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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


aortal (a-or′tal)
SYN: aortic.

aortalgia (a-or-tal′je-a)
Pain assumed to be due to aneurysm or other pathologic conditions of the aorta. [aorta + G. algos, pain]

aortarctia (a-or-tark′she-a)
SYN: aortostenosis. [aorta + L. arcto, properly arto, to narrow]

aortartia (a-or-tar′she-a)
SYN: aortostenosis.

aortectasis, aortectasia (a-or-tek′ta-sis, -tek-ta′ze-a)
Dilation of aorta. [aorta + G. ektasis, a stretching]

aortectomy (a-or-tek′to-me)
Excision of a portion of the aorta. [aorta + G. ektome, excision]

aortic (a-or′tik)
Relating to the aorta or the a. orifice of the left ventricle of the heart. SYN: aortal.

aortic curtain
An intertrigonal sheet of fibrous tissue between the aortic annulus and the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve.

aorticorenal (a-or′ti-ko-re′nal)
Related to the aorta and kidney, specifically the ganglion aorticorenale.

aortitis (a-or-ti′tis)
Inflammation of the aorta. giant cell a. giant cell arteritis involving the aorta. syphilitic a. a common manifestation of tertiary syphilis, involving the thoracic aorta, where destruction of elastic tissue in the media results in dilation and aneurysm formation.

aortocoronary (a-or′to-kor′o-nar-e)
Relating to the aorta and the coronary arteries.

aortogram (a-or′to-gram)
The image or set of images resulting from aortography.

aortography (a-or-tog′ra-fe)
1. Radiographic imaging of the aorta and its branches, or a portion of the aorta, by injection of contrast medium. 2. Imaging of the aorta by ultrasound or magnetic resonance. [aorta + G. grapho, to write] retrograde a. a. by the injection of contrast medium into the aorta through one of its branches, e.g., the brachial artery, in a direction against normal arterial blood flow. translumbar a. early method of a. by injection into the abdominal aorta through a needle just below the twelfth rib and four fingerbreadths to the left of the spinous process of the vertebra.

aortopathy (a-or-top′a-the)
Disease affecting the aorta. [aorta + G. pathos, suffering]

A surgical procedure used to treat tracheomalacia or tracheal compression.

aortoplasty (a-or′to-plas′te)
A procedure for surgical repair of the aorta.

aortoptosia, aortoptosis (a-or-top-to′ze-a, -top-to′sis)
A sinking down of the abdominal aorta in splanchnoptosia. [aorta + G. ptosis, a failing]

aortorrhaphy (a-or-tor′a-fe)
Suture of the aorta. [aorta + G. rhaphe, seam]

aortosclerosis (a-or′to-skler-o′sis)
Arteriosclerosis of the aorta.

aortostenosis (a-or-to-ste-no′sis)
Narrowing of the aorta. SYN: aortarctia, aortartia. [aorta + G. stenosis, a narrowing]

aortotomy (a-or-tot′o-me)
Incision of the aorta. [aorta + G. tome, a cutting]

Abbreviation for area postrema.

Abbreviation for antipernicious anemia factor.

apallesthesia (a-pal-es-the′ze-a)
SYN: pallanesthesia. [G. a- priv. + pallo, to tremble, quiver, + aisthesis, feeling]

apallic (a-pal′ik)
SYN: a. state. [G. a- priv. + L. pallium, brain mantle (cerebral cortex)]

apancreatic (a-pan-kre-at′ik)
Without a pancreas.

aparalytic (a-par′a-lit′ik)
Without paralysis; not causing paralysis.

aparathyreosis (a-par-a-thi′re-o- sis)
hypoparathyroidism, especially that caused by removal of the parathyroid glands. [G. a- priv. + parathyroid + -osis, condition]

aparathyroidism (a-par-a-thi′royd-izm)
Congenital absence, deficiency, or surgical removal of the parathyroid glands.

apareunia (a-par-u′ne-a)
Absence or impossibility of coitus. [G. a- priv. + para, alongside, + eune, bed]

apathetic (ap-a-thet′ik)
Exhibiting apathy; indifferent.

apathism (ap′a-thizm)
A sluggishness of reaction.

apathy (ap′a-the)
Indifference; absence of interest in the environment. Often one of the earliest signs of cerebral disease. [G. apatheia, fr. a- priv. + pathos, suffering]

apatite (ap′a-tit)
1. Generic name for a class of minerals with compositions that are variants of the formula D5T3M, where D is a divalent cation, T is a trivalent tetrahedral compound ion, and M is a monovalent anion; calcium phosphate apatites are important mineral constituents of bones and teeth. See hydroxyapatite. 2. Ca5(PO4)3(OH,F,Cl).

Acronym for acetylsalicylic acid, phenacetin, and caffeine combined as a formerly widely used antipyretic and analgesic; antigen-presenting cells, under cell.

1. Abbreviation for adenoidal-pharyngeal-conjunctival. 2. Antigen-presenting cell.

apellous (a-pel′us)
1. Without skin. 2. Without foreskin; circumcised. [G. a- priv + L. pellis, skin]

apenteric (ap-en-ter′ik)
An obsolete term for abenteric. [G. apo, from, + enteron, intestine]

apepsinia (a-pep-sin′e-a)
Rarely used term for lack of pepsin in the gastric juice.

aperiodic (a-per-e-od′ik)
Not occurring periodically.

aperistalsis (a′per-i-stal′sis)
Absence of peristalsis.

aperitive (a-per′i-tiv)
Stimulating the appetite. [Fr. apéritif, from L. aperio, to open]

Eugène, French pediatrician, 1868–1940. See A. syndrome.

apertognathia (a-per-to-nath′e-a)
An open bite deformity, a type of malocclusion characterized by premature posterior occlusion and absence of anterior occlusion. SYN: open bite (2) . [L. apertus, open, + G. gnathos, jaw]

apertometer (ap-er-tom′e-ter)
Instrument for measuring the angular aperture of a microscope objective.

apertura, pl .aperturae (ap-er-too′ra, -re) [TA]
SYN: aperture. [L. fr. aperio, pp. apertus, to open] a. aqueductus cerebri opening of aqueduct of midbrain. a. aqueductus mesencephali [TA] SYN: opening of aqueduct of midbrain. a. canaliculi cochleae SYN: external opening of cochlear canaliculus. a. canaliculi vestibuli SYN: opening of vestibular canaliculus. a. lateralis ventriculi quarti [TA] SYN: lateral aperture of fourth ventricle. a. mediana ventriculi quarti [TA] SYN: median aperture of fourth ventricle. a. pelvis inferior [TA] SYN: pelvic outlet. a. pelvis minoris SYN: pelvic outlet. a. pelvis superior [TA] SYN: pelvic inlet. a. piriformis [TA] SYN: piriform aperture. a. sinus frontalis [TA] SYN: opening of frontal sinus. a. sinus sphenoidalis [TA] SYN: opening of the sphenoidal sinus. a. thoracis inferior [TA] SYN: inferior thoracic aperture. a. thoracis superior [TA] SYN: superior thoracic aperture. a. tympanica canaliculi chordae tympani [TA] SYN: tympanic aperture of canaliculus for chorda tympani.

aperture (ap′er-choor) [TA]
1. An inlet or entrance to a cavity or channel. in anatomy, an open gap or hole. SEE ALSO: fossa, ostium, orifice, pore. 2. The diameter of the objective of a microscope. SYN: aditus [TA] , apertura [TA] . [L. apertura, an opening] angular a. the angle, in air, of light that passes from the object to the ends of the diameter of the front lens of the microscope objective. external acoustic a. external acoustic pore. external a. of cochlear canaliculus SYN: external opening of cochlear canaliculus. external a. of vestibular aqueduct SYN: opening of vestibular canaliculus. frontal sinus a. SYN: opening of frontal sinus. inferior pelvic a. SYN: pelvic outlet. inferior thoracic a. [TA] the inferior boundary of the bony thorax composed of the twelfth thoracic vertebra and the lower margins of the rib cage and sternum. SYN: apertura thoracis inferior [TA] , thoracic outlet (1) . laryngeal a. SYN: laryngeal inlet. lateral a. of fourth ventricle [TA] one of the two lateral openings of the fourth ventricle into the subarachnoid space (the lateral cerebellomedullary cistern) at the cerebellopontine angle. SYN: apertura lateralis ventriculi quarti [TA] , foramen lateralis ventriculi quarti, foramen of Key-Retzius, foramen of Luschka, foramen of Retzius. a. of mastoid antrum SYN: aditus to mastoid antrum. median a. of fourth ventricle [TA] the large midline opening in the posterior inferior part of the roof of the fourth ventricle, connecting the ventricle with the posterior cerebellomedullary cistern. SYN: apertura mediana ventriculi quarti [TA] , arachnoid foramen, foramen of Magendie. numerical a. (N.A.) defined by the formula n sine a, where n is the refractive index of the medium between the object and objective lens and a is the angle between the central and the marginal ray entering the objective. a. of orbit SYN: orbital opening. piriform a. [TA] the anterior nasal opening in the skull. SYN: apertura piriformis [TA] , piriform opening. posterior nasal apertures choanae. sphenoidal sinus a. SYN: opening of the sphenoidal sinus. superior pelvic a. SYN: pelvic inlet. superior thoracic a. [TA] the upper boundary of the bony thorax composed of the first thoracic vertebra and the upper margins of the first ribs and manubrium of the sternum. Note: clinicians refer to the superior thoracic a. as the “thoracic outlet.” as in “thoracic outlet syndrome.” SYN: apertura thoracis superior [TA] , thoracic inlet, thoracic outlet (2) . tympanic a. of canaliculus for chorda tympani [TA] the small canal opening found lateral to the pyramidal eminence in the posterior wall of the middle ear cavity from which the chorda tympani nerve emerges to pass anteriorly between the ossicles accompanied by a branch of the stylomastoid artery. SYN: apertura tympanica canaliculi chordae tympani [TA] , tympanic opening of canaliculus for chorda tympani.

apex, gen. apicis, pl .apices (a′peks, ap′i-sis, ap′i-ses) [TA]
The extremity of a conical or pyramidal structure, such as the heart or the lung. [L. summit or tip] a. of arytenoid cartilage [TA] the pointed upper end of the cartilage that supports the corniculate cartilage and the aryepiglottic fold. SYN: a. cartilaginis arytenoideae [TA] . a. of auricle [TA] a point projecting upward and posteriorly from the free outcurved margin of the helix a little posterior to its upper end. SYN: a. auriculae [TA] , tip of ear&star, a. satyri, tip of auricle, Woolner tip. a. auriculae [TA] SYN: a. of auricle. a. capitis fibulae [TA] SYN: a. of head of fibula. a. cartilaginis arytenoideae [TA] SYN: a. of arytenoid cartilage. a. cordis [TA] SYN: a. of heart. a. cornus posterioris [TA] SYN: a. of posterior horn. a. cuspidis dentis [TA] SYN: a. of cusp of tooth. a. of cusp of tooth [TA] the tip of the peaklike projections from the crown of a tooth. SYN: a. cuspidis dentis [TA] . a. of dens [TA] the tip of the dens of the axis to which is attached the apical ligament of the dens. SYN: a. dentis [TA] . a. dentis [TA] SYN: a. of dens. a. of head of fibula [TA] the pointed upper end of the fibular head to which is attached the arcuate popliteal ligament and part of the biceps femoris tendon. SYN: a. capitis fibulae [TA] , styloid process of fibula. a. of heart [TA] the blunt extremity of the heart formed by the left ventricle. See a. beat. SYN: a. cordis [TA] , vertex cordis. a. linguae [TA] SYN: a. of tongue. a. of lung [TA] the rounded, upper extremity of each lung that extends into the cupula of the pleura. SYN: a. pulmonis [TA] . a. nasi [TA] SYN: a. of nose. a. of nose [TA] anteriormost pointed end of external nose. SYN: a. nasi [TA] , tip of nose&star. a. of orbit the posterior part of the orbit into which the optic canal opens; forms the tip of the pyramidal space. a. ossis sacri [TA] SYN: a. of sacrum. a. partis petrosae ossis temporalis [TA] SYN: a. of petrous part of temporal bone. a. of patella [TA] the pointed inferior end of the patella from which the ligamentum patellae passes to insert on the tibial tuberosity. SYN: a. patellae [TA] . a. patellae [TA] SYN: a. of patella. a. of petrous part of temporal bone [TA] the irregular antero-medial extremity of the petrous part on which the anterior end of the carotid canal opens. SYN: a. partis petrosae ossis temporalis [TA] . a. of posterior horn [TA] the pointed extremity of each posterior gray column or cornu of the spinal cord. SYN: a. cornus posterioris [TA] , tip of posterior horn. a. prostatae [TA] SYN: a. of prostate. a. of prostate [TA] the lowermost part of the prostate, situated above the urogenital diaphragm. SYN: a. prostatae [TA] . a. pulmonis [TA] SYN: a. of lung. a. radicis dentis [TA] SYN: root a.. root a. [TA] the tip of a tooth root, that part farthest from the incisal or occlusal side. SYN: a. radicis dentis [TA] , root tip, tip of tooth root. a. of sacrum [TA] the tapering lower end of the sacrum that articulates with the coccyx. SYN: a. ossis sacri [TA] . a. satyri SYN: a. of auricle. a. of tongue [TA] the anterior extreme of the tongue which can be made pointed for sensing or probing and which rests against the lingual aspect of the incisor teeth. SYN: a. linguae [TA] , tip of tongue&star. a. of (urinary) bladder [TA] the junction of the superior and anteroinferior surfaces of the bladder, continuous above with the median umbilical ligament. SYN: a. vesicae. a. vesicae SYN: a. of (urinary) bladder.

apexcardiogram (a-peks-kar′de-o-gram)
Graphic recording of the movements of the chest wall produced by the apex beat of the heart.

apexcardiography (a′peks-kar′de-og-ra-fe)
Noninvasive graphic recording of cardiac pulsations from the region of the apex, usually of the left ventricle, and resembling the ventricular pressure curve.

apexification (a-pek′si-fi-ka′shun)
Induced tooth root development or closure of the root apex by hard tissue deposition.

apexigraph (a-pek′si-graf)
A device for determining the size and position of the apex of a tooth root. [apex + G. grapho, to write]

Abbreviation for animal protein factor.

Virginia, U.S. anesthesiologist, 1909–1974. See A. score.

aphagia (a-fa′je-a)
Inability to eat. [G. a- priv. + phago, to eat]

aphakia (a-fa′ke-a)
Absence of the lens of the eye. [G. a- priv. + phakos, lentil, anything shaped like a lentil]

aphalangia (a-fa-lan′je-a)
Congenital absence of a digit, or more specifically, absence of one or more of the long bones (phalanges) of a finger or toe. [G. a- priv. + phalanx]

aphasia (a-fa′ze-a)
Impaired or absent comprehension or production of, or communication by, speech, writing, or signs, due to an acquired lesion of the dominant cerebral hemisphere. SYN: alogia (1) . [G. speechlessness, fr. a- priv. + phasis, speech] acoustic a. SYN: auditory a.. acquired epileptic a. SYN: Landau-Kleffner syndrome. amnestic a., amnesic a. SYN: nominal a.. anomic a. SYN: nominal a.. anterior a. SYN: motor a.. associative a. SYN: conduction a.. ataxic a. SYN: motor a.. auditory a. an impairment in comprehension of the auditory forms of language and communication, including the ability to write from dictation in the presence of normal hearing. Spontaneous speech, reading, and writing are not affected. SYN: acoustic a., word deafness. Broca a. SYN: motor a.. conduction a. a form of a. in which the patient understands spoken and written words, is aware of his deficit, and can speak and write, but skips or repeats words, or substitutes one word for another (paraphasia); word repetition is severely impaired. The responsible lesion is in the associate tracts connecting the various language centers. SYN: associative a.. crossed a. a. in a right-handed person due to a solely right cerebral lesion. expressive a. SYN: motor a.. fluent a. SYN: sensory a.. functional a. nonorganic a. related to conversion hysteria. global a. in which all aspects of speech and communication are severely impaired. At best, patients can understand or speak only a few words or phrases; they cannot read or write. SYN: mixed a., total a.. graphic a. SYN: agraphia. graphomotor a. SYN: agraphia. impressive a. SYN: sensory a.. jargon a. SYN: agrammatism. mixed a. SYN: global a.. motor a. a type of a. in which there is a deficit in speech production or language output, often accompanied by a deficit in communicating by writing, signs, etc. The patient is aware of the impairment. SYN: anterior a., ataxic a., Broca a., expressive a., nonfluent a.. nominal a. an a. in which the principal deficit is difficulty in naming persons and objects seen, heard, or felt; due to lesions in various portions of the language area. SYN: amnestic a., amnesic a., anomia, anomic a.. nonfluent a. SYN: motor a.. pathematic a. mutism related to anger or strong emotions. posterior a. SYN: sensory a.. psychosensory a. SYN: sensory a.. pure aphasias rare aphasias affecting only one type of communication, e.g., reading, while related communication forms such as writing, auditory comprehension, etc. remain intact. receptive a. SYN: sensory a.. semantic a. a. in which objects are correctly named; there is little disturbance in the articulation of words; individual words are understood, but the broader meaning of what is heard cannot be grasped. sensory a. a. in which there is impairment in the comprehension of spoken and written words, associated with effortless, articulated, but paraphrastic, speech and writing; malformed words, substitute words, and neologisms are characteristic. When severe, and speech is incomprehensible, it is called jargon a.. The patient often appears unaware of the deficit. SYN: fluent a., impressive a., posterior a., psychosensory a., receptive a., Wernicke a.. syntactical a. a. in which the words are fairly well pronounced but are spoken in short phrases or poorly constructed sentences without articles, prepositions, or conjunctions. total a. SYN: global a.. transcortical a. an a. in which the unaffected motor and sensory language areas are isolated from the rest of the hemispheric cortex. Subdivided into transcortical sensory and transcortical motor aphasias. visual a. 1. SYN: alexia. 2. improperly used as a synonym for anomia. Wernicke a. SYN: sensory a..


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