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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


antitac (an′-te-tak)
Monoclonal antibody that recognizes the alpha chain of the IL-2 receptor.

A state of bacterial RNA polymerase wherein it is resistant to pause, arrest, or termination signals. SEE ALSO: hesitant, overdrive.

antitetanic (an′te-te-tan′ik)
Preventing or alleviating muscular contraction.

antithenar (an-te-the′nar)
SYN: hypothenar eminence.

antithrombin (an-te-throm′bin)
Any substance that inhibits or prevents the effects of thrombin in such a manner that blood does not coagulate. A deficiency of a. results in impaired inhibition of coagulation factors IIa, IXa, and Xa in plasma, causing recurrent thrombosis. a. III a plasma α2-globulin process that inhibits thrombin and has anticoagulant activities. Deficiency [MIM*107300] is commonly inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, caused by mutation in a. III gene (AT3) or chromosome 1q; this is one of the few known mendelizing disorders from which thrombotic disease occurs. normal a. an a. naturally occurring in blood and certain tissues under normal conditions in contrast to abnormal states or a. from other sources.

antithyroid (an-te-thi′royd)
Relating to an agent that suppresses thyroid function ( e.g., propylthiouracil).

antitonic (an-te-ton′ik)
Diminishing muscular or vascular tonus.

antitoxic (an-te-tok′sik)
Neutralizing the action of a poison; specifically, relating to an antitoxin. SEE ALSO: antidotal.

antitoxigen (an-te-toks′i-jen)
SYN: antitoxinogen.

antitoxin (an-te-tok′sin)
Antibody formed in response to antigenic poisonous substances of biologic origin, such as bacterial exotoxins ( e.g., those elaborated by Clostridium tetani or Corynebacterium diphtheriae), phytotoxins, and zootoxins; in general usage, a. refers to whole, or globulin fraction of, serum from persons or animals (usually horses) immunized by injections of the specific toxoid. A. neutralizes the pharmacologic effects of its specific toxin in vitro, and also in vivo if the toxin is not already fixed to the tissue cells. [anti- + G. toxikon, poison] bivalent gas gangrene a. a. specific for the toxins of Clostridium perfringens and C. septicum. bothropic a. a. specific for the venom of pit vipers of the genus Bothrops (Bothrophora) of the family Crotalidae. SYN: Bothrops a.. Bothrops a. SYN: bothropic a.. botulinum a. SYN: botulism a.. botulism a. a. specific for a toxin of one or another strain of Clostridium botulinum. SYN: botulinum a.. bovine a. a. prepared from cattle instead of horses, used in the treatment of persons who are sensitive to horse serum; the cattle are immunized against the toxin for which specific a. is desired. Crotalus a. a. specific for venom of rattlesnakes (Crotalus species). despeciated a. an antitoxic serum treated in an appropriate manner to alter the species-specific protein, so that a person sensitized to the animal protein is not likely to have a serious reaction when the a. is administered. diphtheria a. a. specific for the toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. dysentery a. a. specific for the neurotoxin of Shigella dysenteriae. gas gangrene a. a. specific for the toxin of one or more species of Clostridium that cause gas gangrene and associated toxemia, especially C. perfringens, C. novyi, C. histolyticum, and commercially available preparations are usually polyvalent, i.e., contain a. for two or more species. SYN: pentavalent gas gangrene a.. normal a. serum that is capable of neutralizing an equivalent quantity of a normal toxin solution. pentavalent gas gangrene a. SYN: gas gangrene a.. plant a. a. specific for a phytotoxin. scarlet fever a. a. specific for the erythrogenic toxin of certain strains of group A β-hemolytic streptococci. staphylococcus a. a serum containing antitoxic globulins or their derivatives that specifically neutralize the lethal, skin-necrosing, and hemolytic properties of the α-toxin of Staphylococcus aureus. tetanus a. a. specific for the toxin of Clostridium tetani. tetanus and gas gangrene antitoxins a mixture of antibodies obtained from animals immunized against the toxins of Clostridium tetani, C. perfringens, and C. septicum. tetanus-perfringens a. an a. prepared from animals immunized against the toxins of Clostridium tetani and C. perfringens (C. welchii).

antitoxinogen (an′te-tok-sin′o-jen)
Any antigen that stimulates the formation of antitoxin in an animal or person, i.e., a toxin or a toxoid. SYN: antitoxigen. [antitoxin + G. -gen, producing]

antitragicus (an′te-traj′i-kus)
See a. (muscle).

antitragohelicine (an′te-tra′go-hel′i-sen)
See a. fissure.

antitragus (an-te-tra′gus) [TA]
A projection of the cartilage of the auricle, in front of the tail of the helix, just above the lobule, and posterior to the tragus from which it is separated by the intertragic notch. [G. anti-tragos, the eminence of the external ear, fr. anti, opposite, + tragos, a goat, the tragus]

antitreponemal (an′te-trep-o-ne′mal)
SYN: treponemicidal.

antitrismus (an-te-triz′mus)
A condition of tonic muscular spasm that prevents closing.

antitrope (an′ti-trop)
An organ or appendage that forms a symmetrically reversed pair with another of the same type, e.g., the right and left legs of a vertebrate. [anti- + G. trope, a turn]

antitropic (an-te-tro′pik)
Similar, bilaterally symmetrical, but in an opposite location (as in a mirror image), e.g., the right thumb in relation to the left thumb.

antitrypsic (an-te-trip′sik)
SYN: antitryptic.

antitrypsin (an-te-trip′sin)
A substance that inhibits or prevents the action of trypsin. α1-a. A glycoprotein that is the major protease inhibitor of human serum, is synthesized in the liver, and is genetically polymorphic due to the presence of 25 alleles; individuals appropriately homozygous are deficient in α1-trypsin and are predisposed to pulmonary emphysema and juvenile hepatic cirrhosis because of alterations in the amino acid and sialic acid components of the glycoprotein. The concentration of α1-a. rises in response to injury or infection. α1-A. also inhibits thrombin and elastase. SYN: α1-trypsin inhibitor, human α1-protease inhibitor.

antitryptic (an-te-trip′tik)
Possessing properties of antitrypsin. SYN: antitrypsic.

antitumorigenesis (an′te-too-mor-i-jen′e-sis)
Inhibition of the development of a neoplasm.

antitussive (an-te-tus′iv)
1. Relieving cough. 2. A cough remedy ( e.g., codeine). SYN: antibechic. [anti- + L. tussis, cough]

antityphoid (an-te-ti′foyd)
Preventive or curative of typhoid fever.

antivenene (an-te-ve-nen′)
SYN: antivenin.

antivenereal (an′te-ve-ne′re-al)
Rarely used term for preventive or curative of venereal diseases. SYN: antaphroditic (2) .

antivenin (an-te-ven′in)
An antitoxin specific for an animal or insect venom. SYN: antivenene. [anti- + L. venenum, poison]

antiviral (an-te-vi′ral)
Opposing a virus; interfering with its replication; weakening or abolishing its action ( e.g., zidovudine, acyclovir).

antivitamin (an-te-vi′ta-min)
A substance that prevents a vitamin from exerting its typical biological effects. Most antivitamins have chemical structures like those of vitamins ( e.g., pyridoxine and its a., deoxypyridoxine) and appear to function as competitive antagonists; some antivitamins produce effects, in addition, that are unrelated to vitamin antagonism.

antivivisection (an′te-viv-i-sek′shun)
Opposition to the use of living animals for experimentation. See vivisection.

antixerophthalmic (an′te-ze-rof-thal′mik)
Denoting agents (vitamin A and retinoic acid) that inhibit pathologic drying of the conjunctiva (xerophthalmia). [anti- + G. xeros, dry, + ophthalmos, eye]

antixerotic (an′te-ze-rot′ik)
Preventing xerosis.

Gabriel, German neuropsychiatrist, 1858–1933. See A. syndrome.

Nils R., Swedish neurologist, 1887–1968. See A. type A neurilemoma, A. type B neurilemoma.

antra (an′tra)
Plural of antrum.

antral (an′tral)
Relating to an antrum.

antrectomy (an-trek′to-me)
Removal of a portion of the walls of the maxillary antrum. Removal of the antrum (distal half) of the stomach; often combined with bilateral excision of portions of vagus nerve trunks (vagectomy) in treatment of peptic ulcer. Reconstruction of the continuity of the alimentary tract can be by a gastroduodenostomy (Billroth I) or a loop gastrojejunostomy (Billroth II). [antrum + G. ektome, excision]

An antrum. [L. antrum, from G. antron, a cave]

antronasal (an-tro-na′sal)
Relating to a maxillary sinus and the corresponding nasal cavity.

antrophose (an′tro-foz)
A subjective sensation of light or color originating in the visual centers of the brain. SEE ALSO: phosphene. [antro- + G. phos, light]

antropyloric (an′tro-pi-lor′ik)
Related to or affecting the pyloric antrum.

antroscope (an′tro-skop)
An instrument to aid in the visual examination of any cavity, particularly the antrum of Highmore (maxillary sinus). [antro- + G. skopeo, to view]

antroscopy (an-tros′co-pe)
Examination of any cavity, especially of the antrum of Highmore (maxillary sinus), by means of an antroscope.

antrostomy (an-tros′to-me)
Formation of a permanent opening into any antrum (maxillary sinus). [antro- + G. stoma, mouth] intraoral a. SYN: Caldwell-Luc operation.

antrotomy (an-trot′o-me)
Incision through the wall of any antrum. [antro- + G. tome, incision]

antrotonia (an-tro-to′ne-a)
Tonus of the muscular walls of an antrum, such as that of the stomach.

antrotympanic (an′tro-tim-pan′ik)
Relating to the mastoid antrum and the tympanic cavity.

antrum, gen. antri, pl .antra (an′trum, -tri, -tra) [TA]
1. Any nearly closed cavity, particularly one with bony walls. 2. SYN: pyloric a.. [L. fr. G. antron, a cave] a. auris SYN: external acoustic meatus. cardiac a. a dilation that occasionally occurs in the abdominal part of esophagus. SEE ALSO: abdominal part of esophagus. SYN: a. cardiacum, forestomach. a. cardiacum SYN: cardiac a.. antra ethmoidalia SYN: ethmoid cells, under cell. follicular a. the cavity of an ovarian follicle filled with liquor folliculi. a. of Highmore SYN: maxillary sinus. mastoid a. [TA] a cavity in the petrous portion of the temporal bone, communicating posteriorly with the mastoid cells and anteriorly with the epitympanic recess of the middle ear via the aperture of the mastoid a.. SYN: a. mastoideum [TA] , tympanic a., Valsalva a.. a. mastoideum [TA] SYN: mastoid a.. maxillary a. SYN: maxillary sinus. pyloric a. [TA] the initial portion of the pyloric part of the stomach, which may temporarily become partially or completely shut off from the remainder of the stomach during digestion by peristaltic contraction of the prepyloric “sphincter”; it is sometimes demarcated from the second part of the pyloric part of the stomach (pyloric canal) by a slight groove. SYN: a. pyloricum [TA] , a. (2) [TA] , lesser cul-de-sac. a. pyloricum [TA] SYN: pyloric a.. tympanic a. SYN: mastoid a.. Valsalva a. SYN: mastoid a..

Abbreviation for α-naphthylthiourea.

Greek physician, ca. 150 A.D. See A. method.

Abbreviation for acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis.

anular (an′u-lar)
Ring-shaped. SYN: annular.

anulus, pl .anuli (an′u-lus, -li) [TA]
SYN: ring (1) . [L.] a. abdominalis SYN: deep inguinal ring. a. ciliaris SYN: ciliary body. a. conjunctivae [TA] SYN: conjunctival ring. a. femoralis [TA] SYN: femoral ring. a. fibrocartilagineus membranae tympani [TA] SYN: fibrocartilaginous ring of tympanic membrane. a. fibrosus [TA] 1. SYN: (right and left) fibrous rings of heart, under ring. 2. SYN: a. fibrosus of intervertebral disk. a. fibrosus dexter/sinister cordis SYN: (right and left) fibrous rings of heart, under ring. a. fibrosus disci intervertebralis [TA] SYN: a. fibrosus of intervertebral disk. a. fibrosus of intervertebral disk [TA] the ring of fibrocartilage and fibrous tissue forming the circumference of the intervertebral disk; surrounds the nucleus pulposus, which is prone to herniation when the annulus fibrosus is compromised. SYN: a. fibrosus disci intervertebralis [TA] , a. fibrosus (2) [TA] , fibrous ring of intervertebral disk, fibrous ring (2) . a. of fibrous sheath SYN: anular part of fibrous digital sheath of digits of hand and foot. Haller a. SYN: Haller insula. a. hemorrhoidalis SYN: hemorrhoidal zone. a. inguinalis profundus [TA] SYN: deep inguinal ring. a. inguinalis superficialis SYN: superficial inguinal ring. a. iridis [TA] SYN: border of iris. a. iridis major [TA] SYN: outer border of iris. a. iridis minor [TA] SYN: inner border of iris. a. lymphaticus cardiae [TA] SYN: lymph nodes around cardia of stomach, under lymph node. a. lymphoideus pharyngis [TA] SYN: pharyngeal lymphatic ring. a. ovalis SYN: limbus fossae ovalis. a. tendineus communis SYN: common tendinous ring of extraocular muscles. a. tympanicus SYN: tympanic ring. a. umbilicalis SYN: umbilical ring. a. urethralis SYN: internal urethral sphincter. Vieussens a. SYN: limbus fossae ovalis. a. of Zinn SYN: common tendinous ring of extraocular muscles.

anuria (an-u′re-a)
Absence of urine formation.

anuric (an-ur′ik)
Relating to anuria.

anus, gen. and pl. ani (a′nus, -ni) [TA]
The lower opening of the digestive tract, lying in the cleft between the buttocks, through which fecal matter is extruded. SYN: anal orifice. [L.] Bartholin a. SYN: opening of aqueduct of midbrain. a. cerebri obsolete term for opening of aqueduct of midbrain. imperforate a. SYN: anal atresia. a. vesicalis rectal emptying into the urinary bladder. vesicalis a. (ve-si′kal-is) imperforate a. with urinary bladder opening into the a.. vestibular a., vulvovaginal a. a congenital malformation in which the a. is imperforate but the rectum opens into the vagina just above the vulva.

SYN: incus.

anxiety (ang-zi′e-te)
1. Fear or apprehension or dread of impending danger and accompanied by restlessness, tension, tachycardia, and dyspnea unattached to a clearly identifiable stimulus. 2. In experimental psychology, a drive or motivational state learned from and thereafter associated with previously neutral cues. [L. anxietas, a., fr. anxius, distressed, fr. ango, to press tight, to torment] a. attack an acute episode of a.. castration a. SYN: castration complex. free-floating a. in psychoanalysis, a pervasive unrealistic expectation unattached to a clearly formulated concept or object of fear; observed particularly in a. neurosis and may be seen in some cases of latent schizophrenia. noetic a. in existential psychotherapy, a. caused by confusion or loss of meaning in life. separation a. a child's apprehension or fear associated with removal from or loss of a parent or significant other. situation a. a. related to current life problems.

anxiolytic (ang′ze-o-lit′ik)
1. SYN: antianxiety agent. 2. Denoting the actions of such an agent ( e.g., diazepam). [anxiety + G. lysis, a dissolution or loosening]

Abbreviation for anodal opening contraction.

Aonchotheca (a-on-ko-the′ka)
One of three trichurid nematode genera, commonly referred to as Capillaria.

aorta, gen. and pl. aortae (a-or′ta, a-or′te) [TA]
A large artery of the elastic type that is the main trunk of the systemic arterial system, arising from the base of the left ventricle and ending at the left side of the body of the fourth lumbar vertebra by dividing to form the right and left common iliac arteries. The a. is subdivided into: ascending a.; aortic arch; and descending a., which is in turn, divided into the thoracic a. and the abdominal a.. SYN: arteria a.. [Mod. L. fr. G. aorte, from aeiro, to lift up] abdominal a. [TA] the part of the descending a. that supplies structures below the diaphragm. SYN: pars abdominalis aortae [TA] , a. abdominalis&star, abdominal part of a.. a. abdominalis abdominal a.. a. angusta congenital narrowness of a.. a. ascendens ascending a.. ascending a. [TA] the part of the a. prior to the aortic arch from which arise the coronary arteries. SYN: pars ascendens aortae [TA] , a. ascendens&star, ascending part of a.. buckled a. SYN: pseudocoarctation. a. descendens descending a.. descending a. [TA] a part of the a., further divided into the thoracic a. and the abdominal a.. SYN: pars descendens aortae [TA] , a. descendens&star, descending part of a.. dynamic a. abnormally marked pulsations of a.. kinked a. SYN: pseudocoarctation. overriding a. a congenitally malpositioned a. whose origin straddles the ventricular septum and so receives ejected blood from the right ventricle as well as from the left; it is found especially in tetralogy of Fallot. primitive a. the paired aortic primordia in young embryos. pseudocoarctation of the a. a rare abnormality of the arch of the a. that constricts that vessel but is not a true coarctation in that there is no significant encroachment on the lumen. shaggy a. a colloquial but fitting description for severe arterial degeneration of the a., the surface of which is extremely friable and likely to cause atheroembolism. thoracic a. [TA] the part of the descending a. that supplies structures as far down as the diaphragm. SYN: pars thoracica aortae [TA] , a. thoracica&star, thoracic part of a.. a. thoracica thoracic a.. ventral aortas the paired vessels ventral to the pharynx, which give rise to the aortic arches. An antibody that inhibits or prevents the effects of streptolysin O elaborated by group A streptococci; the amount of a. in the serum is frequently increased during and after streptococcal disease, and comparative titers may be a diagnostic and prognostic aid.


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