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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


anesthetize (a-nes′the-tiz)
To produce loss of sensation.

anestrous (an-es′trus)
Relating to the anestrus.

anestrum (an-es′trum)
The period between two estrus cycles [G. an- priv. + oistros, estrus]

anestrus (an-es′trus)
The period of sexual quiescence between the estrus cycles of mammals; may be: 1) a prolonged period in monestrous animals (dogs) or seasonally polyestrous animals (sheep), or 2) a prolonged period of failure of estrus in mature nonpregnant, polyestrous animals. [G. a- priv. + oistros, a gadfly, mad desire (estrus)]

anethopath (a-ne′tho-path)
A morally uninhibited person. [G. an- priv. + ethos, custom, + pathos, suffering]

anetoderma (an-e-to-der′ma)
Atrophoderma in which the skin becomes baglike and wrinkled or depressed, with loss of dermal elasticity. SYN: atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis, atrophoderma maculatum, macular atrophy, primary idiopathic macular atrophy, primary macular atrophy of skin. [G. anetos, relaxed, + derma, skin] Jadassohn-Pellizzari a. cutaneous atrophy preceded by inflammatory erythematous or urticarial lesions of the trunk and upper portions of the extremities, and enlarging to 2–3 cm before undergoing involution. Schweninger-Buzzi a. sudden appearance of permanent, noninflamatory bluish-white balloon-like lesions, soft and readily indented, chiefly on the trunk of women.

aneuploid (an′u-ployd)
Having an abnormal number of chromosomes not an exact multiple of the haploid number, as contrasted with abnormal numbers of complete haploid sets of chromosomes, such as diploid, triploid, etc. [G. an- priv. + euploid]

aneuploidy (an′u-ploy-de)
State of being aneuploid. partial a. a type of mosaicism in which some cells have a normal number of chromosomes and some have an abnormal number.

aneurine (an′u-ren)
SYN: thiamin. a. hydrochloride SYN: thiamin hydrochloride. a. pyrophosphate SYN: thiamin pyrophosphate.

aneurolemmic (a-noo-ro-lem′ik)
Without a neurolemma.

aneurysm (an′u-rizm)
1. Circumscribed dilation of an artery or a cardiac chamber, a direct communication with the lumen, usually due to an acquired or congenital weakness of the wall of the artery or chamber. 2. Circumscribed dilation of a cardiac chamber usually due to an acquired or congenital weakness of the wall of the heart. [G. aneurysma (-mat-), a dilation, fr. eurys, wide] ampullary a. SYN: saccular a.. a. by anastomosis a mass of dilated anastomosing vessels that produce a pulsating tumor usually in a superficial position. aortic a. diffuse or circumscribed dilation of a portion of the aorta ( e.g., abdominal aortic a., aortic arch a.. SEE ALSO: dissecting a.. aortic sinus a. abnormal dilation of one or more of the three aortic sinuses situated behind the three aortic valve cusps. arteriosclerotic a. SYN: atherosclerotic a.. arteriovenous a. 1. a dilated arteriovenous shunt; 2. communication between an artery and a vein, usually congenital or associated with atherosclerotic changes; more appropriately termed arteriovenous fistula or arteriovenous malformation. atherosclerotic a. the most common type of a., occurring in the abdominal aorta and other large arteries, primarily in the elderly. Often associated with atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels in other parts of the body. SYN: arteriosclerotic a.. axial a. an a. involving the entire circumference of a blood vessel. benign bone a. obsolete term for aneurysmal bone cyst. Bérard a. an arteriovenous a. in the tissues outside the injured vein. berry a. a small saccular a. of a cerebral artery that resembles a berry. Such aneurysms can rupture causing a subarachnoid hemorrhage. cardiac a. SYN: ventricular a.. Charcot-Bouchard a. SYN: miliary a.. cirsoid a. dilation of a group of blood vessels owing to congenital malformation with arteriovenous shunting. SYN: cirsoid varix, racemose a., racemose hemangioma. compound a. an a. in which some of the coats of the artery are ruptured, others intact. congenital cerebral a. localized dilation of a cerebral vessel; usually a berry a.. consecutive a. two or more aneurysms along the path of blood flow. coronary artery a. a. of the coronary artery, rarely congenital, usually due to atherosclerosis, inflammatory processes, or a coronary fistula. cylindroid a. SYN: tubular a.. diffuse a. an a. that has enlarged and spread to the surrounding tissues as a consequence of rupture of its walls. dissecting a. condition resulting when blood passes from the true lumen of an artery into a false lumen within the arterial wall; layers of the wall are effectively split; most often due to necrosis of the medial layer, as in Marfan syndrome and with tear originating in the ascending (type A) or descending (type B) thoracic aorta or occasionally in smaller arteries such as the carotids; the false lumen may thrombose, rupture, re-enter the true lumen downstream, and/or shear off vital arterial branches; more properly termed aortic dissection rather than a. since the process is not transmural. SEE ALSO: aortic dissection. ductal a. a. of the patent ductus arteriosus, occurs either in infants or adults. SYN: ductus diverticulum. ectatic a. an a. in which all the coats of the artery, though stretched, are unruptured. false a. SYN: pseudoaneurysm. fusiform a. an elongated spindle-shaped dilation of an artery. hernial a. the protrusion of the stretched inner coats of an artery through a defect in the adventitia. infraclinoid a. an intracranial a. occurring below the level of the anterior clinoid process of the sphenoid bone. intracavernous a. an a. of the carotid artery within the cavernous sinus. intracranial a. any a. located within the cranium. miliary a. dilation in the diameter of small arteries and arterioles secondary to lipohyalinosis from long-standing hypertension; associated with intracerebral hematomas. SYN: Charcot-Bouchard a.. mural a. SYN: ventricular a.. mycotic a. an a. caused by the growth of fungi or bacteria within the vascular wall, usually following impaction of a septic embolus. Park a. an arteriovenous a. in which the brachial artery communicates with the brachial and median basilic veins. peripheral a. 1. a saclike a. springing from one side of an artery; 2. an a. of one of the smaller branches of an artery. phantom a. a palpable pulsating aorta, mistaken by novices for an a.. Pott a. SYN: aneurysmal varix. pulmonary artery a. a. of the pulmonary artery; may be secondary to congenital valvular or infundibular stenosis; some are mycotic aneurysms (q.v.). racemose a. SYN: cirsoid a.. Rasmussen a. aneurysmal dilation of a branch of a pulmonary artery in a tuberculous cavity, rupture of which may cause serious hemoptysis. a. of the right ventricle or right ventricular outflow patch a. occurring after right ventriculotomy; the a. may either be a false or a true a.. ruptured a. an a. that is hemorrhaging into its wall or surrounding tissues. saccular a., sacculated a. a saclike bulging on one side of an artery. SYN: ampullary a.. serpentine a. dilation and tortuosity of an artery, sometimes affecting the temporal, splenic, or iliac arteries in the elderly. a. of sinus of Valsalva a congenital thin-walled out pouching with an entirely intracardiac course, usually in the right or noncoronary sinus, that may rupture into the right, or rarely, the left heart chambers to form an aortocardiac fistula. supraclinoid a. an intracranial a. located immediately above the anterior clinoid process of the sphenoid bone. syphilitic a. an a., usually involving the thoracic aorta, resulting from tertiary syphilitic aortitis. traumatic a. an a. resulting from physical damage to the wall of an artery; usually a false a. or arteriovenous a.. true a. localized dilation of an artery with an expanded lumen lined by stretched remnants of the arterial wall. tubular a. the uniform dilation of an artery along a considerable distance. SYN: cylindroid a.. varicose a. a blood-containing sac, communicating with both an artery and a vein. ventricular a. thinning, stretching, and bulging of a weakened ventricular wall, usually as a result of myocardial infarction; rarely postinflammatory or congenital. SYN: cardiac a., mural a.. a. of the ventricular portion of the membranous septum an a. that bulges toward the right in systole, often consisting of the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve.

aneurysmal, aneurysmatic (an-u-riz′mal, -riz-mat′ik)
Relating to an aneurysm.

aneurysmectomy (an-u-riz-mek′to-me)
Excision of an aneurysm. [aneurysm + G. ektome, excision]

aneurysmoplasty (an-u-riz′mo-plas-te)
Repair of an aneurysm by opening the sac and suturing its walls to restore the normal dimension to the lumen of the artery. SEE ALSO: aneurysmorrhaphy. SYN: endoaneurysmoplasty, endoaneurysmorrhaphy. [aneurysm + G. plastos, formed]

aneurysmorrhaphy (an′u-riz-mor′a-fe)
Closure by suture of the sac of an aneurysm to restore the normal lumen dimensions. [aneurysm + G. rhaphe, suture]

aneurysmotomy (an′u-riz-mot′o-me)
Incision into the sac of an aneurysm. [aneurysm + G. tome, incision]

Abbreviation for antinuclear factor; atrial natriuretic factor.

See angio-.

angelica root (an-jel′i-ka)
The root of Angelica archangelica (family Umbelliferae); a tonic and stimulant that may cause nausea; used as a carminative, diuretic, and externally as a counterirritant.

Arnaldo, Italian ophthalmologist, 1854–1934. See A. syndrome.

Hal, U.S. electrical engineer, *1920. See A. camera.

See angio-.

angiectasia, angiectasis (an-je-ek-ta′ze-a, -ek′ta-sis)
Dilation of a lymphatic or blood vessel. [angio- + G. ektasis, a stretching] congenital dysplastic a. SYN: Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome.

angiectatic (an-je-ek-tat′ik)
Marked by the presence of dilated blood vessels. [angio- + G. ektatos, capable of extension]

angiectopia (an-je-ek-to′pe-a)
Abnormal location of a blood vessel. SYN: angioplany. [angio- + G. ektopos, out of place]

angiitis, angitis (an-je-i′tis, an-ji′tis)
Inflammation of a blood vessel (arteritis, phlebitis) or lymphatic vessel (lymphangitis). SYN: vasculitis. [angio- + G. -itis, inflammation] allergic granulomatous a. SYN: Churg-Strauss syndrome. consecutive a. a. caused by extension of the inflammatory process from the surrounding tissues. frosted branch a. a. characterized by inflammation of blood vessels with sheathing giving the appearance of branches on a tree. hypersensitivity a. an inflammatory reaction in a blood vessel, the result of a specific reaction to an antigenic (allergic) substance or other agents to which the individual expresses unusual vascular sensitization. necrotizing a. inflammatory reaction of blood vessels resulting in fibrinoid necrosis of tissue, especially of the blood vessel wall.

angina (an′ji-na, an-ji′na)
1. A severe, often constricting pain, usually referring to a. pectoris. 2. Old term for a sore throat from any cause. [L. quinsy] abdominal a., a. abdominis intermittent abdominal pain, frequently occurring at a fixed time after eating, caused by inadequacy of the mesenteric circulation from arteriosclerosis or other arterial disease. SYN: intestinal a.. agranulocytic a. SYN: agranulocytosis. crescendo a. a. pectoris that occurs with increasing frequency, intensity, or duration. a. cruris intermittent claudication of the leg. a. decubitus a. pectoris related to horizontal, usually supine, body position. a. of effort a. pectoris precipitated by physical exertion. false a. a.-like sensation(s) in absence of myocardial ischemia. Heberden a. SYN: a. pectoris. hypercyanotic a. anginal pain in cyanotic patients with congenital heart disease or chronic pulmonary disease, the pain developing with intensification of the cyanosis during activity. intestinal a. SYN: abdominal a.. a. inversa SYN: Prinzmetal a.. Ludwig a. cellulitis, usually of odontogenic origin, bilaterally involving the submaxillary, sublingual, and submental spaces, resulting in painful swelling of the floor of the mouth, elevation of the tongue, dysphasia, dysphonia, and (at times) compromise of the airway. [W.F. Ludwig] lymphatic a. an affection resembling Vincent disease marked by an increase in the number of lymphocytes in the blood. a. lymphomatosa SYN: agranulocytosis. neutropenic a. SYN: agranulocytosis. a. pectoris severe constricting pain in the chest, often radiating from the precordium to a shoulder (usually left) and down the arm, due to ischemia of the heart muscle usually caused by coronary disease. SYN: breast pang, coronarism (2) , Heberden a., Rougnon-Heberden disease, stenocardia. a. pectoris decubitus anginal pain developing while the subject is recumbent. a. pectoris sine dolore SYN: Gairdner disease. a. pectoris vasomotoria a. pectoris in which the breast pain is comparatively slight, but pallor followed by cyanosis, and coldness and numbness of the extremities, are marked. SYN: a. spuria, a. vasomotoria, pseudangina, pseudoangina, reflex a., vasomotor a.. preinfarction a. obsolete term for unstable a., including crescendo a.. Prinzmetal a. a form of a. pectoris, characterized by pain that is not precipitated by cardiac work, is of longer duration, is usually more severe, and is associated with unusual electrocardiographic manifestations including elevated ST segments in leads that are ordinarily depressed in typical a., and usually without reciprocal ST changes; occurring at night in bed. SYN: a. inversa, variant a. pectoris. reflex a. SYN: a. pectoris vasomotoria. a. sine dolore symptoms of coronary insufficiency occurring without pain. a. spuria SYN: a. pectoris vasomotoria. unstable a. 1. a. pectoris characterized by pain in the chest of coronary origin occurring in response to progressively less exercise or fewer other stimuli than ordinarily required to produce a.; often leading to myocardial infarction, if untreated. 2. a. that has not achieved a constant or reproducible pattern in 30 or 60 days. variant a. pectoris SYN: Prinzmetal a.. vasomotor a. SYN: a. pectoris vasomotoria. a. vasomotoria SYN: a. pectoris vasomotoria. Vincent a. an ulcerative infection of the oral soft tissues including the tonsils and pharynx caused by fusiform and spirochetal organisms; it is usually associated with necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and may progress to noma. Death from suffocation or sepsis may occur. walk-through a. a circumstance in which despite continuing activity, such as walking, the pain of a. pectoris diminishes or disappears.

anginal (an′ji-nal, an-ji′)
Relating to angina in any sense.

anginiform (an-jin′i-form)
Resembling angina.

anginoid (an′jin-oid)
Rarely used term for resembling an angina, especially angina pectoris.

anginophobia (an′ji-no-fo′be-a)
Extreme fear of an attack of angina pectoris. [angina + G. phobos, fear]

anginose, anginous (an′ji-nos, -ji-nus)
Rarely used term for relating to any angina.

angio-, angi-
Blood or lymph vessels; a covering, an enclosure; corresponds to L. vas-, vaso-, vasculo-. [G. angeion, a vessel or cavity of the body, fr. angos, a vessel, vat, bucket, + -eion, small, little]

angioarchitecture (an′je-o-ar′ki-tek-choor)
1. The arrangement and distribution of the blood vessels of any organ. 2. The vascular framework of an organ or tissue.

angioblast (an′je-o-blast)
1. A cell taking part in blood vessel formation. SYN: vasoformative cell. 2. Primordial mesenchymal tissue from which embryonic blood cells and vascular endothelium are differentiated. SYN: angioderm. [angio- + G. blastos, germ]

angioblastoma (an′je-o-blas-to′ma)
SYN: hemangioblastoma. a. of Nakagawa SYN: acquired tufted angioma.

angiocardiography (an′je-o-kar-de-og′ra-fe)
X-ray imaging of the heart and great vessels made visible by injection of a radiopaque solution. See coronary angiography. SYN: cardioangiography. [angio- + G. kardia, heart, + grapho, to write] exercise radionuclide a. radionuclide a. while patient is performing exercise, such as on a treadmill or bicycle. gated radionuclide a. radionuclide a. using cardiac gating to combine images from several cardiac cycles to improve the quality of the images of separate phases ( e.g., systole and diastole). radionuclide a. the display, by means of a stationary scintillation camera device, of the passage of a bolus of a rapidly injected radiopharmaceutical through the heart. SYN: radionuclide ventriculography.

angiocardiokinetic, angiocardiocinetic (an′je-o-kar′de-o-ki-net′ik, -de-o-si-net′ik)
Causing dilation or contraction in the heart and blood vessels. [angio- + G. kardia, heart, + kinesis, movement]

angiocardiopathy (an′je-o-kar-de-op′a-the)
Disease affecting both heart and blood vessels. [angio- + G. kardia, heart, + pathos, disease]

angiocholitis (an′je-o-ko-li′tis)
SYN: cholangitis.

angiocyst (an′je-o-sist)
A small vesicular aggregation of embryonic mesodermal cells that may give rise to vascular endothelium and blood cells.

angioderm (an′je-o-derm)
SYN: angioblast (2) .

angiodysplasia (an′je-o-dis-pla′ze-a)
Degenerative or congenital structural abnormality of the normally distributed vasculature.

angiodystrophy, angiodystrophia (an′je-o-dis′tro-fe, -dis-tro′fe-a)
Defective formation or growth associated with marked vascular changes. [angio- + G. dys-, bad, + trophe, nourishment]

angioedema (an′je-o-e-de′ma)
Recurrent large circumscribed areas of subcutaneous or mucosal edema of sudden onset, usually disappearing within 24 hours; seen mainly in young women, frequently as an allergic reaction to foods or drugs. SYN: angioneurotic edema, giant hives, giant urticaria, periodic edema. hereditary a. an inherited, autosomal dominant disease characterized by episodic appearance of brawny nonpitting edema, most often affecting the extremities but can involve any part of the body, including mucosal surfaces such as those of the intestine (causing abdominal pain) or respiratory tract (causing asphyxia, which can require intubation to avoid fatal outcome). Associated with deficiency of inhibitor of first component of complement pathway (C1). Emergency treatment with epinephrine, long-term treatment with a variety of agents is effective.

angioelephantiasis (an′je-o-el′e-fan-ti′a-sis)
Extensive increase in vascularity of the subcutaneous tissue, producing great thickening simulating large, diffuse angioma formation.

angioendotheliomatosis (an′je-o-en-do-the′le-o-ma-to′sis)
Proliferation of endothelial cells within blood vessels. proliferating systematized a. a rare generalized cutaneous and visceral intracapillary proliferation of endothelial cells, with vascular thrombosis and obstruction. The condition has been divided into a benign reactive type and a rapidly fatal neoplastic type; however, most of the latter cases have been shown to be intravascular large-cell lymphomas.

angiofibrolipoma (an′je-o-fi′bro-li-po′ma)
A neoplasm composed of fibroblasts, capillaries, and adipose tissue. SYN: angiolipofibroma.

angiofibroma (an′je-o-fi-bro′ma)
SYN: telangiectatic fibroma. juvenile a. a markedly vascular fibrous tumor occurring in the nasopharynx of males, usually in the second decade of life; epistaxis and local invasion may result, but spontaneous regression may occur after sexual maturity. SYN: juvenile hemangiofibroma.

angiofibrosis (an′je-o-fi-bro′sis)
Fibrosis of the walls of blood vessels.

angiogenesis (an′je-o-jen′e-sis)
Development of new blood vessels. [angio- + G. genesis, production]

angiogenic (an′je-o-jen′ik)
1. Relating to angiogenesis. 2. Of vascular origin.

angioglioma (an′je-o-gli-o′ma)
A mixed glioma and angioma.

angiogliomatosis (an′je-o-gli′o-ma-to′sis)
Occurrence of multiple areas of proliferating capillaries and neuroglia or a condition of multiple angiogliomas.

angiogliosis (an′je-o-gli-o′sis)
Glial scarring about a blood vessel or a condition of multiple angiogliomas.

angiogram (an′je-o-gram)
Radiograph obtained by angiography. [angio- + G. gramma, a writing] projection a. a digital a., such as in computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, reconstructed by computer to appear as does a radiographic a..

angiographic (an-je-o-graf′ik)
Relating to or using angiography.


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