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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


anneal (an-nel′)
1. To soften or temper a metal by controlled heating and cooling; the process makes a metal more easily adapted, bent, or swaged, and less brittle. 2. In dentistry, to heat gold leaf preparatory to its insertion into a cavity, in order to remove adsorbed gases and other contaminants. 3. The pairing of complementary single strands of DNA; or of DNA-RNA. 4. The attachment of the ends of two macromolecules; e.g., two microtubules annealing to form one longer microtubule. 5. In molecular biology, annealing is a process in which short sections of single-stranded DNA from one source are bound to a filter and incubated with single-stranded, radioactively conjugated DNA from a second source. Where the two sets of DNA possess complementary sequences of nucleotides, bonding occurs. The degree of relatedness (homology) of the two sets of DNA is then estimated according to the radioactivity level of the filter. This technique plays a central role in the classification of bacteria and viruses. SYN: nucleic acid hybridization. [A.S. anaelan, to burn]

annectent (a-nek′tent)
Connected with; joined. [L. an-necto, pres. p. -nectere, pp. -nexus, to join to]

Annelida (an′ne-li′da)
A phylum that includes the segmented or true worms, such as the earthworm.

annelids (an′ne-lids)
Common name for members of the phylum Annelida.

annellide (an′e-lid)
A conidiogenous cell that produces conidia in succession, each leaving a ringlike collar on the cell wall when released. [Fr. annelide, fr. L. anellus, a ring]

annelloconidium (an′e-lo-ko-nid′e-um)
A conidium produced by an annellide.

annexa (a-nek′sa)
SYN: accessory structures, under structure.

annexal (a-neks-al)
SYN: adnexal.

annexins (a-nek′sinz)
A family of at least 13 Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins that may act as mediators of intracellular calcium signals.

annotto (a-not′o)
Coloring matter extracted from the seeds of Bixa orellana; contains bixin and several other yellow to orange-red pigments; used for coloring butter, margarine, cheese, and oils.

annular (an′u-lar)
SYN: anular. [L. anulus, ring]

annuloplasty (an′u-lo-plas-te)
Reconstruction of the ring (or annulus) of a cardiac valve. [L. anulus, ring, + G. plastos, formed]

annulorrhaphy (an-u-lor′a-fe)
Closure of a hernial ring by suture. [L. anulus, ring, + G. rhaphe, seam]

annulus (an′u-lus)
SYN: ring.

AnOC
Abbreviation for anodal opening contraction.

anochromasia (an′o-kro-ma′ze-a)
1. Failure of cells or other elements of tissue to be colored in the usual manner when treated with a stain (or stains). 2. Accumulation of hemoglobin in the peripheral zone of erythrocytes, thereby resulting in a pale, virtually colorless central portion. [G. ano, upward, + chroma, color]

anociassociation (a-no′se-a-so-se-a′shun)
Theory that afferent stimuli, especially pain, contribute to the development of surgical shock, and, as a corollary, that conduction anesthesia at the surgical field and presurgical sedation protect against shock. [G. a- priv. + L. noceo, to injure, + association]

anococcygeal (a-no-kok-sij′e-al)
Relating to both anus and coccyx.

anodal (an-od′al)
Of, pertaining to, or emanating from an anode. SYN: anodic.

anode (an′od)
1. The positive pole of a galvanic battery or the electrode connected with it; an electrode toward which negatively charged ions (anions) migrate; a positively charged electrode. Cf.:cathode. 2. The portion, usually made of tungsten, of an x-ray tube from which x-rays are released by bombardment by cathode rays (electrons). SYN: positive electrode. [G. anodos, a way up, fr. ana, up, + hodos, a way] rotating a. in diagnostic radiography, a mushroom-shaped a. in modern x-ray tubes that rotates rapidly to avoid local heat buildup from electron impact during x-ray generation.

anoderm (a′no-derm)
Lining of the anal canal immediately inferior to the dentate line and extending for about 1.5 cm to the anal verge; it is devoid of hair and sebaceous and sweat glands, and so is not true skin, although it is squamous epithelium; it is pale, smooth, thin, and delicate, and shiny when stretched; it is especially vulnerable to abrasion (as from rough toilet paper), chemical irritants (soaps), and is well provided with tactile and nociceptive (pain, itch) endings innervated by the inferior rectal (pudendal) nerve.

anodic (an-od′ik)
SYN: anodal.

anodontia (an-o-don′she-a)
Congenital absence of the teeth; developmental, not due to extraction or impaction. SYN: agomphious, agomphosis, agomphiasis. [G. an- priv. + odous, tooth] partial a. SYN: hypodontia.

anodontism (an-o-dont′izm)
Congenital absence of tooth germ development.

anodyne (an′o-din)
A compound less potent than an anesthetic or a narcotic but capable of relieving pain. [G. an- priv. + odyne, pain]

anoetic (an-o-et′ik)
Lacking the power of comprehension, as in severe and profound levels of mental retardation. [G. anoesia, from a- priv. + noos, perception]

anogenital (a′no-jen′i-tal)
Relating in any way to both the anal and the genital regions.

anomalad (a-nom′a-lad)
A malformation together with its subsequently derived structural changes. [see anomaly]

anomaloscope (a-nom′a-lo-skop)
An instrument used to diagnose abnormalities of color perception in which one-half of a field of color is matched by mixing two other colors. [G. anomalos, irregular, + skopeo, to examine]

anomaly (a-nom′a-le)
Deviation from the average or norm; anything that is structurally unusual or irregular or contrary to a general rule. Congenital defects are an example of the definition of a.. [G. anomalia, irregularity] Alder a. coarse azurophilic granulation of leukocytes, especially granulocytes, which may be associated with gargoylism and Morquio syndrome. Aristotle a. when a small object is held between the first and second fingers crossed in such a way that it touches or presses upon skin surfaces that ordinarily are not pressed upon simultaneously by a single object, it is perceived falsely as two. Chédiak-Steinbrinck-Higashi a. SYN: Chédiak-Higashi syndrome. developmental a. an a. established during intrauterine life; a congenital a.. Ebstein a. congenital downward displacement of the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. SYN: Ebstein disease. eugnathic a. SYN: eugnathia. Freund a. a narrowing of the upper aperture of the thorax by shortening of the first rib and its cartilage; formerly believed to predispose to tuberculosis because of defective expansion of the lung apex. Hegglin a. a disorder in which neutrophils and eosinophils contain basophilic structures known as Döhle or Amato bodies and in which there is faulty maturation of platelets, with thrombocytopenia; autosomal dominant inheritance. SYN: May-Hegglin a.. May-Hegglin a. SYN: Hegglin a.. morning glory a. congenital a. of the optic disk in which the nerve head is funnel-shaped, with a dot of white tissue at the end of the excavation, and is surrounded by an elevated pigmented annulus; the retinal vessels seen are multiple narrow bands at the edge of the disk. Pelger-Huët nuclear a. [MIM*169400] congenital inhibition of lobulation in the nuclei of neutrophilic leukocytes; most cells present band or bilobulate appearance, and only an occasional cell is trilobed; it is not associated with disease, but may be confused with leukocyte “shift to left”; autosomal dominant inheritance. Peters a. SYN: anterior chamber cleavage syndrome. Rieger a. iridocorneal mesochymal dysgenesis. Shone a. coarctation of the aorta, subaortic stenosis, and stenosing ring of the left atrium found in association with a parachute mitral valve. Uhl a. right ventricular myocardial aplasia, causing a dilated, thin-walled right ventricle without murmurs; death results in early childhood. SYN: parchment right ventricle. urogenital sinus a. SYN: hypospadias.

anomer (an′o-mer)
One of two sugar molecules that are epimeric at the hemiacetal or hemiketal carbon atom (carbon-1 in aldoses, carbon-2 in most ketoses); e.g., α-d-glucose and β-d-glucose. SEE ALSO: sugars. Cf.:epimer.

anomia (a-no′me-a)
SYN: nominal aphasia. [G. a- priv. + onoma, name]

anomie (an′o-me)
1. Lawlessness; absence or weakening of social norms or values, with corresponding erosion of social cohesion. 2. In psychiatry, absence or weakening of individual norms or values; characterized by anxiety, isolation, and personal disorientation. [Fr., fr. G. anomia, lawlessness]

anonychia, anonychosis (an-o-nik′e-a, an-o-ni-ko′sis)
Absence of the nails. [G. an- priv. + onyx (onych-), nail]

anonyma (a-non′i-ma)
SYN: innominate. [G. an- priv. + onyma, name]

Anopheles (a-nof′e-lez)
A genus of mosquitoes (family Culicidae, subfamily Anophelinae). The sporogenous cycle of the malarial parasite is passed in the body cavity of female mosquitoes of certain species of this genus; a few selected vectors (from among over 90 species) are listed below. [G. a., useless, harmful, fr. an- priv. + opheleo, to be of use] A. aconitus mosquito species that is a vector of malaria in Indonesia, Thailand, and Cambodia. A. albimanus a species having white hind feet, a common carrier of the malaria parasite in the West Indies and Central America. A. albitarsus a South American species that transmits malaria. A. annularis mosquito species that is an incidental vector of malaria in India. A. annulipes mosquito species that is a vector of malaria in Australia. A. aquasalis mosquito species that is a vector of malaria in the lesser Antilles, Trinidad, and Brazil. A. arabiensis mosquito species that is a principal vector of malaria in arid or montane areas across sub-Saharan Africa to Kenya and the Sudan. A. aztecus mosquito species that is a vector of malaria at higher elevations in Mexico. A. balabacensis a vector species in Southeast Asia, Burma, and India. A. barbirostris mosquito species that is a vector of malaria in Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula. A. bellator mosquito species that is a vector of malaria in Trinidad and Brazil. A. brunnipes mosquito species that is an incidental vector of malaria throughout tropical Africa. A. campestris mosquito species that is a vector of malaria in Malaysia. A. crucians mosquito species that is a secondary or suspected vector of malaria, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Eastern equine encephalitis within the United States. A. cruzi mosquito species that is a vector of malaria in Brazil. A. culicifacies mosquito species that is a common malaria vector in India and Sri Lanka, China, and elsewhere in the Orient. A. darlingi a South American species, an important carrier of the malarial parasite. A. flavirostris mosquito species that is an important vector of malaria in the Philippines, Java, and northern Celebes. A. fluviatilis a species that is an important vector in India and Pakistan. A. freeborni mosquito species that is a vector in the western U.S. (although endemic cases are no longer present). A. funestus an important African mosquito species that transmits malaria. A. gambiae an African mosquito species that is a most important vector of malaria. A. jeyporiensis mosquito species that is a vector of malaria in south China. A. karwari mosquito species that is a vector of malaria in New Guinea. A. kweiyangensis mosquito species that is an important vector of malaria in Szechuan province in China. A. labranchiae mosquito species that is an important vector of malaria wherever found in the Palearctic region. A. lesteri mosquito species that is an important vector of malaria in the lower Yangtze Valley in China. A. leucosphyrus mosquito species that is an important vector of malaria in Borneo. A. maculatus mosquito species that is a vector in Malaysia and Indonesia. A. maculipennis the type species of this genus; its wings are marked by spots formed of collections of scales; one of the most widely spread species active in the dissemination of malaria (formerly an important vector in continental Europe). A. messeae mosquito species that is a vector of malaria in parts of Hungary and eastern Romania. A. minimus mosquito species that is an important vector of malaria wherever found throughout the Orient. A. pseudopunctipennis a South American vector mosquito species. A. quadrimaculatus mosquito species that was formerly an important carrier of malaria in the southern United States. A. stephensi a widespread mosquito species that is an important vector of malaria in Asia. A. sundaicus mosquito species that is an important vector in the Orient and Southeast Asia. A. superpictus mosquito species that is an important vector in the Mediterranean region, Middle East, and southern Asia.

anophelicide (a-nof′e-li-sid)
An agent that destroys the Anopheles mosquito.

anophelifuge (a-nof′e-li-fooj)
An agent that drives away or prevents the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes.

Anophelinae (an-of-e-li′ne)
A subfamily of the mosquitoes (Culicidae) consisting of several genera, including Anopheles.

anopheline (a-nof′e-lin)
Referring to the Anopheles mosquito.

Anophelini (a-nof-e-li-ni)
The tribe of mosquitoes (family Culicidae) that includes the genus Anopheles. [G. anopheles, useless, troublesome]

anophelism (a-nof′e-lizm)
The habitual presence in any region of Anopheles mosquitoes.

anophthalmia (an-of-thal′me-a)
Congenital absence of all tissues of the eyes. SYN: anophthalmos. [G. an- priv. + ophthalmos, eye]

anophthalmos
SYN: anophthalmia.

anoplasty (a′no-plas-te)
Reconstruction of the anus often using advancement flaps. [L. anus + G. plastos, formed]

Anoplocephala (an-op′lo-sef′a-la)
A genus of large tapeworms (family Anoplocephalidae) with strong linear segmentation, numerous scattered testes, and eggs with a pyriform apparatus; they are parasitic in herbivores, with terrestrial mites serving as intermediate hosts. [G. anoplos, unarmed, + kephale, head] A. perfoliata a cosmopolitan species of the horse, donkey, mule, and zebra; cysticercoid larvae are found in arthropods. SYN: Taenia equina, Taenia quadrilobata.

Anoplura (an-o-ploo′ra)
The order of insects that includes the bloodsucking lice of mammals, with some 450 species arranged in 6 families, of which 4 contain species of medical or veterinary importance: Haematopinus, Linognathus, and Solenopotes of domestic mammals, and the human sucking lice Pediculus humanus. [G. anoplos, unarmed, + oura, tail]

anorchia (an-or′ke-a)
SYN: anorchism.

anorchism (an-or′kizm)
Absence of the testes; may be congenital or acquired. SYN: anorchia. [G. an- priv. + orchis, testicle]

anorectal (a′no-rek′tal)
Relating to both anus and rectum.

anorectic, anoretic (an-o-rek′tic, -ret′ik)
1. Relating to, characteristic of, or suffering from anorexia, especially anorexia nervosa. 2. An agent that causes anorexia. SYN: anorexic.

anorexia (an-o-rek′se-a)
Diminished appetite; aversion to food. [G. fr. an- priv. + orexis, appetite] a. nervosa a mental disorder manifested by extreme fear of becoming obese and an aversion to food, usually occurring in young women and often resulting in life-threatening weight loss, accompanied by a disturbance in body image, hyperactivity, and amenorrhea.

anorexiant (an-o-rek′se-ant)
A drug (“diet pills”), process, or event that leads to anorexia.

anorexic (an-o-rek′sik)
SYN: anorectic.

anorexigenic (an′o-rek-si-jen′ik)
Promoting or causing anorexia.

anorgasmy, anorgasmia (an-or-gaz′me, -gaz′me-a)
Failure to experience an orgasm; may be biogenic (secondary to a physical disorder or medication), psychogenic (secondary to psychological or situational factors), or a combination of the two. [G. an- priv. + orgasm + -ia]

anoscope (a′no-skop)
A short speculum for examining the anal canal and lower rectum. Bacon a. an instrument resembling a rectal speculum, with a long slit on one side and an light source opposite.

anosigmoidoscopy (a′no-sig-moy-dos′-ko-pe)
Endoscopy of the anus, rectum and sigmoid colon.

anosmia (an-oz′me-a)
Loss or absense of the sense of smell. It may be: 1, general to all odorants (total), partial to some odorants, or specific to one or more odorants; 2, due to transport disorders (in nasal obstruction) or sensorineural disorders (affecting the olfactory neuroepithelium or the central olfactory neural pathways); or 3, hereditary or acquired. [G. an- priv. + osme, sense of smell]

anosmic (an-oz′mik)
Relating to anosmia.

anosodiaphoria (a-no′so-di-a-for′e-a)
Indifference, real or assumed, regarding the presence of disease, specifically of paralysis. [G. a- priv. + nosos, disease, + diaphora, difference]

anosognosia (a-no′sog-no′se-a)
Ignorance of the presence of disease, specifically of paralysis. Most often seen in patients with non-dominant parietal lobe lesions, who deny their hemiparesis. [G. a- priv. + nosos, disease, + gnosis, knowledge]

anosognosic (a-no-sog-no′sik)
Relating to anosognosia.




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