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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


angiography (an-je-og′ra-fe)
Radiography of vessels after the injection of a radiopaque contrast material; usually requires percutaneous insertion of a radiopaque catheter and positioning under fluoroscopic control. SEE ALSO: arteriography, venography. [angio- + G. grapho, to write] biplane a. synchronous angiocardiography in two planes at right angles to each other or in two orthogonal planes. cerebral a. radiographic visualization of the blood vessels supplying the brain, including their extracranial portions; the injection of contrast medium may be made percutaneously, by open exposure and puncture of the carotid artery or by catheterization after introduction of the catheter at a distant site. SYN: cerebral arteriography. coronary a. imaging of the circulation of the myocardium by injection of contrast medium, usually by selective catheterization of each coronary artery, formerly by nonselective injection at the root of the aorta. digital subtraction a. (DSA) computer-assisted radiographic a. permitting visualization of vascular structures without superimposed bone and soft tissue densities; subtraction of images made before and after contrast injection removes structures not enhanced by the contrast medium. Other image processing can be performed. Contrast material may be injected intravenously or in a lower-than-usual amount intraarterially. fluorescein a. photographic visualization of the passage of fluorescein through intraocular vessels after intravenous injection. indocyanine green a. a test for studying choroidal vasculature by which indocyanine green dye, which absorbs infrared light at 805 nm and emits at 835 nm, is injected intravenously and photographed as it flows through the retinal and choroidal vessels. interventional a. SYN: angioplasty. magnetic resonance a. SYN: MR a.. magnification a. enhanced imaging of small blood vessels using an increased distance from subject to film, as in magnification radiography. MR a. (MRA) imaging of blood vessels using special magnetic resonance (MR) sequences that enhance the signal of flowing blood and suppress that from other tissues. SYN: magnetic resonance a.. radionuclide a. scintillation camera imaging of tissue perfusion by intravascular injection of a radioactive pharmaceutical. SEE ALSO: radionuclide angiocardiography. SYN: scintigraphic a.. scintigraphic a. SYN: radionuclide a.. selective a. a. in which visualization is improved by concentrating the contrast medium in the region to be studied by injection through a catheter positioned in a regional artery, e.g., coronary a.. therapeutic a. use of angiographic catheters that have been modified to reduce or increase regional blood flow, or to deliver medicinal agents; interventional therapeutic a.. See angioplasty, balloon catheter, interventional a..

angiohyalinosis (an′je-o-hi′a-li-no′sis)
Hyaline degeneration of the walls of the blood vessels. [angio- + G. hyalos, glass, + -osis, condition]

angiohypertonia (an′je-o-hi-per-to′ne-a)
SYN: vasospasm. [angio- + G. hyper, over, + tonos, tension]

angiohypotonia (an′je-o-hi-po-to′ne-a)
SYN: vasoparalysis. [angio- + G. hypo, under, + tonos, tension]

angioid (an′je-oyd)
Resembling blood vessels; an arborizing pattern. [angio- + G. eidos, resemblance]

angioinvasive (an′je-o-in-va′siv)
Denoting a neoplasm or other pathologic condition capable of entering the vascular bed.

angiokeratoma (an′je-o-ker-a-to′ma)
A superficial intradermal capillary acquired telangiectasis, over which there is a wartlike hyperkeratosis and acanthosis. SYN: keratoangioma, telangiectasia verrucosa, telangiectatic wart. [angio- + G. keras, horn, + -oma, tumor] diffuse a. SYN: Fabry disease. Fordyce a. asymptomatic vascular papules of the scrotum, appearing in adults. Mibelli angiokeratomas telangiectatic small papules of the extremities, common in adolescent girls.

angiokeratosis (an′je-o-ker-a-to′sis)
The occurrence of multiple angiokeratomas.

angioleiomyoma (an′je-o-li′o-mi-o′ma)
SYN: vascular leiomyoma.

angiolipofibroma (an′je-o-lip′o-fi-bro′ma)
SYN: angiofibrolipoma.

angiolipoma (an′je-o-li-po′ma)
A lipoma that contains an unusually large number, or foci of proliferated, neoplasticlike, frequently dilated vascular channels. SYN: lipoma cavernosum, telangiectatic lipoma.

angiolith (an′je-o-lith)
An arteriolith or a phlebolith. [angio- + G. lithos, stone]

angiolithic (an′je-o-lith′ik)
Relating to an angiolith.

angiologia (an′je-o-lo′je-a)
SYN: angiology. [angio- + G. logos, treatise, discourse]

angiology (an-je-ol′o-je)
The science concerned with the blood vessels and lymphatics in all their relations. SYN: angiologia. [angio- + G. logos, treatise, discourse]

angiolysis (an-je-ol′i-sis)
Obliteration of a blood vessel, such as occurs in the newborn infant after tying of the umbilical cord. [angio- + G. lysis, destruction]

angioma (an-je-o′ma)
A swelling or tumor due to proliferation, with or without dilation, of the blood vessels (hemangioma) or lymphatics (lymphangioma). [angio- + G. -oma, tumor] acquired tufted a. enlarging erythematous macules and plaques in children and adults, composed microscopically of lobules of capillaries and spindle cells that project into thin-walled venular dermal clefts. SYN: angioblastoma of Nakagawa. capillary a. SYN: capillary hemangioma. cavernous a. vascular malformation composed of sinusoidal vessels without a large feeding artery; can be multiple, especially if inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. SYN: nevus cavernosus. cherry a. SYN: senile hemangioma. petechial angiomas multiple lesions resembling petechiae but due to dilation of capillary walls; they are obliterated by pressure. a. serpiginosum the presence of rings of red dots on the skin, especially in female children, which tend to widen peripherally, due to dilation of superficial capillaries. SYN: essential telangiectasia (2) , primary telangiectasia. spider a. a telangiectatic arteriole in the skin with radiating capillary branches simulating the legs of a spider; characteristic, but not pathognomonic, of parenchymatous liver disease; also seen in pregnancy, often disappearing after delivery, and at times in normal persons. SYN: arterial spider, nevus araneus, spider hemangioma, spider nevus, spider telangiectasia, vascular spider. superficial a. SYN: capillary hemangioma. telangiectatic a. a. composed of dilated vessels. a. venosum racemosum tortuous swelling caused by varicosities of superficial veins. venous a. vascular anomaly composed of anomalous veins. SYN: venous malformation.

angiomatoid (an-je-o′ma-toyd)
Resembling a tumor of vascular origin.

angiomatosis (an′je-o-ma-to′sis)
A condition characterized by multiple angiomas. bacillary a. 1. an infection of immunocompromised patients by a newly recognized Rickettsial species Rochalimaea henselae, characterized by fever and granulomatous cutaneous nodules, and peliosis hepatis in some cases. Skin biopsy shows vascular proliferation and infiltration of vessel walls by neutrophils and clumps of organisms seen with Warthin-Starry silver staining. 2. infectious disease characterized by fever and granulomatous cutaneous lesions. There are two forms. In one, associated with Bartonella henselae cat bites and scratches are predisposing; lymph nodes and viscera may be involved, and bacillary peliosis of liver and spleen can occur. A separate form, associated with B. quintana, is linked with conditions of poor hygiene (louse infestation, low income, poor or no housing); subcutaneous and bone lesions are more predominant. cephalotrigeminal a. SYN: Sturge-Weber syndrome. cerebroretinal a. SYN: von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. congenital dysplastic a. [MIM*185300 & MIM149000] autosomal dominant a. in which there is dysplasia of the underlying tissues, sometimes with overgrowth of bone (Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome), or encephalotrigeminal a. (Sturge-Weber syndrome) in which there is an angioma in the distribution of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve, with vascular anomalies and calcification of the cerebral cortex. cutaneomeningospinal a. SYN: Cobb syndrome. encephalotrigeminal a. SYN: Sturge-Weber syndrome. oculoencephalic a. [MIM*185300] a forme fruste of Sturge-Weber syndrome, consisting of angiomas of the choroid and meninges only; probable autosomal dominant inheritance. telangiectatic a. disseminated capillary and venous vascular malformations of the cerebral hemispheres and leptomeninges, occurring in Sturge-Weber syndrome.

angiomatous (an-je-o′ma-tus)
Relating to or resembling an angioma.

angiomegaly (an′je-o-meg′a-le)
Enlargement of blood vessels or lymphatics. [angio- + G. megas, large]

angiomyocardiac (an′je-o-mi′o-kar′de-ak)
Relating to the blood vessels and the cardiac muscle. [angio- + G. mys, muscle, + kardia, heart]

angiomyofibroma (an′je-o-mi′o-fi-bro′ma)
SYN: vascular leiomyoma.

angiomyolipoma (an′je-o-mi′o-li-po′ma)
A benign neoplasm of adipose tissue (lipoma) in which muscle cells and vascular structures are fairly conspicuous; most commonly a renal tumor containing smooth muscle, often associated with tuberous sclerosis. [angio- + G. mys, muscle, + lipos, fat, + -oma, tumor]

angiomyoma (an′je-o-mi-o′ma)
SYN: vascular leiomyoma. [angio- + G. mys, muscle, + -oma, tumor]

angiomyopathy (an′je-o-mi-op′a-the)
Any disease of blood vessels involving the muscular layer. [angio- + G. mys, muscle, + pathos, suffering]

angiomyosarcoma (an′je-o-mi′o-sar-ko′ma)
A myosarcoma that has an unusually large number of proliferated, frequently dilated, vascular channels.

angiomyxoma (an′je-o-miks-o′ma)
A myxoma in which there is an unusually large number of vascular structures. aggressive a. locally invasive, but nonmetastasizing tumor of genital organs in young women.

angioneurectomy (an′je-o-noo-rek′to-me)
Excision of the vessels and nerves of a part. [angio- + G. neuron, nerve, + ektome, excision]

angioneuropathy (an′je-o-noo-rop′a- the)
A vascular disorder attributed to an abnormality of the autonomic nervous system fibers supplying the blood vessels ( i.e., the vasomotor system.

angioneurotic (an′je-o-noo-rot′ik)
Relating to angioneuroses.

angioneurotomy (an′je-o-noo-rot′o-me)
Division of both nerves and vessels of a part. [angio- + G. neuron, nerve, + tome, a cutting]

angioparalysis (an′je-o-pa-ral′i-sis)
SYN: vasoparalysis.

angioparesis (an′je-o-pa-re′sis, -par′e-sis)
SYN: vasoparesis.

angiopathic (an′je-o-path′ik)
Relating to angiopathy.

angiopathy (an-je-op′a-the)
Any disease of the blood vessels or lymphatics. SYN: angiosis. [angio- + G. pathos, suffering] amyloid a. deposition of acellular hyaline material in small arteries and arterioles of the leptomeninges and cerebral cortex in the elderly with resulting predilection for recurrent lobar intraparenchymal hematomas. cerebral amyloid a. a pathologic condition of small cerebral vessels characterized by deposits of amyloid in the vessel walls, which may lead to infarcts or hemorrhage; may also occur in Alzheimer disease or Down syndrome. SEE ALSO: congophilic a.. congophilic a. a condition of blood vessels characterized by deposits in the vessel walls of a substance, usually amyloid, that take a Congo red stain. SEE ALSO: cerebral amyloid a.. giant cell hyaline a. an inflammatory infiltrate containing foreign body giant cells and eosinophilic material. Fragments of foreign material resembling vegetable matter may be included. SYN: pulse granuloma.

angiophacomatosis, angiophakomatosis (an′je-o-fak′o-ma-to′sis)
The angiomatous phacomatoses e.g., von Hippel-Lindau disease and the Sturge-Weber syndrome.

angioplany (an′je-o-pla-ne)
SYN: angiectopia. [angio- + G. plane, a wandering]

angioplasty (an′je-o-plas-te)
Reconstitution or recanalization of a blood vessel; may involve balloon dilation, mechanical stripping of intima, forceful injection of fibrinolytics, or placement of a stent. SYN: interventional angiography. [angio- + G. plastos, formed, shaped] percutaneous transluminal a. (PTA) an operation for enlarging a narrowed vascular lumen by inflating and withdrawing through the stenotic region a balloon on the tip of an angiographic catheter; may include positioning of an intravascular endoluminal stent. percutaneous transluminal coronary a. (PTCA) an operation for enlarging a narrowed vascular lumen by inflating and withdrawing through the stenotic region a balloon on the tip of an angiographic catheter.PTCA is a minimally invasive surgical procedure for the treatment of coronary atherosclerosis. A balloon-tipped catheter is inserted percutaneously into the arterial circulation, advanced to the aortic root, and directed with a flexible guide wire to the site of coronary stenosis. Once positioned within the narrowed arterial segment, the balloon is inflated so as to stretch the lumen, fracture the obstructing plaque, or both. Balloon a. is considered successful when there is more than a 20% increase in the caliber of the stenotic artery and restoration of at least 50% of normal patency, without acute complications. The procedure has approximately a 90% immediate success rate. It offers advantages in symptom improvement and exercise tolerance when compared to medical therapy, particularly in the short term, and is less hazardous and has a shorter recovery period than coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Operative mortality is about 2%. There is a 1–3% risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction during the procedure and a 1–3% risk that emergency CABG will be required. Hence the procedure is contraindicated unless a bypass team is immediately available. It is also contraindicated in patients without demonstrated significant vascular obstruction, as well as in those with severe multivessel disease or more than 50% stenosis of the left main coronary artery. Despite the advantages of PTCA, 30–50% of patients require repeat balloon a. or CABG for restenosis within 6 months. Insertion of a stainless steel stent at the time of balloon a. to maintain arterial patency has improved initial success and reduced the 6-month restenosis rate. High-dose verapamil has also been associated with lower restenosis rates.

angiopoiesis (an′je-o-poy-e′sis)
Formation of blood or lymphatic vessels. SYN: vasifaction, vasoformation. [angio- + G. poiesis, making]

angiopoietic (an′je-o-poy-et′ik)
Relating to angiopoiesis. SYN: vasifactive, vasofactive, vasoformative.

angiorrhaphy (an-je-or′a-fe)
Suture repair of any vessel, especially of a blood vessel. [angio- + G. rhaphe, a seam]

angiosarcoma (an′je-o-sar-ko′ma)
A rare malignant neoplasm occurring most often in soft tissues, and believed to originate from the endothelial cells of blood vessels; microscopically composed of spindle-shaped cells, some of which line small spaces resembling vascular clefts.

angioscope (an′je-o-skop)
A modified microscope for studying the capillary vessels and a scope used for viewing larger vessels. [angio- + G. skopeo, to view]

angioscopy (an-je-os′ko-pe)
1. Visualization with a microscope of the passage of substances ( e.g., contrast media, radiopaque agents) through capillaries after intravenous injection. 2. Visualization of the interior of blood vessels, especially the pulmonary arteries, using a fiberoptic catheter inserted through a peripheral artery. [angio- + G. skopeo, to view]

angioscotoma (an′je-o-sko-to′ma)
Ribbon-shaped defect of the visual fields caused by the retinal vessels overlying photoreceptors. [angio- + G. skotoma, dizziness, vertigo]

angioscotometry (an′je-o-sko-tom′e-tre)
The measurement or projection of the angioscotoma pattern.

angiosis (an-je-o′sis)
SYN: angiopathy.

Composite anatomic vascular territories of skin and underlying muscles, tendons, nerves, and bones, based on segmental or distributing arteries.

angiospasm (an′je-o-spazm)
SYN: vasospasm.

angiospastic (an′je-o-spas′tik)
SYN: vasospastic.

angiostenosis (an′je-o-ste-no′sis)
Narrowing of one or more blood vessels. [angio- + G. stenosis, a narrowing]

angiostrongylosis (an′je-o-stron-ji-lo′sis)
Infection of animals and humans with nematodes of the genus Angiostrongylus. SYN: eosinophilic meningitis.

Angiostrongylus (an′je-o-stron′ji-lus)
A genus of metastrongyle nematodes parasitic in respiratory or circulatory systems of rodents, carnivores, and marsupials. SYN: Parastrongylus. [G. angeion, vessel, + strongylos, round] A. cantonensis lungworm of rodents, a species transmitted by infected mollusks ingested by rodents; larvae develop in the brain and migrate to lungs, where the adult worms are found; thought to cause eosinophilic encephalomeningitis in humans in the Pacific basin; larvae have been removed from cerebrospinal fluid and the anterior chamber of the eye from persons in Thailand who had eaten raw snails. A. costaricensis a nematode parasite of rats and other rodents in Central America, recently found to infect humans, where they locate in the mesenteric arteries; infective third-stage larvae have been found in the slug, Vaginulus plebeius. SYN: Morerastrongylus costaricensis. A. malaysiensis species of A. found in Malaysia, a common rodent parasite similar to A. cantonensis and an actual or potential agent of eosinophilic meningitis in that region.

angiotelectasis, angiotelectasia (an′je-o-te-lek′ta-sis, -tel′ek-ta′se-a)
SYN: telangiectasia. [angio- + G. telos, end, + ektasis, a stretching out]

angiotensin (an-je-o-ten′sin)
A family of peptides of known and similar sequence, with vasoconstrictive activity, produced by enzymatic action of renin upon angiotensinogen. See a. I, a. II, a. III.

angiotensin I
A decapeptide of slightly variable sequence, depending on the animal source, formed from the tetradecapeptide angiotensinogen by the removal of four amino acid residues, a reaction catalyzed by renin; a peptidase cleaves off a dipeptide (histidylleucine) to yield angiotensin II, the physiologically active form.

angiotensin II
A vasoactive octapeptide produced by the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme on angiotensin I; produces stimulation of vascular smooth muscle, promotes aldosterone production, and stimulates the sympathetic nervous system.

angiotensin III
A vasoactive heptapeptide less potent than angiotensin II on vascular smooth muscle but approximately equally active in promoting aldosterone secretion.

angiotensin amide
A synthetic substance closely related to the naturally occurring angiotensin II; a potent vasopressor agent useful in the management of certain types of shock and circulatory collapse.

angiotensinase (an-je-o-ten′sin-as)
Former name for the enzyme responsible for converting angiotensin I to II; now applied to the enzyme that degrades angiotensin II. It hydrolyzes a peptide bond between a tyrosyl and an isoleucyl residue.

angiotensinogen (an′je-o-ten-sin′o-jen)
The substrate for renin whereupon through enzymatic action angiotensin I is liberated; an abundant α2-globulin that circulates in the blood plasma. SYN: angiotensin precursor.


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