuals of African descent. SYN: drepanocytic a., sickle cell disease, vasoocclusive crisis. sideroblastic a., sideroachrestic a. refractory a. characterized by the presence of sideroblasts in the bone marrow. slaty a. an ash-gray pallor in poisoning from acetanilide or silver (argyria). spastic a. local a. resulting from nontransitory intrinsic contraction of the arterial vessels supplying the affected region. spherocytic a. SYN: hereditary spherocytosis. splenic a. SYN: Banti syndrome. spur cell a. a. in which the red cells have a spiculated appearance and are destroyed prematurely, predominantly in the spleen; may be seen in patients with severe liver disease as a result of an abnormality in the cholesterol content of the red cell membrane. target cell a. any a. with a conspicuous number of target cells in the peripheral blood; characteristic of the thalassemias and also found in several hemoglobinopathies. toxic a. any a. resulting from the destructive effects of a chemical, metabolic poison, bacterial toxin, venom, and similar materials. traumatic a. SYN: posthemorrhagic a.. tropical a. various syndromes frequently observed in persons in tropical climates, usually resulting from nutritional deficiencies or hookworm or other parasitic diseases. unstable hemoglobin hemolytic a. a congenital hemolytic a., due to autosomal inheritance of one of many unstable hemoglobins. The a. is of variable severity and characterized by the presence in vivo or in vitro of Heinz bodies.

anemic (a-ne′mik)
Pertaining to or manifesting the various features of anemia.

anemometer (an-e-mom′e-ter)
An instrument for measuring the velocity of air flow. [G. anemos, wind, + metron, measure]

anemonol (a-nem′o-nol)
A volatile oil, possessing markedly toxic properties, obtained from plants of the genus Anemone.

anemophobia (an′e-mo-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of wind. [G. anemos, wind, + phobos, fear]

anemotrophy (an-e-mot′ro-fe)
Lack of substances essential to the formation of blood, thereby resulting in hypoplastic anemia. [G. an- priv. + haima, blood, + trophe, nourishment]

anencephalia (an′en-se-fa′le-a)
SYN: anencephaly.

anencephalic (an-en-se-fal′ik)
Relating to anencephaly. SYN: anencephalous.

anencephalous (an-en-sef′a-lus)
SYN: anencephalic.

anencephaly (an′en-sef′a-le)
Congenital defective development of the brain, with absence of the bones of the cranial vault and absent or rudimentary cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, brainstem, and basal ganglia. SYN: anencephalia. [G. an- priv. + enkephalos, brain] partial a. SYN: hemicephalia.

anenterous (an-en′ter-us)
Having no intestine; denoting certain parasites, such as tapeworms. [G. an- priv. + entera, intestines]

anenzymia (an-en-zi′me-a)
Congenital absence of an enzyme.

anephric (a-nef′rik)
Lacking kidneys. [a- priv. + G. nephros, kidney]

anepiploic (an-ep-i-plo′ik)
Lacking an omentum (epiploon).

anergia (an-er′je-a)
SYN: anergy (2) .

anergic (an-er′jik)
Relating to, or marked by, anergy.

anergy (an′er-je)
1. Absence of ability to generate a sensitivity reaction to substances expected to be antigenic (immunogenic, allergenic) in that individual. 2. Lack of energy. SYN: anergia. [G. an- priv. + energeia, energy, from ergon, work] negative a. a reduction of the normal or usual immunologic responses because of unrelated intervening disease. SYN: nonspecific a.. nonspecific a. SYN: negative a.. positive a. a reduction of the normal or usual immunologic response resulting from a reaction to a specific allergen. SYN: specific a.. specific a. SYN: positive a..

aneroid (an′er-oyd)
Without fluid; denoting a form of barometer without mercury, in which the varying air pressure is indicated by a pointer governed by the movement of the elastic wall of an evacuated chamber. Also used to denote a mercury-free pressure gauge used with some sphygmomanometers. [G. a- priv. + neros, wet, + eidos, form]

anerythroplasia (an′e-rith-ro-pla′ze-a)
A condition in which there is no formation of red blood cells. [G. an- priv. + erythro(cyte) + G. plasis, a molding]

anerythroplastic (an′e-rith-ro-plas′tik)
Pertaining to or characterized by anerythroplasia.

anerythroregenerative (an-e-rith′thro-re-jen′er-a-tiv)
Pertaining to or characterized by lack of regeneration of red blood cells.

anesthecinesia (an-es′the-si-ne′ze-a)
SYN: anesthekinesia.

anesthekinesia (an-es′the-ki-ne′ze-a)
Combined sensory and motor paralysis. SYN: anesthecinesia. [G. an- priv. + aisthesis, sensation, + kinesis, movement]

anesthesia (an′es-the′ze-a)
1. Loss of sensation resulting from pharmacologic depression of nerve function or from neurologic dysfunction. 2. Broad term for anesthesiology as a clinical specialty. [G. anaisthesia, fr. an- priv. + aisthesis, sensation] acupuncture a. percutaneous insertion of, and stimulation by, needles placed in critical areas of the body to produce loss of sensation in another area. ambulatory a. a. provided on an outpatient basis. axillary a. loss of sensation in the distal two-thirds of the upper extremity following injection of a local anesthetic solution about the nerve trunks in the axilla. balanced a. a technique of general a. based on the concept that administration of a mixture of small amounts of several neuronal depressants summates the advantages, but not the disadvantages of, the individual components of the mixture. basal a. parenteral administration of one or more sedatives to produce a state of depressed consciousness short of a general a.. block a. SYN: conduction a.. brachial a. anesthetization of an upper extremity by injection of local anesthetic solution about the brachial plexus. caudal a. regional a. by injection of local anesthetic solution into the epidural space via the sacral hiatus. cervical a. regional a. of the neck by injection of a local anesthetic solution about the cervical nerves or into the cervical epidural space. circle absorption a. inhalation a. in which a circuit with carbon dioxide absorbent is used for complete (closed) or partial (semiclosed) rebreathing of exhaled gases. closed a. inhalation a. in which there is total rebreathing of all exhaled gases, except carbon dioxide which is absorbed; gas flow into the anesthetic circuit consists only of oxygen, in amounts equal to the patient's metabolic consumption, plus small amounts of other gases ( e.g., nitrous oxide) that undergo continued uptake by and distribution in the patient. compression a. SYN: pressure a.. conduction a. regional a. in which local anesthetic solution is injected about nerves to inhibit nerve transmission; includes spinal, epidural, nerve block, and field block a., but not local or topical a.. SYN: block a.. continuous epidural a. insertion of a catheter into the lumbar or caudal epidural space for the repeated injection of local anesthetic solutions as a means of prolonging duration of a.. SYN: fractional epidural a.. continuous spinal a. insertion of a catheter into the spinal subarachnoid space and leaving it in situ to permit serial intermittent injection of local anesthetic solution for prolonged spinal a.. SYN: fractional spinal a.. crossed a. a. of one side of the head and the other side of the body due to a brainstem lesion. dental a. general, conduction, local, or topical a. for operations upon the teeth, gingivae, or associated structures. diagnostic a. a. induced for evaluation of the mechanism responsible for a painful condition. differential spinal a. a form of diagnostic spinal a. producing blockade of different types of nerves in the subarachnoid space, based upon their differences in sensitivity to local anesthetics; also observed during surgical spinal a.. dissociated a. loss of some types of sensation with persistence of others; most often used in context of nerve blocks, wherein a loss of sensation for pain and temperature occurs without loss of tactile sense. dissociative a. a form of general a., but not necessarily complete unconsciousness, characterized by catalepsy, catatonia, and amnesia, especially that produced by phenylcyclohexylamine compounds, including ketamine. a. dolorosa severe spontaneous pain occurring in an anesthetic area. SYN: painful a.. electric a. a., usually general a., produced by application of an electrical current. endotracheal a. inhalation a. technique in which anesthetic and respiratory gases pass through a tube placed in the trachea via the mouth or nose. SYN: intratracheal a.. epidural a. regional a. produced by injection of local anesthetic solution into the peridural space. SYN: peridural a.. extradural a. anesthetization, by local anesthetics, of nerves near the spinal canal external to the dura mater; often refers to epidural a., but may include paravertebral a.. field block a. conduction a. in which small nerves are not anesthetized individually, as in nerve block a., but instead are blocked en masse by local anesthetic solution injected to form a barrier proximal to the operative site. fractional epidural a. SYN: continuous epidural a.. fractional spinal a. SYN: continuous spinal a.. general a. loss of ability to perceive pain associated with loss of consciousness produced by intravenous or inhalation anesthetic agents. girdle a. a. distributed as a band encircling the trunk. glove a. loss of sensation in the distal upper extremity, i.e., the hand and fingers. gustatory a. SYN: ageusia. high spinal a. spinal a. in which the level of sensory denervation extends to the second or third thoracic dermatome. hyperbaric a. inhalation of depressant gases or vapors at pressures greater than 1 atmosphere, especially as a means of producing general a. with agents too weak to produce a. at 1 atmosphere. hyperbaric spinal a. spinal a. in which spread of local anesthetic solution in the subarachnoid space is controlled by adjusting the position of the patient when the density of local anesthetic is made greater than the density of cerebrospinal fluid ( i.e., hyperbaric) by the addition of glucose. hypobaric spinal a. spinal a. in which spread of local anesthetic solution in the subarachnoid space is controlled by adjusting the position of the patient when the density of the local anesthetic solution is made less than the density of cerebrospinal fluid ( i.e., hypobaric) by the addition of distilled water. hypotensive a. a. in which arterial hypotension is deliberately induced as a means of decreasing operative blood loss. hypothermic a. general a. administered in conjunction with artificial lowering of body temperature. hysterical a. a. as a manifestation of hysteria, usually involving the surface areas of the body not conforming to neuroanatomic distribution. infiltration a. a. produced by injection of local anesthetic solution directly into an area that is painful or about to be operated upon. inhalation a. general a. resulting from breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors. insufflation a. maintenance of inhalation a. by delivery of anesthetic gases or vapors directly to the airway of a spontaneously breathing patient. intercostal a. regional a. produced by injection of local anesthetic solution about intercostal nerves. intramedullary a. rarely used method of general a. by injection of intravenous anesthetic agent(s) into the medullary canal of long bones. SYN: intraosseous a.. intranasal a. 1. insufflation a. in which an inhalation anesthetic is added to inhaled air passing through the nose or nasopharynx; 2. a. of nasal passages by infiltration and topical application of local anesthetic solution to nasal mucosa. intraoral a. 1. insufflation a. in which an inhalation anesthetic is added to inhaled air passing through the mouth; 2. regional a. of the mouth and associated structures when local anesthetic solutions are used by topical application to oral mucosa, by local infiltration, or as nerve blocks. intraosseous a. SYN: intramedullary a.. intraspinal a. inaccurate synonym for spinal a.; local anesthetic solutions are not injected into the spinal cord. intratracheal a. SYN: endotracheal a.. intravenous a. general a. produced by injection of central nervous system depressants into the venous circulation. intravenous regional a. regional a. by intravenous injection of local anesthetic solution distal to an occlusive tourniquet in an extremity previously exsanguinated by pressure or gravity. SYN: Bier method (1) . isobaric spinal a. spinal a. of same density as cerebrospinal fluid so that the level of a. is not influenced by a change in the position of the patient. local a. a general term referring to topical, infiltration, field block, or nerve block a. but usually not to spinal or epidural a.. SEE ALSO: local anesthetics, under anesthetic. low spinal a. spinal a. in which the level of sensory denervation extends to the tenth or eleventh thoracic dermatome. nerve block a. conduction a. in which local anesthetic solution is injected about nerves, nerve trunks, or nerve plexuses. nonrebreathing a. a technique for inhalation a. in which valves exhaust all exhaled air from the circuit. open drop a. inhalation a. by vaporization of a liquid anesthetic placed drop by drop on a gauze mask covering the mouth and nose. outpatient a. SYN: patient-controlled analgesia. painful a. SYN: a. dolorosa. paracervical block a. regional a. of the cervix uteri by injection of local anesthetic solution into tissues adjacent to the cervix. paravertebral a. 1. a. by injection of local anesthetic solution about nerves as they exit from the vertebral canal; 2. combined presynaptic, postsynaptic, and ganglionic sympathetic block by injection of local anesthetic solution about paravertebral sympathetic chains. patient-controlled a. (PCA) SYN: patient-controlled analgesia. peridural a. SYN: epidural a.. periodontal a. a. of the periodontal ligament, produced by injection of a local anesthetic drug. presacral a. injection of local anesthetic solution anterior to the sacrum, to block nerves as they exit from the sacral foramina. pressure a. loss of sensation produced by pressure applied to a nerve. SYN: compression a.. pudendal a. local a. produced by blocking the pudendal nerves near the spinal processes of the ischium; used in obstetrics. rebreathing a. a technique for inhalation a. in which a portion or all of the gases that are exhaled are subsequently inhaled after carbon dioxide has been absorbed. rectal a. general a. produced by instillation into the rectum of a solution containing a central nervous system depressant. refrigeration a. SYN: cryoanesthesia. regional a. use of local anesthetic solution(s) to produce circumscribed areas of loss of sensation; a generic term including conduction, nerve block, spinal, epidural, field block, infiltration, and topical a.. SYN: conduction analgesia. retrobulbar a. injection of a local anesthetic behind the eye to produce sensory denervation of the eye. sacral a. regional a. limited to those areas innervated by sacral sensory nerves. saddle block a. a form of spinal a. limited in area to the buttocks, perineum, and inner surfaces of the thighs. segmental a. loss of sensation limited to an area supplied by one or more spinal nerve roots. spinal a. 1. loss of sensation produced by injection of local anesthetic solution(s) into the spinal subarachnoid space; SYN: subarachnoid a.. 2. loss of sensation produced by disease of the spinal cord. splanchnic a. loss of sensation in areas of the visceral peritoneum innervated by the splanchnic nerves. SYN: visceral a.. stocking a. loss of sensation in the distal lower extremity, i.e., the foot and toes. subarachnoid a. SYN: spinal a. (1) . surgical a. 1. any a. administered for the purpose of permitting performance of an operative procedure, as differentiated from obstetrical, diagnostic, and therapeutic a.; 2. loss of sensation with muscle relaxation adequate for an operative procedure. tactile a. loss or impairment of the sense of touch. therapeutic a. administration of an anesthetic as a means of treatment. thermal a., thermic a. loss of temperature appreciation. to-and-fro a. a. using of a valveless closed a. circuit in which respired gases pass back and forth through a carbon dioxide absorbent interposed between patient and respiratory reservoir bag. topical a. superficial loss of sensation in conjunctiva, mucous membranes or skin, produced by direct application of local anesthetic solutions, ointments, or jellies. total spinal a. spinal a. extensive enough to produce loss of sensation in all extracranial sensory roots. traumatic a. loss of sensation resulting from nerve injury. unilateral a. SYN: hemianesthesia. visceral a. SYN: splanchnic a..

anesthesiologist (an′es-the-ze-ol′o-jist)
1. A physician specializing solely in anesthesiology and related areas. 2. An individual with a doctorate degree who is board-certified and legally qualified to administer anesthetics and related techniques. Cf.:anesthetist.

anesthesiology (an′es-the-ze-ol′o-je)
The medical specialty concerned with the pharmacological, physiological, and clinical basis of anesthesia and related fields, including resuscitation, intensive respiratory care, and acute and chronic pain. [anesthesia + G. logos, treatise]

anesthetic (an-es-thet′ik)
1. A compound that reversibly depresses neuronal function, producing loss of ability to perceive pain and/or other sensations. 2. Collective designation for anesthetizing agents administered to an individual at a particular time. 3. Characterized by loss of sensation or capable of producing loss of sensation. 4. Associated with or due to the state of anesthesia. flammable a. an inhalation a. that supports combustion and forms explosive mixtures with oxidizing gases. general anesthetics drugs used either by the intravenous route or by inhalation that render the subject unconscious and incapable of perceiving pain as might otherwise occur in surgery. inhalation a. a gas or a liquid with sufficient vapor pressure to produce general anesthesia when breathed. intravenous a. a compound that produces anesthesia when injected intravenously. local anesthetics drugs used for the interruption of the nerve transmission of pain sensations. They act at the site of application to prevent perception of pain; examples include procaine and lidocaine. primary a. the compound that contributes most to loss of sensation when a mixture of anesthetics is administered. secondary a. a compound that contributes to, but is not primarily responsible for, loss of sensation when two or more anesthetics are simultaneously administered. spinal a. a local a. agent producing loss of sensation when injected into the subarachnoid space. topical a. a local a. preparation suitable for anesthetizing skin surfaces or mucous membranes. Can be used in the form of ointments, creams, jellies, sprays, or solutions. volatile a. a liquid a. that at room temperature volatilizes to a vapor which when inhaled is capable of producing general anesthesia. SEE ALSO: a. vapor.

anesthetist (a-nes′the-tist)
One who administers an anesthetic, whether an anesthesiologist, a physician who is not an anesthesiologist, a nurse a., or an anesthesia assistant.

anesthetization (a-nes′the-ti-za′shun)
The act of producing loss of sensation.


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