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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

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artery
A relatively thick-walled, muscular, pulsating blood vessel conveying blood away from the heart. With the exception of the pulmonary and umbilical arteries, the arteries contain red or oxygenated blood. At the major arteries, the arterial branches are listed separately following the designation branches. SYN: arteria [TA] . [L. arteria, fr. G. arteria]
  • Abbott a. an anomalous a. arising from the posteromedial proximal descending aorta, important during coarctation repair.
  • aberrant a. a. having an unusual origin or course.
  • aberrant obturator a. [TA] pubic branch of inferior epigastric a..
  • accessory meningeal a. SYN: pterygomeningeal a..
  • accessory obturator a. [TA] term applied to the anastomosis of the pubic branch of the inferior epigastric a. with the pubic branch of the obturator a. when it contributes a significant supply through the obturator canal. SYN: arteria obturatoria accessoria [TA] , ramus obturatorius arteriae epigastricae inferioris.
  • acetabular a. SYN: acetabular branch.
  • acromial a. SYN: acromial branch of thoracoacromial a..
  • acromiothoracic a. SYN: thoracoacromial a..
  • a. of Adamkiewicz SYN: great segmental medullary a..
  • alar a. of nose a branch of the angular a. that supplies the ala of the nose.
  • a. of angular gyrus SYN: branch to angular gyrus.
  • anterior cecal a. [TA] origin, ileocolic a.; distribution, anterior region of cecum. SYN: arteria cecalis anterior [TA] .
  • anterior cerebral a. [TA] one of the two terminal branches (with middle cerebral a. of the internal carotid; it passes anteriorly, loops around the genu of the corpus callosum, then posteriorly in the interhemispheric fissure along with its fellow of the opposite side, the two being joined by the anterior communicating a. [TA]; for descriptive purposes, it is divided into two parts: the precommunicating part [TA] (A1 segment of clinical terminology), which gives rise to the anteromedial central arteries [TA], which consist of proximal medial striate arteries [TA], the supraoptic a. [TA], anterior perforating arteries [TA] and preoptic arteries [TA] and a postcommunical part [TA], (A2 segment), which gives rise to a distal medial striate a. [TA], medial frontobasal a. [TA], polar frontal a. [TA], and two large terminal branches: the pericallosal a. [TA] and the callosomarginal a. [TA]. The latter two have branches that serve specific regions of cortex. SYN: arteria cerebri anterior [TA] .
  • anterior choroidal a. [TA] origin, internal carotid or (rarely) middle cerebral a.; distribution, named branches [TA] to choroid plexus of lateral and third ventricles, optic chiasm and tract, internal capsule (genu, posterior limb, retrolentiform limb), lateral geniculate body, globus pallidus, tail of caudate nucleus, hippocampus, amygdaloid body, tuber cinereuum, hypothalamic nuclei, thalamic nuclei, substantia nigra, red nucleus, and crus cerebri. SYN: arteria choroidea anterior [TA] .
  • anterior ciliary arteries one of several arteries derived from muscular branches of the ophthalmic that perforate the anterior part of the sclera and anastomose with posterior ciliary arteries. SYN: arteriae ciliares anteriores.
  • anterior circumflex humeral a. [TA] origin, axillary; distribution, shoulder joint and biceps muscle; anastomoses, posterior circumflex humeral a.. SYN: arteria circumflexa humeri anterior [TA] , anterior humeral circumflex a..
  • anterior communicating a. [TA] a short vessel joining the two anterior cerebral arteries and completing the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) anteriorly. SYN: arteria communicans anterior [TA] .
  • anterior conjunctival a. [TA] one of a number of small branches of the anterior ciliary arteries that supplies the conjunctiva. SYN: arteria conjunctivalis anterior [TA] , conjunctival arteries.
  • anterior ethmoidal a. [TA] origin, ophthalmic; distribution, cerebral membranes in anterior cranial fossa, anterior ethmoidal cells, frontal sinus, anterior upper part of nasal mucous membrane, skin of dorsum of nose. SYN: arteria ethmoidalis anterior [TA] .
  • anterior humeral circumflex a. SYN: anterior circumflex humeral a..
  • anterior inferior cerebellar a. [TA] origin, basilar; distribution, lower surface of lateral lobes of cerebellum, choroid plexus in cerebellopontine angle; anastomoses, posterior inferior cerebellar; usual source of labyrinthine a.. SYN: arteria inferior anterior cerebelli [TA] .
  • anterior inferior segmental a. of kidney [TA] origin, anterior branch of renal. See segmental arteries of kidney. SYN: a. of anterior inferior segment of kidney.
  • a. of anterior inferior segment of kidney SYN: anterior inferior segmental a. of kidney.
  • anterior intercostal arteries SYN: anterior intercostal branches of internal thoracic a., under branch.
  • anterior interosseous a. [TA] origin, common interosseous; distribution, deep parts of the forearm anteriorly; anastomoses, posterior interosseous. SYN: arteria interossea anterior [TA] , arteria interossea volaris, volar interosseous a..
  • anterior interventricular a. SYN: anterior interventricular branch of left coronary a..
  • anterior labial arteries SYN: anterior labial branches of deep external pudendal a., under branch.
  • anterior lateral malleolar a. [TA] origin, anterior tibial; distribution, ankle joint; anastomoses, peroneal, lateral tarsal. SYN: arteria malleolaris anterior lateralis [TA] .
  • anterior medial malleolar a. [TA] origin, anterior tibial; distribution, ankle joint and neighboring integument; anastomoses, branches of posterior tibial. SYN: arteria malleolaris anterior medialis [TA] .
  • anterior mediastinal arteries SYN: mediastinal branches of internal thoracic a., under branch.
  • anterior meningeal a. SYN: anterior meningeal branch (of anterior ethmoidal a.).
  • anterior parietal a. [TA] one of the terminal branches of the insular part of the middle cerebral a., distributed to the anterior part of the parietal lobe. SYN: arteria parietalis anterior [TA] .
  • anterior perforating arteries [TA] origin: as part of the anteromedial central arteries arising from the precommunicating part (A1 segment) of the anterior cerebral a.; enters the anterior perforated substance of the cranial base. SYN: arteriae perforantes anteriores [TA] .
  • anterior peroneal a. perforating branches, under branch.
  • (anterior and posterior) radicular arteries branches of spinal arteries distributed to the dorsal and ventral roots of spinal nerves and their coverings. See spinal arteries, segmental medullary arteries. SYN: arteriae radiculares (anterior et posterior).
  • (anterior and posterior) superior pancreaticoduodenal a. origin, gastroduodenal; one of two arteries, anterior and superior; distribution, head of pancreas, duodenum, common bile duct; anastomoses, inferior pancreaticoduodenal, splenic. SYN: arteria pancreaticoduodenalis superior (anterior et posterior).
  • anterior segmental a. See left pulmonary a., right pulmonary a..
  • anterior spinal a. [TA] origin, intracranial part of vertebral; distribution, anteromedial spinal cord and adjacent pia mater; anastomoses, spinal of intercostal and lumbar arteries. SYN: arteria spinalis anterior [TA] .
  • anterior superior alveolar arteries [TA] origin, infraorbital a. within intraorbital canal; distribution, via anterior alveolar canals to upper incisors and canine teeth, mucous membrane of maxillary sinus. SYN: arteriae alveolares superiores anteriores [TA] , anterior superior dental arteries.
  • anterior superior dental arteries SYN: anterior superior alveolar arteries.
  • anterior superior segmental a. of kidney [TA] origin, anterior branch of renal. See segmental arteries of kidney. SYN: a. of anterior superior segment of kidney.
  • a. of anterior superior segment of kidney SYN: anterior superior segmental a. of kidney.
  • anterior temporal a. SYN: anterior temporal branch.
  • anterior tibial a. origin, popliteal; branches, posterior and anterior tibial recurrent, lateral and medial anterior malleolar, dorsalis pedis, lateral tarsal, medial tarsal, arcuate, dorsal metatarsal, and dorsal digital. SYN: arteria tibialis anterior [TA] .
  • anterior tibial recurrent a. [TA] a branch of the anterior tibial a. that ascends to supply the front and sides of the knee joint, thus contributing to the articular network of the knee. SYN: arteria recurrens tibialis anterior [TA] .
  • anterior tympanic a. [TA] origin, first (retromandibular) part of the maxillary; distribution, middle ear; anastomoses, tympanic branches of internal carotid and ascending pharyngeal and stylomastoid. SYN: arteria tympanica anterior [TA] , glaserian a..
  • anterior vestibular a. origin: as a terminal branch, with the common cochlear a., of the labyrinthine a.; branch: vestibulocochlear a.; distribution: to vestibular ganglion, utricle and (especially the ampullae of the) lateral and posterior semicircular ducts. SYN: arteria vestibularis anterior [TA] , arteria vestibuli&star.
  • anterolateral central arteries [TA] numerous small branches from the sphenoidal part of the middle cerebral arteries supplying the lateral and anterior parts of the corpus striatum. SYN: arteriae centrales anterolaterales [TA] , lenticulostriate arteries (1) &star, anterolateral striate arteries, anterolateral thalamostriate arteries, arteriae thalamostriatae anterolaterales, arteries of cerebral hemorrhage, lateral striate arteries.
  • anterolateral striate arteries SYN: anterolateral central arteries.
  • anterolateral thalamostriate arteries SYN: anterolateral central arteries.
  • anteromedial central arteries [TA] several small branches of the precommunical part (A1 segment) of the anterior cerebral a. or of the anterior communicating a.; they are distributed to the anteromedial part of the corpus striatum part of the thalamus. SYN: arteriae centrales anteromediales [TA] , anteromedial thalamostriate arteries, arteriae thalamostriatae anteromediales.
  • anteromedial thalamostriate arteries SYN: anteromedial central arteries.
  • apical segmental a. [TA] See left pulmonary a., right pulmonary a..
  • apical segmental a. of superior lobar a. of right lung [TA] branch (of the inferior lobar branch) of the right pulmonary a. serving the apical segment of the inferior lobe of the right lung. SYN: apical branch of inferior lobar branch of right pulmonary a.&star, ramus apicalis lobi inferioris arteriae pulmonalis dextrae&star.
  • apicoposterior a. a pulmonary a. branch to the apicoposterior segment left of the upper lobe.
  • appendicular a. [TA] the branch of the ileocolic a. that descends posterior to the terminal ileum in the mesoappendix to supply the vermiform appendix. SYN: arteria appendicularis [TA] .
  • arciform arteries SYN: arcuate arteries of kidney.
  • arcuate arteries of kidney [TA] curved arteries at the corticomedullary border, arising from interlobar arteries and giving rise to interlobular arteries. SYN: arteriae arcuatae renis [TA] , arciform arteries.
  • arcuate a. (of foot) (inconstant) [TA] origin, dorsalis pedis; branches, passes laterally dorsal to the bases of the metatarsals, giving rise to the second, third, and fourth dorsal metatarsal arteries at the level of the medial cuneiform bone. SYN: arteria arcuata (pedis) [TA] .
  • ascending a. [TA] 1. SYN: colic branch of ileocolic a.. 2. branch of the left colic a. (from inferior mesenteric a.) that passes anteriorly to the left kidney into the transverse mesocolon, where it anastomoses with the middle colic a.. It thus forms an anastomosis between superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, and is a component of the marginal a. (Drummond) of the colon. SYN: arteria ascendens (2) [TA] , arteria intermesenterica, ascending branch of the inferior mesenteric a..
  • ascending cervical a. [TA] origin, usually a terminal branch of the thyrocervical trunk (along with interior thyroid a.); distribution, muscles of neck and spinal cord; anastomoses, branches of vertebral, occipital, ascending pharyngeal, and deep cervical. SYN: arteria cervicalis ascendens [TA] , cervicalis ascendens (2) .
  • ascending palatine a. [TA] origin, facial; distribution, lateral walls of pharynx, tonsils, auditory tubes, and soft palate; anastomoses, tonsillar branch of facial, dorsal lingual, and descending palatine. SYN: arteria palatina ascendens [TA] .
  • ascending pharyngeal a. [TA] origin, external carotid; distribution, wall of pharynx and soft palate, posterior cranial fossa. SYN: arteria pharyngea ascendens [TA] .
  • atrial arteries branches of the right and left coronary arteries distributed to the muscle of the atria. SYN: arteriae atriales.
  • a. to atrioventricular node SYN: atrioventricular nodal branch.
  • axillary a. [TA] the continuation of the subclavian a. after crossing the first rib to enter the axilla; becomes the brachial a. upon passing the inferior border of the teres major muscle. It is accompanied by the cords of the brachial plexus and is enclosed with them and the axillary vein in the axillary sheath as it traverses the axilla. The parts of the axillary a. are described: proximal, posterior, and distal to the pectoralis minor muscle. Branches: first part—superior thoracic a.; second part—thoracoacromial arterial trunk, lateral thoracic a.; third part—subscapular a., anterior and posterior humeral circumflex arteries. SYN: arteria axillaris [TA] .
  • azygos a. of vagina one of two arteries that run longitudinally in the midline on the anterior and posterior aspects of the vagina; they take origin from the uterine a..
  • basilar a. [TA] formed by union of the intracranial portions of the two vertebral arteries; runs along the clivus in the pontine cistern of the subarachnoid space from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries; branches, anterior inferior cerebellar a. [TA], pontine arteries [TA], mesencephalic arteries [TA], superior cerebellar a. [TA], and posterior cerebral a. [TA]. SYN: arteria basilaris [TA] .
  • brachial a. [TA] origin, is a continuation of the axillary beginning at the inferior border of the teres major muscle; branches, deep brachial, superior ulnar collateral, inferior ulnar collateral, muscular, and nutrient; terminates in the cubital fossa (elbow level) by bifurcating into radial and ulnar arteries. SYN: arteria brachialis [TA] , humeral a..
  • arteries of brain [TA] arteries and arterial branches supplying the brain; they are derived from the cerebral arterial circle and the anterior choroidal a.. SYN: arteriae encephali [TA] .
  • bronchial arteries SYN: bronchial branches of thoracic aorta, under branch.
  • buccal a., buccinator a. [TA] origin, maxillary; distribution, buccinator muscle, skin, and mucous membrane of cheek; anastomoses, buccal branch of facial. SYN: arteria buccalis [TA] .
  • buckled innominate a. elongation of the innominate a. manifest as a pulsating mass in the right supraclavicular space and as a radiographic appearance mimicking an aneurysm or tumor of the apex of the right lung or superior mediastinum.
  • a. of bulb of penis [TA] a branch of the internal pudendal a. that supplies the bulb of the penis including the bulbar urethra. SYN: arteria bulbi penis [TA] , arteria bulbi urethrae.
  • a. of bulb of vestibule [TA] the branch of the internal pudendal a. in the female that supplies the bulb of the vestibule. SYN: arteria bulbi vestibuli [TA] , arteria bulbi vaginae.
  • calcaneal arteries SYN: calcaneal branches, under branch.
  • calcarine a. SYN: calcarine branch of medial occipital a..
  • a. of calf SYN: sural arteries.
  • callosomarginal a. [TA] the second branch of the pericallosal a. running in the cingulate sulcus and sending branches to supply part of the medial and superolateral surfaces of the cerebral hemisphere. SYN: arteria callosomarginalis [TA] .
  • caroticotympanic arteries (of internal carotid a.) [TA] small branches from the petrous part of the internal carotid a. supplying the tympanic cavity; anastomose with the anterior tympanic and maxillary arteries. SYN: arteriae caroticotympanicae (arteriae carotidis internae) [TA] , rami caroticotympanici.
  • carotid arteries common carotid a., external carotid a., internal carotid a..
  • carpal a. arteries related to and supplying the wrist joint. See dorsal carpal branch of radial a., dorsal carpal branch of ulnar a., palmar carpal branch of radial a., palmar carpal branch of ulnar a..
  • caudal pancreatic a. SYN: a. to tail of pancreas.
  • a. of caudate lobe [TA] origin, left branch of proper hepatic; distribution, caudate lobe of the liver. SYN: arteria lobi caudati [TA] .
  • cavernous arteries SYN: cavernous branch of cavernous part of internal carotid a..
  • cecal arteries anterior cecal a., posterior cecal a..
  • celiac a. SYN: celiac (arterial) trunk.
  • central a. SYN: a. of central sulcus.
  • central a. of retina SYN: central retinal a..
  • central retinal a. [TA] a branch of the ophthalmic a. that penetrates the optic nerve 1 cm behind the eye (extraocular part) to enter the eye (intraocular part) at the optic papilla in the retina; it divides into superior and inferior temporal and nasal branches. SYN: arteria centralis retinae [TA] , arteria retinae centralis, central a. of retina, Zinn a..
  • central sulcal a. SYN: a. of central sulcus.
  • a. of central sulcus [TA] a branch of the terminal part of the middle cerebral a. distributed to the cortex on either side of the central sulcus. SYN: arteria sulci centralis [TA] , central a., central sulcal a., Rolandic sulcal a..
  • cerebellar arteries an a. related to and supplying the cerebellum. See anterior inferior cerebellar a., posterior inferior cerebellar a., superior cerebellar a..
  • cerebral arteries arteries related to and supplying the cerebral cortex. See anterior cerebral a., middle cerebral a., posterior cerebral a..
  • arteries of cerebral hemorrhage SYN: anterolateral central arteries.
  • cervicovaginal a. an anastomotic communication between the uterine a. and the vaginal a.; it courses along the lateral aspect of the cervix and vagina. SYN: arteria cervicovaginalis.
  • Charcot arteries SYN: lenticulostriate arteries (2) .
  • chief a. of thumb SYN: princeps pollicis a..
  • circumflex femoral arteries lateral circumflex femoral a., medial circumflex femoral a..
  • circumflex fibular a. SYN: circumflex fibular branch (of posterior tibial a.).
  • circumflex humeral arteries anterior circumflex humeral a., posterior circumflex humeral a..
  • circumflex iliac arteries deep circumflex iliac a., superficial circumflex iliac a..
  • circumflex scapular a. [TA] origin, terminal branch (with thoracodorsal a.) of the subscapular; distribution, muscles of shoulder and scapular region; anastomoses, branches of suprascapular and transverse cervical. SYN: arteria circumflexa scapulae [TA] .
  • coiled a. of the uterus SYN: spiral a..
  • colic arteries arteries supplying the colon. See left colic a., middle colic a., right colic a..
  • collateral a. 1. one that runs parallel with a nerve or other structure; 2. one through which a collateral circulation is established. See articular vascular network.
  • collateral digital a. SYN: proper palmar digital arteries.
  • collicular a. [TA] origin: precommunicating part (P1 segment) of posterior cerebral a.; distribution: to superior and inferior colliculi (corpora quadrigemina) of tectum of midbrain. SYN: arteria collicularis [TA] , arteria quadrigeminalis&star, quadrigeminal a.&star.
  • comitant a. of median nerve SYN: median a..
  • common carotid a. [TA] origin, right from brachiocephalic, left from arch of aorta; runs upward in the neck and divides opposite upper border of thyroid cartilage (C-4 vertebral level) into terminal branches, external and internal carotid. SYN: arteria carotis communis [TA] .
  • common cochlear a. [TA] origin: as a terminal branch, with the anterior vestibular a., of the labyrinthine a.; distribution: runs in the cochlear axis of modiolus serving the spiral ganglia; sends the proper cochlear a. to the cochlear duct and supplies the apical two turns of the spiral modiolar a.. SYN: arteria cochlearis communis [TA] .
  • common hepatic a. [TA] origin, celiac; branches, right gastric, gastroduodenal, and proper hepatic. SYN: arteria hepatica communis [TA] .
  • common iliac a. [TA] one of two terminal branches of the abdominal aorta; anterior to the sacroiliac joint at the level of the sacral promontory, it bifurcates to form the internal iliac and the external iliac. SYN: arteria iliaca communis [TA] .
  • common interosseous a. [TA] origin, ulnar; branches, anterior and posterior interosseous. SYN: arteria interossea communis [TA] .
  • common palmar digital a. [TA] one of three arteries arising from the superficial palmar arch and running to the interdigital clefts where each divides into two proper palmar digital arteries. SYN: arteria digitalis palmaris communis [TA] .
  • common plantar digital a. [TA] one of four arteries arising from a superficial plantar arch, when present as a variation. They unite with the plantar metatarsal arteries distal to the perforating branches. SYN: arteria digitalis plantaris communis [TA] .
  • communicating a. an a. that connects two larger arteries. See anterior communicating a., posterior communicating a..
  • companion a. to sciatic nerve SYN: a. to sciatic nerve.
  • conjunctival arteries SYN: anterior conjunctival a., posterior conjunctival a..
  • coronary a. 1. See right coronary a., left coronary a.. 2. SYN: left gastric a..
  • cortical arteries branches of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries that supply the cerebral cortex.
  • cortical radiate arteries [TA] the branches of the arcuate arteries of the kidney radiating outward through the renal columns and cortex and supplying the glomeruli. SYN: arteriae corticales radiatae [TA] , arteria interlobulares (renis), interlobular arteries of kidney.
  • costocervical a. SYN: costocervical (arterial) trunk.
  • cremasteric a. [TA] origin, inferior epigastric; distribution, coverings of spermatic cord; anastomoses, external pudendal, spermatic, and perineal arteria. SYN: arteria cremasterica [TA] , external spermatic a..
  • cricothyroid a. SYN: cricothyroid branch of superior thyroid a..
  • cystic a. [TA] origin, right branch of hepatic; distribution, gall bladder and visceral surface of the liver. SYN: arteria cystica [TA] .
  • deep a. of arm profunda brachii a..
  • deep auricular a. [TA] origin, first part of maxillary; distribution, articulation of jaw, parotid gland, and external acoustic meatus and external tympanic membrane; anastomoses, auricular branches of superficial temporal and posterior auricular. SYN: arteria auricularis profunda [TA] .
  • deep brachial a. SYN: profunda brachii a..
  • deep cervical a. [TA] origin, terminal branch of costocervical trunk (along with superior intercostal a.); distribution, posterior deep muscles of neck; anastomoses, branches of occipital, ascending cervical, and vertebral. SYN: arteria cervicalis profunda [TA] .
  • deep circumflex iliac a. [TA] origin, external iliac; distribution, muscles and skin of lower abdomen, sartorius and tensor fasciae latae; anastomoses, lumbar, inferior epigastric, superior gluteal, iliolumbar, and superficial circumflex iliac. SYN: arteria circumflexa iliaca profunda [TA] .
  • deep a. of clitoris [TA] the deep terminal branch of the internal pudendal a. in the female; it supplies the crus of the clitoris. SYN: arteria profunda clitoridis [TA] .
  • deep epigastric a. SYN: inferior epigastric a..
  • deep lingual a. [TA] termination of lingual a., distribution, muscles and mucous membrane of under surface of tongue. SYN: arteria profunda linguae [TA] , arteria ranina, deep a. of tongue, ranine a..
  • deep a. of penis [TA] origin, terminal branch (with dorsal a. of penis) of the internal pudendal a.; distribution, corpus cavernosum of the penis via capillary beds and via helicine arteries and arteriovenous anastomoses to produce erection. SYN: arteria profunda penis [TA] .
  • deep plantar a. [TA] deep plantar branch of arcuate a. or its first metatarsal a. branch that penetrates the foot between first and second metatarsal bones to anastomose with the termination of the plantar arterial arch. SYN: arteria plantaris profunda arteriae dorsalis pedis [TA] , deep plantar branch of dorsalis pedis a., ramus plantaris profundus arteriae dorsalis pedis.
  • deep temporal a. deep temporal a., two in number, anterior and posterior; origin, maxillary; distribution, temporal muscle and periosteum, bone and diploe of temporal fossa; anastomoses, branches of superficial temporal, lacrimal, and middle meningeal. SYN: arteria temporalis profunda [TA] .
  • deep a. of thigh [TA] origin, femoral; branches, lateral circumflex femoral, medial circumflex femoral, terminating in three or four perforating arteries. SYN: arteria profunda femoris, profunda femoris a..
  • deep a. of tongue SYN: deep lingual a..
  • deferential a. SYN: a. to ductus deferens.
  • descending genicular a. [TA] origin, femoral, in adductor canal; distribution, penetrates vastoadductor fascia to supply knee joint and adjacent parts; anastomoses, medial superior genicular, medial inferior genicular, lateral superior genicular, lateral inferior genicular and anterior tibial recurrent arteries, i.e., articular network of knee. SYN: arteria descendens genus [TA] , arteria anastomotica magna (2) , descending a. of knee, great anastomotic a. (2) .
  • descending a. of knee SYN: descending genicular a..
  • descending palatine a. [TA] origin, maxillary; distribution, soft palate, gums, and bones and mucous membrane of hard palate; anastomoses, sphenopalatine, ascending palatine, ascending pharyngeal, and tonsillar branches of facial. SYN: arteria palatina descendens [TA] .
  • descending scapular a. SYN: dorsal scapular a..
  • digital collateral a. SYN: proper palmar digital arteries.
  • distal medial striate a. [TA] SYN: medial striate a..
  • distributing a. SYN: muscular a..
  • dolichoectatic a. a distorted, dilated, and elongated a. that may compress adjacent neural structures.
  • dorsal a. of clitoris [TA] one of the two terminal branches of the internal pudendal a. in the female, the other being the deep a. of the clitoris. SYN: arteria dorsalis clitoridis [TA] .
  • dorsal digital a. [TA] one of the collateral digital branches of the dorsal metatarsal arteries in the foot, and/or of the dorsal metacarpal arteries in the hand. SYN: arteria digitalis dorsalis [TA] .
  • dorsal a. of foot SYN: dorsalis pedis a..
  • dorsal interosseous a. SYN: posterior interosseous a..
  • dorsalis pedis a. [TA] continuation of anterior tibial a. after crossing ankle; branches, lateral tarsal, arcuate, dorsal metatarsal; a continuation of the anterior tibial; anastomoses, with the lateral plantar to form the plantar arch. SYN: arteria dorsalis pedis [TA] , dorsal a. of foot.
  • dorsal metacarpal a. [TA] one of four arteries taking origin from the dorsal carpal arch and running on the posterior aspect of the interosseous muscles of the hand. SYN: arteria metacarpalis dorsalis [TA] .
  • dorsal metatarsal a. [TA] one of four arteries arising from the dorsalis pedis (I) and arcuate (II–IV) arteries and running on the dorsum of the interosseous muscles of the foot. SYN: arteria metatarsalis dorsalis [TA] .
  • dorsal nasal a. [TA] origin, ophthalmic; external a. of the nose; distribution, skin of side of root of nose; anastomoses, angular a.. SYN: arteria dorsalis nasi [TA] , external nasal a.&star, arteria nasi externa, dorsal a. of nose, external a. of nose.
  • dorsal a. of nose SYN: dorsal nasal a..
  • dorsal pancreatic a. [TA] origin, splenic; distribution, head and body of pancreas; anastomoses, superior pancreaticoduodenal. SYN: arteria pancreatica dorsalis [TA] , great superior pancreatic a..
  • dorsal a. of penis [TA] the dorsal terminal branch of the internal pudendal a. in the male. SYN: arteria dorsalis penis [TA] .
  • dorsal scapular a. [TA] origin, inconstant: subclavian (when this term is preferred) or as the deep branch of the transverse cervical; distribution, passes deep to the rhomboid muscles, supplying them and other muscles and skin along the vertebral border of the scapula; anastomoses, suprascapular and scapular circumflex. SYN: arteria dorsalis scapulae [TA] , rami profundi arteriae transversae cervicis [TA] , ramus profundus arteriae transversae colli [TA] , arteria scapularis descendens, arteria scapularis dorsalis, deep branch of the transverse cervical a., descending scapular a., ramus profundus arteriae scapularis descendentis.
  • dorsal thoracic a. SYN: thoracodorsal a..
  • a. of Drummond SYN: marginal a. of colon.
  • a. to ductus deferens [TA] origin, anterior division of internal iliac, or sometimes superior vesical; distribution, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, testicle, ureter; anastomoses, testicular, cremasteric arteries. SYN: a. to vas deferens&star, arteria deferentialis, arteria ductus deferentis, deferential a..
  • elastic a. a large a., such as the aorta or pulmonary a., which has many elastic lamella in its tunica media.
  • end a. an a. with insufficient anastomoses to maintain viability of the tissue supplied if occlusion of the a. occurs. SYN: terminal a..
  • episcleral a. [TA] one of many small branches of the anterior ciliary arteries that arise as they perforate the sclera near the corneoscleral junction, and course on the sclera. SYN: arteria episcleralis [TA] .
  • esophageal arteries esophageal branches of the following: 1) inferior thyroid a.; 2) left gastric a.; 3) thoracic aorta.
  • external carotid a. [TA] origin, common carotid at C-4 vertebral level; branches, superior thyroid, lingual, facial, occipital, posterior auricular, ascending pharyngeal, and terminal branches, maxillary and superficial temporal at level of neck of mandible. SYN: arteria carotis externa [TA] .
  • external iliac a. [TA] origin, common iliac; branches, inferior epigastric, deep circumflex iliac; becomes the femoral at the inguinal ligament. SYN: arteria iliaca externa [TA] .
  • external mammary a. SYN: lateral thoracic a..
  • external maxillary a. SYN: facial a..
  • external nasal a. dorsal nasal a..
  • external a. of nose SYN: dorsal nasal a..
  • external spermatic a. SYN: cremasteric a..
  • facial a. [TA] origin, external carotid; branches, ascending palatine, tonsillar and glandular branches, submental, inferior labial, superior labial, masseteric, buccal, lateral nasal branches, and angular. SYN: arteria facialis [TA] , arteria maxillaris externa, external maxillary a..
  • femoral a. [TA] origin, continuation of external iliac, beginning at inguinal ligament; branches, external pudendal, superficial epigastric, superficial circumflex iliac, profunda femoris, descending genicular, terminating as the popliteal a. as it passes through the adductor hiatus to enter the popliteal space. SYN: arteria femoralis [TA] .
  • femoral nutrient a. [TA] one of two arteries, superior and inferior, arising from the first and third perforating arteries, respectively (sometimes second and fourth). SYN: nutrient a. of femur.
  • fibular a. [TA] origin, posterior tibial; distribution, soleus, tibialis posterior, flexor longus hallucis, peroneal muscles, inferior tibiofibular articulation, and ankle joint; anastomoses, anterior lateral malleolar, lateral tarsal, lateral plantar, dorsalis pedis. SYN: arteria fibularis [TA] , arteria peronea&star, peroneal a.&star.
  • fibular nutrient a. [TA] origin, fibular (peroneal); distribution, fibula. SYN: arteria nutriens fibulae&star, nutrient a. of fibula.
  • first and second posterior intercostal arteries [TA] terminal branches of the superior intercostal a. (from costocervical trunk) supplying upper two intercostal spaces. SYN: arteriae intercostales posteriores I et II, posterior intercostal arteries 1–2.
  • frontal a. SYN: supratrochlear a..
  • frontopolar a. [TA] SYN: polar frontal a..
  • gastric arteries arteries supplying the stomach along the lesser curvature. See left gastric a., right gastric a..
  • gastroduodenal a. [TA] origin, hepatic; terminal branches, right gastroepiploic, superior pancreaticoduodenal. SYN: arteria gastroduodenalis [TA] .
  • gastroepiploic arteries gastroomental arteries. See left gastroomental a., right gastroomental a..
  • gastroomental arteries [TA] arteries that supply the stomach and greater omentum as they course along the greater curvature of the stomach. SYN: arteriae gastro-omentales [TA] , arteriae gastroepiploicae&star, gastroepiploic arteries&star.
  • genicular arteries arteries contributing to the articular network of the knee. See descending genicular a., inferior lateral genicular a., inferior medial genicular a., middle genicular a., superior lateral genicular a., superior medial genicular a..
  • glaserian a. SYN: anterior tympanic a..
  • great anastomotic a. 1. SYN: inferior ulnar collateral a.. 2. SYN: descending genicular a.. 3. SYN: great segmental medullary a..
  • greater palatine a. [TA] anterior branch of descending palatine a., supplying the gums and mucous membrane of the hard palate. SYN: arteria palatina major [TA] .
  • greater pancreatic a. [TA] origin, splenic; distribution, tail of pancreas; anastomoses, inferior pancreatic a. and arteries of pancreatic tail. SYN: arteria pancreatica magna.
  • great radicular a. SYN: great segmental medullary a..
  • great segmental medullary a. largest of the medullary arteries that supply the spinal cord by anastomosing with the anterior (longitudinal) spinal a.; it arises from a lower intercostal or upper lumbar a. (on the left side about 65% of the time) supplying most of the blood to the lower two-thirds of the anterior spinal a.. See medullary arteries of brain. SYN: arteria radicularis magna, a. of Adamkiewicz, great anastomotic a. (3) , great radicular a..
  • great superior pancreatic a. SYN: dorsal pancreatic a..
  • helicine arteries of penis [TA] the coiled terminal branches of the deep and dorsal arteries of the penis. Parasympathetic stimulation causes them to uncoil, allowing blood at arterial pressure to fill the cavernous tissue causing erection. SYN: arteriae helicinae penis [TA] .
  • helicine arteries of the uterus [TA] the coiled terminal branches of the uterine a. in the uterine musculature (myometrium). SYN: arteriae helicinae uteri [TA] .
  • hepatic arteries arteries involved in supplying blood to the liver. See common hepatic a., hepatic a. proper, left branch of hepatic a. proper, right branch of hepatic a. proper.
  • hepatic a. proper [TA] origin, common hepatic; branches, right and left hepatic. SYN: arteria hepatica propria.
  • Heubner a. SYN: medial striate a..
  • a. of Heubner SYN: medial striate a..
  • highest intercostal a. SYN: supreme intercostal a..
  • highest thoracic a. SYN: superior thoracic a..
  • humeral a. SYN: brachial a..
  • humeral nutrient arteries [TA] origin, deep brachial; distribution, the medullary cavity of the humerus. SYN: arteriae nutriciae humeri [TA] , nutrient arteries of humerus.
  • hyaloid a. the terminal branch of the primitive ophthalmic a., which forms in the embryo an extensive ramification in the primary vitreous and a vascular tunic around the lens; by 812 months, these vessels have atrophied almost completely, but a few persistent remnants are evident entoptically as muscae volitantes. SYN: arteria hyaloidea [TA] .
  • hypogastric a. SYN: internal iliac a..
  • ileal arteries [TA] origin, superior mesenteric; distribution, ileum; anastomoses, other branches of superior mesenteric. SYN: arteriae ileales [TA] .
  • ileocolic a. [TA] origin, superior mesenteric, often by a common trunk with the right colic; distribution, terminal part of ileum, cecum, vermiform appendix, and ascending colon; anastomoses, right colic and ileal. SYN: arteria ileocolica [TA] .
  • iliac arteries arteries related to the ilium. See common iliac a., deep circumflex iliac a., external iliac a., internal iliac a., superficial circumflex iliac a..
  • iliolumbar a. [TA] origin, internal iliac; distribution, pelvic muscles and bones; anastomoses, deep circumflex iliac, lumbar. SYN: arteria iliolumbalis [TA] .
  • inferior alveolar a. [TA] origin, 1st part of maxillary a.; distribution, through mandibular foramen/canal to lower teeth and chin; branches, a. to mylohyoid, mental a., dental arteries. SYN: arteria alveolaris inferior [TA] , inferior dental a..
  • inferior dental a. SYN: inferior alveolar a..
  • inferior epigastric a. [TA] origin, external iliac; branches, cremasteric, muscular and pubic; anastomoses, superior epigastric, obturator. With overlying peritoneum, forms lateral umbilical ligament and forms a basis for distinguishing types of inguinal herniae: direct hernias pass medial to the a.; indirect hernias pass laterally. SYN: arteria epigastrica inferior [TA] , deep epigastric a..
  • inferior gluteal a. [TA] origin, internal iliac; distribution, hip joint and gluteal region; anastomoses, branches of internal pudendal, lateral sacral, superior gluteal, obturator, medial and lateral circumflex femoral. SYN: arteria glutea inferior [TA] , arteria ischiadica, arteria ischiatica.
  • inferior hemorrhoidal a. SYN: inferior rectal a..
  • inferior hypophysial a. [TA] a small branch of the cavernous part of the internal carotid to the hypophysis. SYN: arteria hypophysialis inferior [TA] .
  • inferior internal parietal a. SYN: precuneal branches (of anterior cerebral a.), under branch.
  • inferior labial a. SYN: inferior labial branch of facial a..
  • inferior laryngeal a. [TA] origin, inferior thyroid; distribution, muscles and mucous membrane of larynx; anastomoses, superior laryngeal. SYN: arteria laryngea inferior [TA] .
  • inferior lateral genicular a. [TA] origin, popliteal; distribution, knee joint; anastomoses, lateral superior genicular and anterior tibial recurrent (and posterior); i.e., articular vascular network of knee. SYN: arteria inferior lateralis genus [TA] , arteria genus inferior lateralis, lateral inferior genicular a..
  • inferior lingular a. [TA] branch (of the lingular branch) of the left pulmonary a. serving the inferior lingular segment of the superior lobe of the left lung. See left pulmonary a.. SYN: arteria lingularis inferior [TA] , inferior lingular branch of lingular branch of left pulmonary a., ramus lingularis inferior.
  • inferior lobar arteries [TA] See left pulmonary a., right pulmonary a..
  • inferior medial genicular a. [TA] origin, popliteal; distribution, knee joint; anastomoses, anterior and posterior tibial recurrent and medial superior genicular, i.e., articular vascular network of knee. SYN: arteria inferior medialis genus [TA] , arteria genus inferior medialis, medial inferior genicular a..
  • inferior mesenteric a. [TA] origin, abdominal aorta; branches, left colic, sigmoid, superior rectal; anastomoses, middle colic and middle rectal. SYN: arteria mesenterica inferior [TA] .
  • inferior pancreatic a. [TA] origin, dorsal pancreatic; distribution, body and tail of pancreas; anastomoses, great pancreatic a.. SYN: arteria pancreatica inferior [TA] , transverse pancreatic a..
  • inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. [TA] origin, superior mesenteric; one of two arteries, anterior and posterior; distribution, head of pancreas, duodenum; anastomoses, superior pancreaticoduodenal. SYN: arteria pancreaticoduodenalis inferior [TA] .
  • inferior phrenic a. [TA] origin, the first paired branch from the abdominal aorta inferior to the diaphragm; distribution, diaphragm; anastomoses, superior phrenic, internal thoracic, and musculophrenic. SYN: arteria phrenica inferior [TA] .
  • inferior rectal a. [TA] origin, internal pudendal; distribution, anal canal, muscles and skin of the anal region, and skin of the buttock; anastomoses, middle rectal, perineal, and gluteal. SYN: arteria rectalis inferior [TA] , inferior hemorrhoidal a..
  • inferior segmental a. of kidney [TA] origin, anterior branch of renal. See segmental arteries of kidney. SYN: a. of inferior segment of kidney.
  • a. of inferior segment of kidney SYN: inferior segmental a. of kidney.
  • inferior and superior lobar arteries [TA] left pulmonary a., right pulmonary a..
  • inferior suprarenal a. [TA] origin, renal; distribution, suprarenal gland. SYN: arteria suprarenalis inferior [TA] .
  • inferior thyroid a. [TA] origin, terminal branch of thyrocervical trunk (with ascending cervical a.); branches, inferior laryngeal, and muscular, esophageal, and tracheal. SYN: arteria thyroidea inferior [TA] .
  • inferior tympanic a. [TA] origin, ascending pharyngeal; distribution, middle ear; anastomoses, tympanic branches of other arteries. SYN: arteria tympanica inferior [TA] .
  • inferior ulnar collateral a. [TA] origin, brachial; distribution, arm muscles at back of elbow; anastomoses, anterior and posterior ulnar recurrent, superior ulnar collateral, profunda brachii, and recurrent interosseous, as part of the articular network of the elbow. SYN: arteria collateralis ulnaris inferior [TA] , arteria anastomotica magna (1) , great anastomotic a. (1) .
  • inferior vesical a. [TA] origin, internal iliac; distribution, base of bladder, ureter, and (in the male) seminal vesicles, ductus deferens, and prostate; anastomoses, middle rectal, and other vesical branches. SYN: arteria vesicalis inferior [TA] .
  • infraorbital a. [TA] origin, third part of maxillary; distribution, upper canine and incisor teeth, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles, lower eyelid, lacrimal sac, maxillary sinus, and upper lip; anastomoses, branches of ophthalmic, facial, superior labial, transverse facial, and buccal. SYN: arteria infraorbitalis [TA] .
  • infrascapular a. a small branch of the circumflex scapular a..
  • innominate a. obsolete term for brachiocephalic (arterial) trunk.
  • insular arteries [TA] branches from the insular part (M2 segment) of the middle cerebral a. distributed to the cortex of the insula. SYN: arteriae insulares [TA] .
  • intercostal arteries arteries that course in the thoracic wall between ribs. See anterior intercostal branches of internal thoracic a., under branch, first and second posterior intercostal arteries, posterior intercostal arteries 3–11, supreme intercostal a..
  • interlobar a. the right descending pulmonary a., which is contiguous with and perfuses the right middle and lower lobes.
  • interlobar arteries of kidney [TA] the branches of the segmental arteries of the kidney; they run between the renal lobes and give rise to the arcuate arteries. SYN: arteriae interlobares renis [TA] .
  • interlobular arteries [TA] arteries that pass between lobules of an organ. See interlobular arteries of liver, cortical radiate arteries. SYN: arteriae interlobulares [TA] .
  • interlobular arteries of kidney SYN: cortical radiate arteries.
  • interlobular arteries of liver the many terminal branches of the hepatic a. passing between hepatic lobules. SYN: arteria interlobulares (hepatis).
  • intermediate temporal a. SYN: middle temporal branch of insular part of middle cerebral a..
  • internal auditory a. SYN: labyrinthine a..
  • internal carotid a. [TA] arises from the common carotid opposite upper border of thyroid cartilage (C-4 vertebral level) and terminates in the middle cranial fossa by dividing into the anterior and middle cerebral arteries; for descriptive purposes it is divided into four parts: cervical, petrous, cavernous, and cerebral. SYN: arteria carotis interna [TA] .
  • internal iliac a. [TA] origin, common iliac; branches, iliolumbar, lateral sacral, obturator, superior gluteal, inferior gluteal, umbilical, superior vesical, inferior vesical, middle rectal, and internal pudendal. SYN: arteria iliaca interna [TA] , arteria hypogastrica, hypogastric a..
  • internal mammary a. SYN: internal thoracic a..
  • internal maxillary a. SYN: maxillary a..
  • internal pudendal a. [TA] origin, internal iliac; branches, inferior rectal, perineal, posterior scrotal (or labial), urethral, a. of bulb of penis (or of vestibule), deep a. of penis (or clitoris), dorsal a. of penis (or clitoris). SYN: arteria pudenda interna [TA] .
  • internal spermatic a. SYN: testicular a..
  • internal thoracic a. [TA] origin, subclavian; branches, pericardiacophrenic, anterior intercostal, sternal, mediastinal, thymic, bronchial, muscular, and perforating branches, and bifurcates into the musculophrenic and superior epigastric. SYN: arteria thoracica interna [TA] , arteria mammaria interna, internal mammary a..
  • intestinal arteries See ileal arteries, jejunal arteries.
  • intrarenal arteries [TA] arteries and arterial branches distributed within the kidney; arise as branches and derivatives of the segmental arteries of kidney. SYN: arteriae intrarenales [TA] .
  • jejunal arteries [TA] origin, superior mesenteric; distribution, jejunum; anastomoses, by a series of arches with each other and with ileal arteries. SYN: arteriae jejunales [TA] .
  • juxtacolic a. marginal a. of colon.
  • arteries of kidney SYN: segmental arteries of kidney.
  • Kugel anastomotic a. SYN: atrial anastomotic branch of circumflex branch of left coronary a..
  • a. of labyrinth SYN: labyrinthine a..
  • labyrinthine a. [TA] internal acoustic meatal branch; a branch of the basilar a. that enters the labyrinth through the internal acoustic meatus. SYN: arteria labyrinthi [TA] , arteria auditiva interna, a. of labyrinth, internal auditory a., ramus meatus acustici interni.
  • lacrimal a. [TA] origin, ophthalmic; distribution, lacrimal gland, lateral and superior rectus muscles, superior eyelid, forehead, and temporal fossa. SYN: arteria lacrimalis [TA] .
  • lateral basal segmental a. [TA] lateral basal branch of the following: 1) basal part of inferior lobar branch of right pulmonary a.; 2) basal part of inferior lobar branch of left pulmonary a.. SYN: arteria segmentalis basalis lateralis [TA] , arteria segmentalis lateralis [TA] , lateral basal branch, ramus basalis lateralis.
  • lateral circumflex femoral a. [TA] origin, profunda femoris; distribution, hip joint, thigh muscles; anastomoses, medial circumflex femoral, inferior gluteal, superior gluteal. SYN: arteria circumflexa femoris lateralis [TA] , lateral circumflex a. of thigh, lateral femoral circumflex a..
  • lateral circumflex a. of thigh SYN: lateral circumflex femoral a..
  • lateral femoral circumflex a. SYN: lateral circumflex femoral a..
  • lateral frontobasal a. [TA] a branch of the insular part of the middle cerebral a. distributed to the cortex of the lateral, inferior part of the frontal lobe. SYN: arteria frontobasalis lateralis [TA] , arteria orbitofrontalis lateralis&star, lateral orbitofrontal a.&star.
  • lateral inferior genicular a. SYN: inferior lateral genicular a..
  • lateral malleolar arteries SYN: lateral malleolar branch (of fibular peroneal a.).
  • (lateral and medial) palpebral arteries [TA] branches of the ophthalmic supplying the upper and lower eyelids, consisting of two sets, lateral and medial. SYN: arteriae palpebrales (laterales et mediales) [TA] .
  • (lateral and medial) parietal arteries [TA] branches of the terminal part of the middle cerebral a., divided into two branches: anterior parietal a. and posterior parietal a.. SYN: arteriae parietales (laterales et mediales) [TA] .
  • lateral nasal a. SYN: lateral nasal branch of facial a..
  • lateral occipital a. [TA] one of the terminal branches of the posterior cerebral a.; it supplies medial and ventral portions of the temporal lobe via anterior, intermediate, medial, and posterior temporal branches; can be called the P3 segment of the posterior cerebral a.. SYN: arteria occipitalis lateralis [TA] , P3 segment of posterior cerebral a. [TA] , segmentum P3 arteriae cerebri posterioris [TA] .
  • lateral orbitofrontal a. lateral frontobasal a..
  • lateral plantar a. [TA] larger of the two terminal branches of the posterior tibial a.; distribution, forms the plantar arch and through it supplies the sole of the foot and plantar surfaces of the toes; anastomoses, medial plantar, dorsalis pedis. SYN: arteria plantaris lateralis [TA] .
  • lateral sacral arteries [TA] usually one of two arteries that arise from the internal iliac a. or its branches; they supply muscles and skin in the neighborhood and send branches into the sacral canal, supplying radicular and spinal arteries, and continuing on to the skin and subcutaneous tissues overlying the sacrum. SYN: arteriae sacrales laterales.
  • lateral segmental a. [TA] See left pulmonary a., right pulmonary a..
  • lateral splanchnic arteries arteries that arise in the embryo from the dorsal aorta to supply the mesonephros, testis or ovary, and adrenal gland.
  • lateral striate arteries SYN: anterolateral central arteries.
  • lateral superior genicular a. SYN: superior lateral genicular a..
  • lateral tarsal a. [TA] origin, dorsalis pedis a.; distribution, tarsal joints and extensor digitorum brevis muscle; anastomoses, arcuate, peroneal, lateral plantar, anterior lateral malleolar. SYN: arteria tarsea lateralis [TA] .
  • lateral thoracic a. [TA] origin, third part of axillary; distribution, passes around lateral border of pectoral muscles, supplying them and other muscles of chest and mammary gland. SYN: arteria thoracica lateralis [TA] , external mammary a., long thoracic a..
  • left anterior descending a. SYN: anterior interventricular branch of left coronary a..
  • left colic a. [TA] origin, inferior mesenteric; distribution, descending colon and splenic flexure; anastomoses, middle colic, sigmoid. SYN: arteria colica sinistra [TA] .
  • left coronary a. [TA] origin, left aortic sinus; distribution, it divides into two major branches, an anterior interventricular which descends in the anterior interventricular sulcus, and a circumflex branch which passes to the diaphragmatic surface of the left ventricle; gives atrial, ventricular, and atrioventricular branches. SYN: arteria coronaria sinistra [TA] .
  • left gastric a. [TA] origin, celiac; distribution, cardia of stomach at lesser curvature, abdominal part of the esophagus, and, frequently, a portion of the left lobe of the liver via an aberrant left hepatic branch; anastomoses, esophageal, right gastric. SYN: arteria gastrica sinistra [TA] , coronary a. (2) .
  • left gastroepiploic a. SYN: left gastroomental a..
  • left gastroomental a. [TA] origin, splenic; distribution, greater curvature of stomach and greater omentum; anastomoses, right gastroepiploic and short gastric arteries. SYN: arteria gastroomentalis sinistra [TA] , arteria gastroepiploica sinistra, left gastroepiploic a..
  • left hepatic a. SYN: left branch of hepatic a. proper.
  • left marginal a. [TA] a large ventricular branch of the circumflex branch of the left coronary a. that courses along the center of the left pulmonary surface (obtuse margin) of the heart, usually to the apex. SYN: ramus marginalis sinister arteriae coronariae sinistrae [TA] .
  • left pulmonary a. [TA] the shorter of the two terminal branches of the pulmonary trunk, it pierces the pericardium to enter the hilum of the left lung. Branches ramify and are distributed with the segmental and subsegmental bronchi; frequent variations occur. Typical branches: of the superior lobar arteries [TA] (arteriae lobares superiores, under arteria [TA]) are the apical segmental a. [TA] (arteria segmentalis apicalis [TA]), anterior segmental a. [TA] (arteria segmentalis anterior [TA]), and posterior segmental a. [TA] (arteria segmentalis posterior [TA]), with the latter two having ascending and descending branches [TA] (rami ascendens et descendens [TA]); of the lingular a. [TA] (arteria lingularis [TA]) are the superior lingular a. [TA] (arteria lingularis superior [TA]) and inferior lingular a. [TA] (arteria lingularis inferior [TA]); and of the inferior lobar arteries [TA] (arteriae lobares inferiores, under arteria [TA]) are the superior segmental a. [TA] (arteria segmentalis superior [TA]) and
  • a basal part [TA] (pars basalis [TA]) giving rise to anterior, posterior, lateral, and medial basal segmental arteries [TA] (arteriae segmentales basales anterior, posterior, lateralis et medialis [TA]). SYN: arteria pulmonalis sinistra [TA] .
  • lenticulostriate arteries 1. anterolateral central arteries. 2. any one of a variety of small arteries entering the base of the brain through the anterior perforated substance and supplying the striatum, globus pallidus, and internal capsule; most of these perforating arteries are branches of the M1 segment (clinical terminology) of the middle cerebral and (rarely) of the anterior choroidal a.. SYN: Charcot arteries.
  • lesser palatine a. [TA] one of several posterior branches of the descending palatine in the greater palatine canal, distributed to the soft palate and tonsil. SYN: arteria palatina minor [TA] .
  • lienal a. SYN: splenic a..
  • lingual a. [TA] origin, external carotid; distribution, runs along under surface of tongue, terminates as deep lingual a.; branches, suprahyoid and dorsal lingual branches and sublingual a.. SYN: arteria lingualis [TA] .
  • lingular a. [TA] left pulmonary a..
  • long central a. SYN: medial striate a..
  • long posterior ciliary arteries [TA] one of two branches of the ophthalmic running forward between the sclerotic and choroid coats to the iris, at the outer and inner margins of which they form by anastomosis two circles. SYN: arteriae ciliares posteriores longae.
  • long thoracic a. SYN: lateral thoracic a..
  • arteries of lower limb [TA] arteries that supply the lower limb, all of which are derivatives of the external iliac a.. SYN: arteriae membri inferioris [TA] .
  • lowest lumbar arteries [TA] origin, middle sacral; distribution, sacrum and iliac muscle; anastomosis, deep circumflex iliac a.. SYN: arteriae lumbales imae [TA] .
  • lowest thyroid a. SYN: thyroid ima a..
  • lumbar arteries [TA] origin, abdominal aorta; one of four or five pairs; distribution, lumbar vertebrae, muscles of back, abdominal wall; anastomoses, intercostal, subcostal, superior and inferior epigastric, deep circumflex iliac, and iliolumbar. SYN: arteriae lumbales [TA] .
  • macular arteries See inferior macular arteriole, superior macular arteriole.
  • mammillary arteries [TA] origin: posterior communicating a.; distribution: to mammillary bodies of hypothalamus. SYN: arteriae mammillares [TA] .
  • marginal a. of colon [TA] a. formed by anastomoses between the right and left colic arteries; it passes downward from the left colic flexure to the aboral end of the pelvic colon. SYN: arteria marginalis coli [TA] , arcus marginalis coli&star, arteria juxtacolica&star, juxtacolic a.&star, marginal arcade&star, a. of Drummond, Riolan arc (2) .
  • masseteric a. [TA] origin, second (infratemporal) part of maxillary; distribution, masseter muscle via mandibular notch, temporomandibular joint; anastomoses, branches of transverse facial and masseteric branches of facial. SYN: arteria masseterica [TA] .
  • mastoid a. SYN: mastoid branch of occipital a..
  • maxillary a. [TA] origin, external carotid; branches, first (retromandibular) part: deep auricular, anterior tympanic; second (infratemporal part: middle meningeal, inferior alveolar, masseteric, deep temporal, buccal; third (pterygopalatine) part: posterior superior alveolar, infraorbital, descending palatine, a. of pterygoid canal, sphenopalatine. SYN: arteria maxillaris [TA] , internal maxillary a..
  • medial basal segmental a. [TA] arises from the basal part of inferior lobar arteries of the left and right lungs. SYN: arteria segmentalis basalis medialis [TA] , arteria segmentalis medialis [TA] , medial basal branch of pulmonary a., ramus basalis medialis.
  • medial circumflex femoral a. [TA] origin, profunda femoris; distribution, hip joint, muscles of thigh; anastomoses, inferior gluteal, superior gluteal, lateral circumflex femoral. SYN: arteria circumflexa femoris medialis [TA] , medial circumflex a. of thigh, medial femoral circumflex a..
  • medial circumflex a. of thigh SYN: medial circumflex femoral a..
  • medial collateral a. [TA] SYN: middle collateral a..
  • medial commisural a. [TA] origin: anterior communicating a.; distribution: to supraoptic commissure, optic chiasm.
  • medial femoral circumflex a. SYN: medial circumflex femoral a..
  • medial frontobasal a. [TA] the first branch of the postcommunicating part (A2 segment) of the anterior cerebral a. (pericallosal a.); it supplies the medial half of the inferior surface of the frontal cortex. SYN: arteria frontobasalis medialis [TA] , arteria orbitofrontalis medialis&star, medial orbitofrontal a.&star, orbital a..
  • medial inferior genicular a. SYN: inferior medial genicular a..
  • medial malleolar arteries SYN: medial malleolar branches (of posterior tibial a.), under branch.
  • medial occipital a. [TA] one of the terminal branches of the posterior cerebral a.; it is distributed to the corpus callosum, medial aspects of the caudal aspect of the parietal lobe, and medial occipital lobe including the visual cortex by named branches that include the dorsal branch to the corpus callosum, parietal branch, parietooccipital branch, occipitotemporal branch, and calcarine branch; can be called the P4 segment of the posterior cerebral a.. SYN: arteria occipitalis medialis [TA] , P4 segment of posterior cerebral a.&star, segmentum P1 arteriae cerebri posterioris&star, segmentum P4 arteriae cerebri posterioris&star.
  • medial orbitofrontal a. medial frontobasal a..
  • medial plantar a. [TA] one of the terminal branches of the posterior tibial; distribution, medial side of the sole of the foot; anastomoses, dorsalis pedis, lateral plantar. SYN: arteria plantaris medialis [TA] .
  • medial segmental a. [TA] See left pulmonary a., right pulmonary a..
  • medial striate a. arises at or just distal to the anterior communicating a. [TA]; distribution: anterior caudate and putamen and anterior limb of internal capsule. See distal medial striate a., proximal medial striate arteries. SYN: arteria striata medialis distalis [TA] , distal medial striate a. [TA] , arteria recurrens, a. of Heubner, Heubner a., long central a., recurrent a. of Heubner, recurrent a. (2) .
  • medial superior genicular a. SYN: superior medial genicular a..
  • medial tarsal arteries [TA] two small branches of the dorsalis pedis a.; distribution, to inner margin of foot. SYN: arteria tarsea medialis [TA] .
  • median a. [TA] origin, anterior interosseous; distribution, accompanies median nerve to palm; anastomoses, branches of superficial palmar arch. SYN: arteria comitans nervi mediani [TA] , arteria mediana, comitant a. of median nerve.
  • median callosal a. [TA] origin: anterior communicating a.; distribution: terminal lamina and rostrum of corpus callosum. SYN: arteria callosa mediana [TA] .
  • median commissural a. [TA] origin: anterior communicating a.; distribution: to supraoptic commissure and optic chiasm. SYN: arteria commissuralis mediana [TA] .
  • median sacral a. [TA] origin, posterior aspect of abdominal aorta just above the bifurcation; distribution, lower lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx; anastomoses, lateral sacral, superior and middle rectal. SYN: arteria sacralis mediana [TA] , middle sacral a..
  • mediastinal arteries SYN: mediastinal branches, under branch.
  • medium a. SYN: muscular a..
  • medullary arteries of brain branches of the cortical arteries which penetrate to and supply the white matter of the cerebrum.
  • medullary spinal arteries SYN: segmental medullary arteries.
  • mental a. SYN: mental branch (of inferior alveolar a.).
  • metatarsal a. [TA] one of four dorsal or four plantar arteries coursing in relation to the metatarsal bones, each dividing distally into a medial and a lateral digital a., serving the dorsal or plantar aspects of adjacent sides of two toes. See dorsal metatarsal a., plantar metatarsal a.. SYN: arteria metatarsalis [TA] .
  • middle cerebral a. [TA] one of the two large terminal branches (with anterior cerebral a.) of the internal carotid a.; it passes laterally around the pole of the temporal lobe, then posteriorly in the depth of the lateral cerebral fissure; for descriptive purposes it is divided into three parts: 1) the sphenoidal part (M1 segment of clinical terminology), supplying perforating branches to the internal capsule, thalamus, and striate body; 2) the insular part, supplying branches to the insula and adjacent cortical areas; and 3) the terminal part or cortical part, supplying a large part of the central cortical convexity (the latter two collectively forming M2 segment). SYN: arteria cerebri media [TA] .
  • middle colic a. [TA] origin, superior mesenteric; distribution, transverse colon; anastomoses, right and left colic. SYN: arteria colica media [TA] .
  • middle collateral a. the posterior terminal branch of the profunda brachii, anastomosing with the arteries which form the articular network of the elbow. SYN: arteria collateralis media [TA] , medial collateral a. [TA] .
  • middle genicular a. [TA] origin, popliteal; distribution, synovial membrane and cruciate ligaments of knee joint. SYN: arteria media genus [TA] , arteria articularis azygos, arteria genus media.
  • middle hemorrhoidal a. SYN: middle rectal a..
  • middle lobar a. [TA] See left pulmonary a., right pulmonary a..
  • middle lobar a. of right lung [TA] right pulmonary a..
  • middle meningeal a. [TA] origin, maxillary; branches, petrosal, superior tympanic, frontal and parietal; distribution, to parts mentioned and through terminal branches to anterior and middle cranial fossae; anastomoses, meningeal branches of occipital, ascending pharyngeal, ophthalmic and lacrimal, stylomastoid, accessory meningeal branch of maxillary, and deep temporal. SYN: arteria meningea media [TA] .
  • middle rectal a. [TA] origin, internal iliac; distribution, middle portion of rectum; anastomoses, inferior rectal and superior rectal. Because the latter is a tributary of the portal system, this is a portosystemic or portocaval anastomosis. SYN: arteria rectalis media [TA] , middle hemorrhoidal a..
  • middle sacral a. SYN: median sacral a..
  • middle suprarenal a. [TA] origin, aorta; distribution, suprarenal gland. SYN: arteria suprarenalis media [TA] .
  • middle temporal a. [TA] origin, superficial temporal; distribution, temporal fascia and muscle; anastomoses, branches of maxillary. SEE ALSO: middle temporal branch of insular part of middle cerebral a., posterior temporal branch of middle cerebral a.. SYN: arteria temporalis media [TA] .
  • muscular a. an a. with a tunica media composed principally of circularly arranged smooth muscle. SYN: distributing a., medium a..
  • muscular arteries (of ophthalmic a.) [TA] direct or indirect branches of the ophthalmic a. supplying the extraocular muscles. SYN: arteriae musculares (arteriae ophthalmicae) [TA] .
  • musculophrenic a. [TA] origin, the lateral terminal branch of internal thoracic; distribution, diaphragm and intercostal muscles; anastomoses, branches of pericardiacophrenic, inferior phrenic, and posterior intercostal arteries. SYN: arteria musculophrenica [TA] .
  • mylohyoid a. SYN: mylohyoid branch (of inferior alveolar a.).
  • myometrial arcuate arteries branches of the uterine and ovarian arteries.
  • myometrial radial arteries continuations of the myometrial arcuate arteries.
  • Neubauer a. SYN: thyroid ima a..
  • nutrient a. [TA] an a. of variable origin that supplies the medullary cavity of a long bone. SYN: arteria nutricia [TA] , nutrient vessel.
  • nutrient a. of femur SYN: femoral nutrient a.. SYN: arteria nutriciae femoris [TA] , arteria nutriens femoris&star.
  • nutrient a. of fibula SYN: fibular nutrient a..
  • nutrient arteries of humerus SYN: humeral nutrient arteries. SYN: arteria nutriens humeri&star.
  • nutrient a. of radius [TA] origin: radial a.; distribution: medullary cavity of radius. SYN: arteria radii nutricia [TA] , arteria nutriens radii&star.
  • nutrient a. of the tibia SYN: tibial nutrient a..
  • nutrient a. of ulna [TA] origin: ulnar a.; distribution: medullary cavity of ulna. SYN: arteria nutricia ulnae [TA] , arteria nutriens ulnae&star.
  • obturator a. [TA] anastomoses, iliolumbar, inferior epigastric, medial circumflex femoral; origin, anterior division of the internal iliac; distribution, ilium, pubis, obturator and adductor muscles; branches, pubic, acetabular, anterior, and posterior. SYN: arteria obturatoria [TA] .
  • occipital a. [TA] origin, external carotid; branches, sternocleidomastoid, meningeal, auricular, occipital, mastoid, and descending. SYN: arteria occipitalis [TA] .
  • omphalomesenteric a. obsolete term for vitelline a..
  • ophthalmic a. [TA] origin, internal carotid; branches, ciliary, central a. of retina, anterior meningeal, lacrimal, conjunctival, episcleral, supraorbital, ethmoidal, palpebral, dorsal nasal, and supratrochlear. SYN: arteria ophthalmica [TA] .
  • orbital a. SYN: medial frontobasal a..
  • orbitofrontal a. See lateral frontobasal a., medial frontobasal a..
  • ovarian a. [TA] origin, aorta; distribution, ureter, ovary, ovarian ligament and uterine tube; anastomoses, uterine. SYN: arteria ovarica [TA] .
  • palmar interosseous a. SYN: palmar metacarpal a..
  • palmar metacarpal a. [TA] one of the three arteries springing from the deep palmar arch and running in the three medial interosseous metacarpal spaces; they anastomose with the common palmar and, via perforating branches, with the dorsal metacarpal arteries. SYN: arteria metacarpalis palmaris [TA] , palmar interosseous a..
  • paracentral a. SYN: paracentral branches (of pericallosal a.), under branch.
  • paramedian arteries posteromedial central arteries.
  • parent a. the a. directly giving origin to a given a.; the a. of which a given a. is a branch.
  • parietooccipital a. SYN: parieto-occipital branches (of anterior cerebral a.), under branch.
  • arteries of penis dorsal a. of penis, deep a. of penis.
  • perforating arteries of hand SYN: perforating branches of deep palmar arch.
  • perforating arteries (of deep femoral a.) [TA] origin, arteria profunda femoris; distribution, as three or four vessels that pass through the aponeurosis of the adductor magnus to the posterior and anterior compartments of the thigh. SYN: arteriae perforantes arteriae profundae femoris [TA] .
  • perforating arteries (of foot) SYN: perforating branches (of plantar metatarsal arteries), under branch.
  • perforating arteries (of internal thoracic a.) SYN: perforating branches of internal thoracic a., under branch.
  • perforating arteries of penis [TA] branches of the dorsal a. of the penis that perforate the tunica albuginea along the dorsum of the penis, especially near the glans, to supply the glans and to supplement the deep a. of the penis in supplying the cavernous spaces of the corpora cavernosa. SYN: arteriae perforantes penis [TA] .
  • perforating radiate arteries (of kidney) [TA] continuations of the cortical radiate arteries that perforate the capsule of the kidney and contribute to the capsular vascular plexus. SEE ALSO: cortical radiate arteries. SYN: arteriae perforantes radiatae (renis) [TA] .
  • pericallosal a. [TA] the continuation of the anterior cerebral a. after the anterior communicating a.; it supplies branches to the cerebral cortex as it passes along the corpus callosum. SYN: arteria pericallosa [TA] .
  • pericardiacophrenic a. [TA] origin, internal thoracic; distribution, pericardium, diaphragm, and pleura; anastomoses, musculophrenic, inferior phrenic, mediastinal and pericardial branches of the internal thoracic. SYN: arteria pericardiacophrenica [TA] , arteria comes nervi phrenici.
  • perineal a. [TA] origin, internal pudendal; distribution, superficial structures of the perineum; anastomoses, external pudendal arteries. SYN: arteria perinealis [TA] .
  • peroneal a. fibular a..
  • pipestem arteries arteries hardened by calcification as seen in Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis; descriptive of the characteristic feeling to the finger of an examiner.
  • plantar metatarsal a. [TA] one of four branches of the plantar arterial arch that divide into plantar digital arteries to supply the toes. SYN: arteria metatarsalis plantaris [TA] .
  • polar frontal a. [TA] origin: as second major branch of postcommunicating part (A2 segment) of anterior cerebral a. (pericallosal a.); distribition: medial aspect of frontal lobe, approaching frontal pole, of cerebrum. SYN: arteria polaris frontalis [TA] , frontopolar a. [TA] .
  • polar temporal a. [TA] origin: anterior temporal branch of middle cerebral a.; distribution: superomedial aspect of temporal lobe, extending to the temporal pole, of cerebrum. SYN: arteria polaris temporalis [TA] .
  • pontine arteries, arteries of pons [TA] branches of the basilar a. that serve the pons; divided into medial branches [TA] (rami mediales [TA]) or paramedian pontine branches [TAalt] and lateral branches [TA] (rami laterales [TA] or circumferential pontine branches [TAalt]); the circumferential pontine arteries are sometimes designated as short circumferential and long circumferential branches. SYN: arteriae pontis [TA] , rami ad pontem.
  • popliteal a. [TA] continuation of femoral a. in the popliteal space, bifurcating (at the lower border of the popliteus muscle as it passes deep to the arcus tendineus of the soleus muscle) into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries; branches, lateral and medial superior genicular, middle genicular, lateral and medial inferior genicular, and sural arteries. SYN: arteria poplitea [TA] .
  • postcentral a. SYN: a. of postcentral sulcus.
  • postcentral sulcal a. SYN: a. of postcentral sulcus.
  • a. of postcentral sulcus [TA] a branch of the terminal part of the middle cerebral a. distributing to the cortex on either side of the postcentral sulcus. SYN: arteria sulci postcentralis [TA] , postcentral a., postcentral sulcal a..
  • posterior alveolar a. SYN: posterior superior alveolar a..
  • posterior auricular a. [TA] origin: posterior aspect of external carotid just above the digastric muscle; course: ascends first between parotid gland and styloid process then between cartilage of auricle and the mastoid process; branches: muscular (digastric, stylohyoid and sternocleidomastoid), glandular (parotid), stylomastoid a., occipital and auricular; anastomoses: anterior tympanic a. (via the stylomastoid a.) and occipital a.. SYN: arteria auricularis posterior [TA] .
  • posterior basal segmental a. of left / right lung SYN: posterior basal branch, ramus basalis posterior.
  • posterior cecal a. [TA] origin, ileocolic a.; distribution, posterior region of cecum. SYN: arteria cecalis posterior [TA] .
  • posterior cerebral a. [TA] formed by the bifurcation of the basilar a.; it passes around the cerebral peduncle to reach the medial aspect of the hemisphere; for descriptive purposes it is divided into three parts: 1) precommunicating part (P1 segment of clinical terminology), which gives rise to posteromedial central arteries [TA], short circumferential arteries [TA], the thalamoperforating a. [TA], and the collicular a. [TA]; 2) the postcommunicating part (P2), which gives rise to posterolateral central arteries [TA], posterior medial choroidal branches [TA], posterior lateral choroidal branches [TA], peduncular branches [TA] the thalamogeniculate a. [TA]; and 3) the terminal or cortical part consisting of the lateral occipital a. [TA] (P3) whose branches serve the medial aspect of the temporal lobe and the medial occipital a. [TA] (P4), whose branches serve the medial surface of the occipital lobe; the latter includes calcarine and parietooccipital arteries. SYN: arteria cerebri posterior [TA] .
  • posterior choroidal a. usually seen as two branches of the P2 segment of the posterior cerebral a. [TA] that supply the choroid plexus of the third ventricle (posterior medial choroidal a. [TA]) and parts of the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle (posterior lateral choroidal a. [TA]). SYN: arteria choroidea posterior.
  • posterior circumflex humeral a. [TA] origin, axillary; distribution, muscles and structures of shoulder joint; anastomoses, anterior circumflex humeral, suprascapular, thoracoacromial, and profunda brachii. SYN: arteria circumflexa humeri posterior [TA] , posterior humeral circumflex a..
  • posterior communicating a. [TA] origin, internal carotid; distribution, optic tract, crus cerebri, interpeduncular region, and hippocampal gyrus; anastomoses, with posterior cerebral to form the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis). SYN: arteria communicans posterior [TA] .
  • posterior conjunctival a. [TA] one of a series of branches from the arterial arches of the upper and lower eyelids that supplies the conjunctiva. SYN: arteria conjunctivalis posterior [TA] , conjunctival arteries.
  • posterior dental a. SYN: posterior superior alveolar a..
  • posterior descending coronary a. SYN: posterior interventricular branch of right coronary a..
  • posterior ethmoidal a. [TA] origin, ophthalmic; distribution, posterior ethmoidal cells and upper posterior part of lateral wall of nasal cavity. SYN: arteria ethmoidalis posterior [TA] .
  • posterior gastric a. [TA] origin: splenic a.; distribution: ascends retroperitoneally in posterior wall of omental bursa toward gastric fundus to reach (and supply) the gastric wall via the gastrophrenic fold. Omitted from many accounts of the blood supply of the stomach, its unexpected presence may complicate surgery involving the cardia of the stomach. SYN: arteria gastrica posterior [TA] .
  • posterior humeral circumflex a. SYN: posterior circumflex humeral a..
  • posterior inferior cerebellar a. [TA] origin, intracranial part of vertebral; distribution, lateral medulla, choroid plexus of fourth ventricle, and cerebellum; anastomoses, superior cerebellar and anterior inferior cerebellar; gives rise to posterior spinal a. [TA], cerebellar tonsillar branch [TA], and choroidal branch to fourth ventricle [TA]. SYN: arteria inferior posterior cerebelli [TA] .
  • posterior intercostal arteries 1–2 SYN: first and second posterior intercostal arteries.
  • posterior intercostal arteries 3–11 [TA] one of nine pairs of arteries arising from the thoracic aorta and distributed to the nine lower intercostal spaces, vertebral column, spinal cord, and muscles and integument of the back; they anastomose with branches of the musculophrenic, internal thoracic, superior epigastric, subcostal and lumbar. SYN: arteriae intercostales posteriores III-XI [TA] .
  • posterior interosseous a. [TA] origin, common interosseous a.; distribution, posterior compartment of forearm. SYN: arteria interossea posterior [TA] , dorsal interosseous a..
  • posterior interventricular a. SYN: posterior interventricular branch of right coronary a..
  • posterior interventricular branch of right coronary a. [TA] continuation of right coronary a. in posterior interventricular sulcus; descends to apex to anastomose with anterior interventricular a.; supplies most of diaphragmatic aspect of ventricles and posterior third of interventricular septum. SYN: ramus interventricularis posterior arteriae coronariae dextrae [TA] , posterior descending coronary a., posterior interventricular a..
  • posterior labial arteries SYN: posterior labial branches of internal perineal a..
  • posterior lateral nasal arteries [TA] branches of the sphenopalatine a. that supply the posterior parts of the conchae and lateral nasal wall. SYN: arteriae nasales posteriores laterales [TA] .
  • posterior mediastinal arteries SYN: mediastinal branches of thoracic aorta, under branch.
  • posterior meningeal a. [TA] origin, ascending pharyngeal; distribution, dura mater of posterior cranial fossa; anastomoses, branches of middle meningeal and vertebral. SYN: arteria meningea posterior [TA] .
  • posterior pancreaticoduodenal a. SYN: retroduodenal a..
  • posterior parietal a. [TA] the branch of the M2 segment of the middle cerebral a. distributed to the posterior part of the parietal lobe. SYN: arteria parietalis posterior [TA] .
  • posterior peroneal arteries SYN: lateral malleolar branch (of fibular peroneal a.).
  • posterior segmental a. [TA] See left pulmonary a., right pulmonary a., segmental arteries of kidney.
  • posterior segmental a. (of kidney) [TA] origin, continuation of the posterior branch of renal. SEE ALSO: segmental arteries of kidney. SYN: a. of posterior segment of kidney.
  • a. of posterior segment of kidney SYN: posterior segmental a. (of kidney).
  • posterior septal a. of nose SYN: posterior septal branch of nose.
  • posterior spinal a. [TA] origin, intracranial part of vertebral; distribution, medulla, spinal cord, and pia mater; anastomoses, spinal branches of intercostal arteries. SYN: arteria spinalis posterior [TA] .
  • posterior superior alveolar a. [TA] origin, third part of maxillary a. within pterygopalatine fossa; distribution, molar and premolar teeth, gingiva, and mucous membrane of maxillary sinus. SYN: arteria alveolaris superior posterior [TA] , posterior alveolar a., posterior dental a..
  • posterior temporal a. SYN: posterior temporal branch of middle cerebral a..
  • posterior tibial a. [TA] the larger and more directly continuous of the two terminal branches of the popliteal; branches, fibular (peroneal), nutrient of fibula, lateral and medial posterior malleolar, tibial nutrient a., medial and lateral plantar. SYN: arteria tibialis posterior [TA] .
  • posterior tibial recurrent a. [TA] an inconstant branch of the posterior tibial a. (or occasionally of the anterior tibial a.), which ascends anterior to the popliteus muscle, anastomoses with branches of the popliteal a., and sends a twig to the tibiofibular joint. SYN: arteria recurrens tibialis posterior [TA] .
  • posterior tympanic a. [TA] origin, stylomastoid; distribution, middle ear; anastomoses, other tympanic arteries. SYN: arteria tympanica posterior [TA] .
  • posterolateral central arteries [TA] the circumflex mesencephalic branches, several small branches of the postcommunical part (P2 segment) of the posterior cerebral a. distributed to the lateral posterior part of the midbrain. SYN: arteriae centrales posterolaterales [TA] .
  • posteromedial central arteries [TA] the interpeduncular perforating branches, several small branches from the precommunical part (P1 segment) of the posterior cerebral a. and the posterior communicating a. supplying the posterior medial part of the midbrain. SYN: arteriae centrales posteromediales [TA] , paramedian arteries&star.
  • precentral a. SYN: a. of precentral sulcus.
  • precentral sulcal a. SYN: a. of precentral sulcus.
  • a. of precentral sulcus [TA] a branch of the terminal part of the middle cerebral a. distributed to the cortex on either side of the precentral sulcus. SYN: arteria sulci precentralis [TA] , pre-Rolandic a., precentral a., precentral sulcal a..
  • precuneal a. SYN: precuneal branches (of anterior cerebral a.), under branch.
  • prepancreatic a. [TA] origin: arises from dorsal pancreatic a. as its left terminal branch; distribution: often double, it runs between the neck and uncinate process of the pancreas to form an arterial arch (arcade) with the anterior superior pancreaticodoudenal a.. SYN: arteria prepancreatica [TA] .
  • pre-Rolandic a. SYN: a. of precentral sulcus.
  • princeps cervicis a. SYN: descending branch of occipital a..
  • princeps pollicis a. [TA] origin, radial (deep palmar (arterial) arch); distribution, palmar surface and sides of thumb; anastomoses, arteries on dorsum of thumb. SYN: arteria princeps pollicis [TA] , chief a. of thumb, princeps pollicis, principal a. of thumb.
  • principal a. of thumb SYN: princeps pollicis a..
  • profunda brachii a. [TA] origin, brachial; distribution, humerus and muscles and integument of arm; anastomoses, posterior circumflex humeral, radial recurrent, recurrent interosseous, ulnar collateral, i.e., articular vascular network of elbow. SYN: arteria profunda brachii [TA] , ramus deltoideus arteriae profundae brachii [TA] , deep a. of arm&star, deep brachial a..
  • profunda femoris a. SYN: deep a. of thigh.
  • proper cochlear a. [TA] origin: common cochlear a. in modiolus; distribution: to cochlear duct. SYN: arteria cochlearis propria [TA] .
  • proper palmar digital arteries [TA] terminal branches of the common palmar digital a. that pass to the side of each finger. SYN: arteriae digitales palmares propriae [TA] , arteria digitalis palmaris propria, collateral digital a., digital collateral a..
  • proper plantar digital a. [TA] one of the digital branches of the plantar metatarsal arteries. SYN: arteria digitalis plantaris propria [TA] , arteriae digitales plantares propriae.
  • proximal medial striate arteries [TA] origin: precommunicating part (A1 segment) of anterior cerebral a.; distribution: inferior surface of frontal lobe of cerebrum, extending into thalamus and corpus striatum. SYN: arteria centralis brevis, short central a..
  • a. of pterygoid canal [TA] origin: usually arises from the third part of the maxillary a., but frequently from the greater palatine a., within the pterygopalatine fossa. Passes posteriorly to run through the pterygoid canal with the corresponding nerve, supplying the contents and wall of the canal, the mucous membrane of the upper pharynx, the auditory tube, and the tympanic cavity. SYN: arteria canalis pterygoidei [TA] , vidian a..
  • pterygomeningeal a. [TA] origin: maxillary or middle meningeal a.; distribution: traverses foramen ovale to enter cranial cavity, where it supplies the trigeminal ganglion, dura mater, and bone of the floor of the middle cranial fossa; however, its main distribution is extracranially to the pterygoid and tensor tympani muscles, the sphenoid bone, and the mandibular nerves and its otic gangion. SYN: arteria pterygomeningealis [TA] , accessory meningeal a., accessory meningeal branch, ramus meningeus accessorius.
  • pubic arteries pubic branch of inferior epigastric vein, pubic branch of obturator a..
  • pulmonary a. SYN: pulmonary trunk. SEE ALSO: right pulmonary a., left pulmonary a..
  • a. of pulp the first section of a penicillus of the spleen.
  • pyloric a. SYN: right gastric a..
  • quadrigeminal a. collicular a..
  • radial a. [TA] origin, brachial; branches, radial recurrent, dorsa and palmar carpal and metacarpal, dorsal digital, princeps pollicis, radialis indicis, palmar and muscular, and perforating; usually terminates as deep palmar arch. SYN: arteria radialis [TA] .
  • radial collateral a. [TA] the anterior terminal branch of the profunda brachii, anastomosing with the radial recurrent a., forming part of the articular vascular plexus of the elbow. SYN: arteria collateralis radialis [TA] .
  • radial index a. SYN: radialis indicis a..
  • radialis indicis a. [TA] origin, radial; distribution, radial side of index finger. SYN: arteria radialis indicis [TA] , arteria volaris indicis radialis, radial index a..
  • radial recurrent a. [TA] origin, radial; distribution, ascends around lateral side of elbow joint; anastomoses, radial collateral, interosseous recurrent. SYN: arteria recurrens radialis [TA] , recurrent radial a..
  • ranine a. SYN: deep lingual a..
  • recurrent a. 1. an a. which, upon or soon after originating, reflects or turns sharply to course in the general opposite direction to that of its parent a.; 2. SYN: medial striate a..
  • recurrent a. of Heubner SYN: medial striate a..
  • recurrent interosseous a. [TA] origin, posterior interosseous; distribution, elbow joint; anastomoses, branches of profunda brachii and inferior ulnar collateral, i.e., articular vascular network of elbow. SYN: arteria interossea recurrens [TA] .
  • recurrent radial a. SYN: radial recurrent a..
  • recurrent ulnar a. SYN: ulnar recurrent a..
  • renal a. [TA] origin, aorta; branches, segmental, ureteral, and inferior suprarenal; distribution, kidney. SYN: arteria renalis [TA] .
  • retroduodenal a. [TA] origin, one of several small branches from the gastroduodenal a. posterior to the duodenum; distribution, first part of duodenum. SYN: arteria retroduodenalis [TA] , posterior pancreaticoduodenal a..
  • right colic a. [TA] origin, superior mesenteric, sometimes by a common trunk with the ileocolic; distribution, ascending colon; anastomoses, middle colic, ileocolic. SYN: arteria colica dextra [TA] .
  • right coronary a. [TA] origin, right aortic sinus; distribution, it passes around the right side of the heart in the coronary sulcus, giving branches to the right atrium and ventricle, including the atrioventricular branches and the posterior interventricular branch. SYN: arteria coronaria dextra [TA] .
  • right descending pulmonary a. (RDPA) a. supplying the right middle and lower lobes and comprises most of the right hilar shadow on the frontal chest radiograph.
  • right flexural a. [TA] origin: superior mesenteric a.; variant branch arising between the right and middle colic arteries, or in the place of either, passing directly to the right colic flexure. SYN: arteria flexurae dextrae [TA] .
  • right gastric a. [TA] origin, hepatic; distribution, pyloric portion of stomach on the lesser curvature; anastomoses, left gastric. SYN: arteria gastrica dextra [TA] , pyloric a..
  • right gastroepiploic a. right gastroomental a..
  • right gastroomental a. [TA] origin, gastroduodenal; distribution, greater curvature and walls of stomach and greater omentum; anastomoses, frequently unites with left gastroepiploic, and branches from this arch anastomose with branches of right and left gastric. SYN: arteria gastroomentalis dextra [TA] , right gastroepiploic a.&star, arteria gastroepiploica dextra.
  • right hepatic a. SYN: right branch of hepatic a. proper.
  • right pulmonary a. [TA] the longer of the two terminal branches of the pulmonary trunk, it passes transversely across the midline in the superior mediastinum, passing inferior to the aortic arch to enter the hilum of the right lung as part of its root. Branches divide and are distributed with the segmental and subsegmental bronchi; frequent variations occur. Typical branches: of the superior lobar arteries [TA] (arteriae lobares superiores [TA]) are the apical segmental a. [TA] (arteria segmentalis apicalis [TA]), anterior segmental a. (arteria segmentalis anterior [TA]) and posterior segmental a. [TA] (arteria segmentalis posterior [TA]), with the latter two having ascending and descending branches [TA] (rami ascendens et descendens [TA]); of the middle lobar a. [TA] (arteria lobaris media [TA]) are the medial segmental a. [TA] (arteria lobaris media [TA]) and lateral segmental a. [TA] (arteria segmentalis lateralis [TA]); and of the inferior lobar arteries [TA] (arteriae lobares inferiores [TA]) are the
  • superior segmental a. [TA] (arteria segmentalis superior [TA]) and a basal part [TA] (pars basalis [TA]) giving rise to anterior, posterior, lateral, and medial basal segmental arteries [TA] (arteriae segmentales basales anterior, posterior, lateralis et medialis [TA]). SYN: arteria pulmonalis dextra [TA] .
  • Rolandic sulcal a. SYN: a. of central sulcus.
  • a. of round ligament of uterus origin, inferior epigastric; distribution, round ligament of uterus. SYN: arteria ligamenti teretis uteri.
  • a. to sciatic nerve [TA] origin, inferior gluteal; distribution, sciatic nerve; anastomoses, branches of profunda femoris. SYN: arteria comitans nervi ischiadici [TA] , companion a. to sciatic nerve.
  • screw arteries coiled arteries into the uterine mucosa or in the macular region of the retina.
  • scrotal arteries anterior scrotal branch of deep external pudendal a., posterior scrotal branch of internal pudendal a., under branch.
  • segmental arteries of kidney [TA] the branches of the renal a. that supply the anatomical segments of kidney. Usually five in number, they are end arteries and give off interlobar, arcuate, and interlobular arteries in sequence. The latter send afferent arterioles to the glomeruli as well as branches to the kidney capsule. The segmental arteries of the kidney are identified as: (1) anterior inferior (arteriae segmenti anterioris inferioris renis [NA]); (2) anterior superior (arteriae segmenti anterioris superioris renis [NA]); (3) inferior (arteriae segmenti inferioris renis [NA]); (4) posterior (arteriae segmenti posterioris renis [NA]); and (5) superior (arteriae segmenti superioris renis [NA]). SYN: arteriae renis [TA] , arteries of kidney.
  • segmental arteries of liver [TA] anterior and posterior segmental arteries arising from the right branch of the hepatic a., and medial and lateral segmental arteries arising from the left branch of the hepatic a.; the segmental arteries serve four of the five major divisions of the liver, and then branch in turn so that each hepatic segment receives an independent blood supply. SYN: arteriae segmenti hepaticae.
  • segmental medullary arteries [TA] a large caliber spinal or radicular a. that courses centrally along a dorsal or ventral root, perhaps supplying it and the surrounding meninges in the fashion of any spinal/radicular a., but that continues on to reach and anastomose with the anterior or posterior (longitudinal) spinal a.. Only 4–9 of the spinal arteries are medullary spinal arteries, found mainly in the lower cervical, lower thoracic, and upper lumbar levels, the largest of which is the segmental medullary a.. SEE ALSO: great segmental medullary a., spinal arteries, (anterior and posterior) radicular arteries. SYN: arteriae medullares segmentales [TA] , medullary spinal arteries.
  • septal a. a branch of the superior labial a. that supplies the lower part of the nasal septum.
  • sheathed a. a subdivision of the penicillus of the spleen surrounded by macrophages and a reticular stroma.
  • short central a. SYN: proximal medial striate arteries.
  • short circumferential arteries [TA] short branches of the precommunicating part (P1 segment) of the posterior cerebral a.. SYN: arteriae circumferentiales brevis [TA] .
  • short gastric arteries [TA] four or five small arteries given off from the splenic, passing via the gastrosplenic ligament to the fundus of the stomach along the greater curvature, and anastomosing with the other arteries in that region. SYN: arteriae gastricae breves [TA] , vasa brevia.
  • short posterior ciliary a. [TA] one of approximately seven branches of the ophthalmic a. that pass around the optic nerve to supply the eyeball. Dividing into some 15–20 branches, they penetrate the sclera adjacent to the optic nerve, supplying the choroid and ciliary processes. Anastomoses: with central retinal a. and long and anterior ciliary arteries (at the ora serrata). SYN: arteria ciliaris posterior brevis [TA] .
  • sigmoid arteries [TA] origin, inferior mesenteric; distribution, descending colon and sigmoid flexure; anastomoses, left colic, superior rectal. SYN: arteriae sigmoideae [TA] .
  • sinuatrial nodal a. SYN: sinuatrial (S-A) nodal branch of right coronary a..
  • a. to the sinoatrial (S-A) node SYN: sinuatrial (S-A) nodal branch of right coronary a..
  • sinuatrial node a. SYN: sinuatrial (S-A) nodal branch of right coronary a..
  • sinus node a. SYN: sinuatrial (S-A) nodal branch of right coronary a..
  • small arteries unnamed muscular arteries, usually with fewer than six or seven layers of muscle.
  • somatic arteries arteries that arise in the embryo from the dorsal aorta and supply the body wall; they persist almost unchanged as the posterior intercostal, subcostal, and lumbar arteries.
  • sphenopalatine a. [TA] origin, third part of maxillary; distribution, posterior portion of lateral nasal wall and septum; anastomoses, branches of descending palatine, superior labial, and infraorbital. SYN: arteria sphenopalatina [TA] .
  • spinal arteries SYN: rami radiculares. SYN: spinal branches, under branch.
  • spiral a. one of the corkscrew-like arteries in premenstrual or progestational endometrium. SYN: coiled a. of the uterus.
  • spiral modiolar a. [TA] a. paralleling the spiral ganglion in the root of the spiral lamina of the modiolus, serving the ganglion and the cochlear ducts and its contents; the a. forms by contributions from the common cochlear a. (serving the apical two turns of the cochlea) and the cochlear branch of the vestibulocochlear a. (serving the basal turn).
  • splenic a. [TA] origin, celiac trunk; branches, pancreatic, left gastroepiploic, short gastric, and (proper) splenic. See great segmental medullary a.. SYN: arteria splenica [TA] , arteria lienalis&star, lienal a..
  • sternal arteries SYN: sternal branches of internal thoracic a., under branch.
  • sternomastoid a. See sternocleidomastoid branch of superior thyroid a., sternocleidomastoid branches of occipital a., under branch.
  • straight arteries vasa recta renis, under vas.
  • stylomastoid a. [TA] origin, posterior auricular; distribution, external acoustic meatus, mastoid cells, semicircular canals, stapedius muscle, and vestibule; anastomoses, tympanic branches of internal carotid and ascending pharyngeal, and labyrinthine arteries. SYN: arteria stylomastoidea [TA] .
  • subclavian a. [TA] origin, right from brachiocephalic, left from arch of aorta; branches, vertebral, thyrocervical trunk, internal thoracic; costocervical trunk, descending scapular; it continues as the axillary a. after crossing the first rib. SYN: arteria subclavia [TA] .
  • subcostal a. [TA] origin, thoracic aorta; distribution, inferior to twelfth rib in a manner similar to posterior intercostal arteries. SYN: arteria subcostalis [TA] .
  • sublingual a. [TA] origin, lingual; distribution, extrinsic muscles of tongue, sublingual gland, mucosa of region; anastomoses, the a. of opposite side and submental. SYN: arteria sublingualis [TA] .
  • submental a. [TA] origin, facial; distribution, mylohyoid muscle, submandibular and sublingual glands, and structures of lower lip; anastomoses, inferior labial, mental branch of inferior dental and sublingual. SYN: arteria submentalis [TA] .
  • subscapular a. [TA] origin, axillary; branches, circumflex scapular, thoracodorsal; distribution, muscles of shoulder and scapular region; anastomoses, branches of transverse cervical, suprascapular, lateral thoracic, and intercostals. SYN: arteria subscapularis [TA] .
  • sulcal a. a small branch of the spinal a. running in the anterior median fissure of the spinal cord.
  • superficial brachial a. [TA] an occasional variation in which the brachial a. lies superficial to the median nerve in the arm. SYN: arteria brachialis superficialis [TA] .
  • superficial cervical a. [TA] origin, branch of thyrocervical trunk, running with spinal accessory nerve deep to trapezius muscle. SEE ALSO: superficial branch of the transverse cervical a.. SYN: ramus superficialis arteriae transversae cervicis [TA] , arteria cervicalis superficialis.
  • superficial circumflex iliac a. [TA] origin, femoral; distribution, inguinal lymph nodes and integument of that region; sartorius and tensor fasciae latae muscles; anastomoses, deep circumflex iliac. SYN: arteria circumflexa iliaca superficialis [TA] .
  • (superficial and deep) external pudendal arteries [TA] origin, from the femoral as two arteries that pass superficial and deep to the femoral vein; distribution, skin over pubis, skin over penis, and skin of scrotum or labium majus via anterior scrotal (labial) arteries; anastomoses, dorsal a. of penis or clitoris, posterior scrotal or labial arteries. SYN: arteriae pudendae externae [TA] .
  • superficial epigastric a. [TA] origin, femoral; distribution, inguinal nodes and integument of lower abdomen; anastomoses, inferior epigastric, superficial circumflex iliac and external pudendal. SYN: arteria epigastrica superficialis [TA] .
  • superficial palmar a. SYN: superficial palmar branch of radial a..
  • superficial temporal a. [TA] origin, a terminal branch of the external carotid (with maxillary a.); branches, transverse facial, middle temporal, orbital, parotid, anterior auricular, frontal, and parietal. SYN: arteria temporalis superficialis [TA] .
  • superficial volar a. SYN: superficial palmar branch of radial a..
  • superior cerebellar a. [TA] origin, basilar; distribution, upper surface of cerebellum, colliculi, and most of the cerebellar nuclei; anastomoses, posterior inferior cerebellar; gives rise to medial branches [TA] and lateral branches [TA]. SYN: arteria superior cerebelli [TA] .
  • superior epigastric a. [TA] origin, the medial terminal branch of internal thoracic; distribution, abdominal muscles and integument, falciform ligament; anastomoses, inferior epigastric. SYN: arteria epigastrica superior [TA] .
  • superior gluteal a. [TA] origin, internal iliac; distribution, gluteal region; anastomoses, lateral sacral, inferior gluteal, internal pudendal, deep circumflex iliac, lateral circumflex femoral. SYN: arteria glutea superior [TA] .
  • superior hemorrhoidal a. SYN: superior rectal a..
  • superior hypophysial a. [TA] a small branch of the cerebral part of the internal carotid a. supplying the hypophysis. SYN: arteria hypophysialis superior [TA] .
  • superior intercostal a. SYN: supreme intercostal a..
  • superior internal parietal a. SYN: parieto-occipital branches (of anterior cerebral a.), under branch.
  • superior labial a. SYN: superior labial branch of facial a..
  • superior laryngeal a. [TA] origin, superior thyroid; distribution, muscles and mucous membrane of larynx; anastomoses, cricothyroid branch of superior thyroid and terminal branches of inferior laryngeal. SYN: arteria laryngea superior [TA] .
  • superior lateral genicular a. [TA] origin, popliteal; distribution, knee joint; anastomoses, lateral circumflex femoral, third perforating, anterior tibial recurrent, lateral inferior genicular, i.e., the articular vascular network of the knee. SYN: arteria superior lateralis genus [TA] , lateral superior genicular a..
  • superior lingular a. [TA] branch (of the lingular branch) of the left pulmonary a. serving the superior lingular segment of the superior lobe of the left lung. See left pulmonary a.. SYN: arteria lingularis superior [TA] , ramus lingularis superior, superior lingular branch of lingular branch of superior lobar left pulmonary a..
  • superior lobar arteries [TA] See left pulmonary a., right pulmonary a..
  • superior medial genicular a. [TA] origin, popliteal; distribution, knee joint; anastomoses, descending genicular, lateral superior genicular, i.e., the articular vascular network of the knee. SYN: arteria superior medialis genus [TA] , medial superior genicular a..
  • superior mesenteric a. [TA] origin, abdominal aorta; branches, inferior pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, ileal, ileocolic, appendicular, right colic, middle colic; anastomoses, superior pancreaticoduodenal and left colic. SYN: arteria mesenterica superior [TA] .
  • superior phrenic a. [TA] one of a pair of small arteries given off from the thoracic aorta just superior to the diaphragm; distribution, diaphragm; anastomoses, musculophrenic, pericardiacophrenic, and inferior phrenic. SYN: arteria phrenica superior [TA] .
  • superior rectal a. [TA] origin, inferior mesenteric; distribution, upper part of rectum; anastomoses, middle and inferior rectal. As a tributary of the portal vein, its anastomosis with these arteries forms a portosystemic or portocaval anastomosis. SYN: arteria rectalis superior [TA] , superior hemorrhoidal a..
  • superior segmental a. [TA] See left pulmonary a., right pulmonary a., segmental arteries of kidney.
  • superior segmental a. of kidney [TA] origin, anterior branch of renal. See segmental arteries of kidney. SYN: a. of superior segment of kidney.
  • a. of superior segment of kidney SYN: superior segmental a. of kidney.
  • superior suprarenal arteries [TA] origin, inferior phrenic a.; distribution, suprarenal gland. SYN: arteriae suprarenales superiores [TA] .
  • superior thoracic a. [TA] origin, axillary; distribution, muscles of superior chest; anastomoses, branches of suprascapular, internal thoracic, and thoracoacromial. SYN: arteria thoracica superior [TA] , highest thoracic a..
  • superior thyroid a. [TA] origin, external carotid; branches, infrahyoid, superior laryngeal, sternocleidomastoid, cricothyroid, and two terminal branches. SYN: arteria thyroidea superior [TA] .
  • superior tympanic a. [TA] origin, middle meningeal; distribution, middle ear; anastomoses, other tympanic arteries. SYN: arteria tympanica superior [TA] .
  • superior ulnar collateral a. [TA] origin, brachial; distribution, elbow joint; anastomoses, posterior ulnar recurrent and inferior ulnar collateral, as part of the articular vascular network of the elbow. SYN: arteria collateralis ulnaris superior [TA] .
  • superior vesical a. [TA] origin, umbilical; distribution, bladder, urachus, ureter; anastomoses, other vesical branches. SYN: arteria vesicalis superior [TA] .
  • suprachiasmatic a. [TA] origin: anterior communicating a.; passes superior to optic chiasm to supply region of optic recess, hypothalamic area. SYN: arteria suprachiasmatica [TA] .
  • supraduodenal a. [TA] origin, gastroduodenal; distribution, first part of duodenum. SYN: arteria supraduodenalis [TA] .
  • supraoptic a. [TA] origin: precommunicating part (A1 segment) of anterior cerebral a.; distribution: passes superior to optic nerve to orbital surface of frontal lobe of cerebrum. SYN: arteria supraoptica [TA] .
  • supraorbital a. [TA] origin, ophthalmic; distribution, frontalis muscle and scalp; anastomoses, branches of the superficial temporal and supratrochlear. SYN: arteria supraorbitalis [TA] .
  • suprascapular a. [TA] origin, thyrocervical trunk; distribution, clavicle, scapula, muscles of shoulder, and shoulder joint; anastomoses, transverse cervical circumflex scapular. SYN: arteria suprascapularis [TA] , transverse scapular a..
  • supratrochlear a. [TA] origin, ophthalmic; distribution, anterior portion of scalp; anastomoses, branches of supraorbital. SYN: arteria supratrochlearis [TA] , arteria frontalis, frontal a..
  • supreme intercostal a. [TA] origin, costocervical trunk; distribution, structures of first and second intercostal spaces via its terminal branches, posterior intercostal arteries 1 and 2; anastomoses, anterior intercostal branches of internal thoracic. SYN: arteria intercostalis suprema [TA] , highest intercostal a., superior intercostal a..
  • sural arteries [TA] one of four or five arteries arising (sometimes by a common trunk) from the popliteal; distribution, muscles and integument of the calf; anastomoses, posterior tibial, medial, and lateral inferior genicular. SYN: arteriae surales [TA] , a. of calf.
  • a. to tail of pancreas [TA] origin, splenic a. near the left gastroepiploic; distribution, the tail of the pancreas; anastomoses, with other pancreatic arteries. SYN: arteria caudae pancreatis [TA] , caudal pancreatic a..
  • terminal a. SYN: end a..
  • testicular a. [TA] origin, aorta; branches, ureteral, cremasteric, epididymal; distribution, testicle and parts designated by names of branches; anastomoses, branches of renal, inferior epigastric, deferential. SYN: arteria testicularis [TA] , arteria spermatica interna, internal spermatic a..
  • thoracoacromial a. [TA] origin, axillary; distribution, muscles and skin of shoulder and upper chest; anastomoses, branches of superior thoracic, internal thoracic, lateral thoracic, posterior and anterior circumflex humeral, and suprascapular. SYN: arteria thoracoacromialis [TA] , ramus deltoideus arteriae thoracoacromialis [TA] , acromiothoracic a., thoracic axis (1) , thoracoacromial trunk.
  • thoracodorsal a. [TA] origin, subscapular; distribution, muscles of upper part of back; anastomoses, branches of lateral thoracic. SYN: arteria thoracodorsalis [TA] , dorsal thoracic a..
  • thyroid ima a. [TA] an inconstant a.; origin, arch of aorta or brachiocephalic a.; distribution, thyroid gland. SYN: arteria thyroidea ima [TA] , lowest thyroid a., Neubauer a..
  • tibial nutrient a. [TA] a. derived from the upper part of the posterior tibial a.; it enters through the nutrient foramen on the posterior surface of the tibia. SYN: arteria nutricia tibiae [TA] , arteria nutriens tibiae&star, arteria nutriens tibialis, nutrient a. of the tibia.
  • transverse cervical a. [TA] origin, thyrocervical trunk; branches, superficial (superficial cervical) and deep (descending scapular). SYN: arteria transversa colli [TA] , arteria transversa cervicis&star, transverse a. of neck.
  • transverse facial a. [TA] origin, superficial temporal; distribution, parotid gland, parotid duct, masseter muscle, and overlying skin; anastomoses, infraorbital and buccal branches of maxillary, and buccal and masseteric branches of facial. SYN: arteria transversa faciei [TA] .
  • transverse a. of neck SYN: transverse cervical a..
  • transverse pancreatic a. SYN: inferior pancreatic a..
  • transverse scapular a. SYN: suprascapular a..
  • a. of tuber cinereum [TA] small a. arising from the posterior communicating a. giving rise to lateral and medial branches supplying the tuber cinereum. SYN: arteria tuberis cinerei [TA] .
  • ulnar a. [TA] origin, brachial; branches, ulnar recurrent, common interosseous, dorsal and palmar carpal, deep palmar, and superficial palmar arch with its digital branches. SYN: arteria ulnaris [TA] .
  • ulnar recurrent a. [TA] origin, ulnar a.; distribution, two branches, anterior and posterior, pass medially in front of and behind the elbow joint; anastomoses, superior and inferior ulnar collateral, i.e., with articular vascular plexus of elbow. SYN: arteria recurrens ulnaris [TA] , recurrent ulnar a..
  • umbilical a. [TA] before birth this arteria is a continuation of the internal iliac; after birth it is obliterated between the bladder and umbilicus, forming the medial umbilical ligament, the remaining portion, between the internal iliac a. and bladder, being reduced in size and giving off the superior vesical arteries. SYN: arteria umbilicalis [TA] .
  • uncal a. [TA] origin: cerebral part of internal carotid a. or occasionally from the sphenoidal part (M1 segment) of the middle cerebral a.; distrubution: to uncus. SYN: arteria uncalis [TA] .
  • arteries of upper limb [TA] arteries that supply the upper limb; all are derivatives of the axillary a.. SYN: arteriae membri superioris [TA] .
  • urethral a. [TA] origin, perineal a.; distribution, membranous urethra. SYN: arteria urethralis [TA] .
  • uterine a. [TA] origin, internal iliac; distribution, uterus, upper part of vagina, round ligament, and medial part of uterine (fallopian) tube; anastomoses, ovarian, vaginal, inferior epigastric. Supplies maternal circulation to placenta during pregnancy. SYN: arteria uterina [TA] .
  • vaginal a. [TA] origin, internal iliac; distribution, vagina, base of bladder, rectum; anastomoses, uterine, internal pudendal. SYN: arteria vaginalis [TA] .
  • a. to vas deferens a. to ductus deferens.
  • venous a. SYN: pulmonary trunk.
  • ventral splanchnic arteries arteries that arise in the embryo from the dorsal aorta and are distributed to the digestive tube.
  • ventricular arteries branches of the right and left coronary arteries distributed to the muscle of the ventricles. SYN: arteriae ventriculares [TA] .
  • vertebral a. [TA] the first branch of the subclavian a.; for descriptive purposes, divided into four parts: 1) prevertebral part, the portion before it enters the foramen of the transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra; 2) cervical part, the portion in the transverse foramina of the first six cervical vertebrae; 3) atlantic (suboccipital) part, the portion running along the posterior arch of the atlas; and 4) intracranial part, the portion within the cranial cavity to its union with the a. from the other side to form the basilar a.. SYN: arteria vertebralis [TA] .
  • vestibulocochlear a. [TA] origin: anterior vestibular a.; branches: saccular, cochlear, and posterior vestibular. SYN: arteria vestibulocochlearis [TA] .
  • vidian a. SYN: a. of pterygoid canal.
  • vitelline a. an a. carrying blood to the yolk sac from the embryo. SYN: arteria vitellina.
  • volar interosseous a. SYN: anterior interosseous a..
  • Zinn a. SYN: central retinal a..
  • zygomatico-orbital a. [TA] origin, superficial temporal, sometimes middle temporal; distribution, orbicularis oculi muscle and portions of the orbit; anastomoses, lacrimal and palpebral branches of ophthalmic. SYN: arteria zygomatico-orbitalis [TA] .


arthr-
See arthro-.

arthral (ar′thral)
SYN: articular.

arthralgia (ar-thral′je-a)
Pain in a joint, especially one not inflammatory in character. SYN: arthrodynia. [G. arthron, joint, + algos, pain] intermittent a. SYN: periodic a.. periodic a. [MIM*112270] a condition in which there is pain and swelling, thought originally to involve the joints, but now known to localize to the shafts of long bones, occurring at regular intervals; there is sometimes abdominal pain, purpura, or edema. SYN: intermittent a., periodic bone pain. a. saturnina severe pain, chiefly on flexion of the joints of the lower extremities, in lead poisoning.

arthralgic (ar-thral′jik)
Relating to or affected with arthralgia. SYN: arthrodynic.

arthrectomy (ar-threk′to-me)
Excision of a joint. [G. arthron, joint, + ektome, excision]

arthresthesia (ar-thres-the′ze-a)
SYN: articular sensibility. [G. arthron, joint, + aisthesis, sensation]

arthritic (ar-thrit′ik)
Relating to arthritis.

arthritides (ar-thrit′i-dez)
Plural of arthritis.

arthritis, pl .arthritides (ar-thri′tis, ar-thrit′i-dez)
Inflammation of a joint or a state characterized by inflammation of joints. SYN: articular rheumatism. [G. fr. arthron, joint, + -itis, inflammation] acute rheumatic a. a. due to rheumatic fever. chronic absorptive a. SYN: a. mutilans. chylous a. a. with a high lymph content in synovial fluid, usually due to filariasis. a. deformans SYN: rheumatoid a.. degenerative a. SYN: osteoarthritis. enteropathic a. a form of a. sometimes resembling rheumatoid a. which may complicate the course of ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, or other intestinal disease. filarial a. a. occurring in filariasis, probably due to extravasation of lipid-rich lymph resembling chyle into the joint space. gonococcal a. joint space infection in humans caused by disseminated Neisseria gonorrhoeae; characteristically monarticular, but may be polyarticular. SYN: gonorrheal a.. gonorrheal a. SYN: gonococcal a.. gouty a. inflammation of the joints in gout. hemophilic a. joint disease resulting from hemophilic bleeding into a joint. hypertrophic a. variant of osteoarthritis characterized by afferent periarticular osteophyte formation. Jaccoud a. a rare form of chronic a., reported to occur after attacks of acute rheumatic fever, characterized by an unusual form of bone erosion of the metacarpal heads and by ulnar deviation of the fingers; it resembles rheumatoid a., but with less overt inflammation, and rheumatoid factor is absent. SYN: Jaccoud arthropathy. juvenile a., juvenile rheumatoid a. chronic a. beginning in childhood, most cases of which are pauciarticular, i.e., affecting few joints. Several patterns of illness have been identified: in one subset, primarily affecting girls, iritis is common and antinuclear antibody is usually present; another subset, primarily affecting boys, frequently includes spinal a. resembling ankylosing spondylitis; some cases are true rheumatoid a. beginning in childhood and characterized by the presence of rheumatoid factor and destructive deforming joint changes, often undergoing remission at puberty. SEE ALSO: Still disease. SYN: juvenile chronic a.. juvenile chronic a. SYN: juvenile a.. Lyme a. the arthritic manifestation of Lyme disease. a. mutilans a form of chronic rheumatoid a. in which osteolysis occurs with extensive destruction of the joint cartilages and bony surfaces with pronounced deformities, chiefly of the hands and feet; similar changes occur in some cases of psoriatic a.. SYN: chronic absorptive a.. neuropathic a. a. associated with an underlying neurologic disorder, e.g., syringomyelia, tabes dorsalis, diabetes mellitus. a. nodosa obsolete term for rheumatoid a.. ochronotic a. osteoarthritis occurring as a complication of ochronosis. proliferative a. term for rheumatoid a., based on the characteristic proliferation of the synovial membrane seen in joints affected by the disease. psoriatic a. the concurrence of psoriasis and polyarthritis, resembling rheumatoid a. but thought to be a specific disease entity, seronegative for rheumatoid factor and often involving the digits. SEE ALSO: a. mutilans. SYN: arthropathia psoriatica. pyogenic a. SYN: suppurative a.. reactive a. sterile, usually transient polyarthropathy following various infectious diseases. rheumatoid a. a generalized disease, occurring more often in women, which primarily affects connective tissue; a. is the dominant clinical manifestation, involving many joints, especially those of the hands and feet, accompanied by thickening of articular soft tissue, with extension of synovial tissue over articular cartilages, which become eroded; the course is variable but often is chronic and progressive, leading to deformities and disability. SYN: a. deformans, nodose rheumatism (1) . septic a. SYN: suppurative a.. suppurative a. acute inflammation of synovial membranes, with purulent effusion into a joint, due to bacterial infection; the usual route of infection is hemic to the synovial tissue, causing destruction of the articular cartilage, and may become chronic, with sinus formation, osteomyelitis, deformity, and disability. SYN: purulent synovitis, pyarthrosis, pyogenic a., septic a., suppurative synovitis.

arthro-, arthr-
A joint, an articulation; corresponds to L. articul-. [G. arthron, a joint, fr. ararisko, to join, to fit together]

Arthrobacter (ar-thro-bak′ter)
A genus of strictly aerobic, Gram-positive bacteria (family Corynebacteriaceae) whose cells undergo a change from a coccoid form to a rod shape following transfer to fresh complex growth medium. Although primarily found in soil, species identified as belonging to this genus have been found in the advancing front of lesions of dental caries. The type species is A. globiformis. [G. arthron, joint, + baktron, staff or rod]

arthrocentesis (ar′thro-sen-te′sis)
Aspiration of fluid from a joint performed by needle puncture. [arthro- + G. kentesis, puncture]

arthrochondritis (ar′thro-kon-dri′tis)
Inflammation of an articular cartilage. [arthro- + G. chondros, cartilage, + -itis, inflammation]

arthroclasia (ar-thro-kla′ze-a)
The forcible breaking up of the adhesions in ankylosis. [arthro- + G. klasis, a breaking]

arthroconidium (ar′thro-ko-nid′e-um)
A conidium released by fragmentation or separation at the septum of cells of the hypha. SYN: arthrospore. [G. arthron, joint, + conidium]

Arthroderma (ar′thro-der′ma)
A genus of ascomycetous fungi composed of the anamorph genera Microsporium and Trichophyton species.

arthrodesis (ar-throd′e-sis, ar-thro-de′sis)
The stiffening of a joint by operative means. SYN: artificial ankylosis. [arthro- + G. desis, a binding together] triple a. surgical fusion of the talonavicular, talocalcaneal, and calcaneocuboid joints.

arthrodia (ar-thro′de-a)
SYN: plane joint. [G. a., a gliding joint, fr. arthron, joint, + eidos, form]

arthrodial (ar-thro′de-al)
Relating to arthrodia.

arthrodynia (ar-thro-din′e-a)
SYN: arthralgia. [arthro- + G. odyne, pain]

arthrodynic (ar-thro-din′ik)
SYN: arthralgic.

arthrodysplasia (ar′thro-dis-pla′ze-a)
Hereditary congenital defect of joint development. [arthro- + G. dys, bad, + plasis, a molding]

arthroendoscopy (ar′thro-en-dos′ko-pe)
SYN: arthroscopy.

arthroereisis (ar-thro-e-ri′sis)
SYN: arthrorisis.

arthrogenous (ar-throj′e-nus)
1. Of articular origin; starting from a joint. 2. Forming an articulation.

arthrogram (ar′thro-gram)
Imaging of a joint following the introduction of a contrast agent into the joint capsule to enhance visualization of the intraarticular structures. [arthro- + G. gramma, a writing]

arthrography (ar-throg′ra-fe)
Act of making an arthrogram. [arthro- + G. grapho, to describe]

arthrogryposis (ar′thro-gri-po′sis)
Congenital defect of the limbs characterized by severe contractures of multiple joints. [arthro- + G. gryphosis, a crooking] a. multiplex congenita limitation of range of joint motion and contractures present at birth, usually involving multiple joints; a syndrome probably of diverse etiology that may result from changes in spinal cord, muscle, or connective tissue. Several forms exist, autosomal dominant [MIM*108110, 108120, 108130, 108140, 108145, 108200], recessive [MIM*208080, 208081, 208085, 208100, 208150, 208155, 208200], and X-linked [MIM*301830] SYN: amyoplasia congenita.

arthrokatadysis (ar′thro-ka-tad′i-sis)
a condition of a joint with significant erosion of the concave surface, resulting in migration of the convex surface medially. SEE ALSO: Otto disease. [arthro- + G. katadysis, a dipping under, a setting, fr. dyo, to make sink]

arthrolith (ar′thro-lith)
A loose body in a joint. [arthro- + G. lithos, stone]

arthrolithiasis (ar′thro-li-thi′a-sis)
Rarely used term for articular gout.

arthrologia (ar-thro-lo′je-a)
SYN: arthrology, arthrology.

arthrology (ar-throl′o-je)
The branch of anatomy concerned with the joints. SYN: arthrologia, syndesmologia, syndesmology, synosteology. [arthro- + G. logos, study]

arthrolysis (ar-throl′i-sis)
Restoration of mobility in stiff and ankylosed joints through the process of disrupting intraarticular and extraarticular adhesions. [arthro- + G. lysis, a loosening]

arthrometer (ar-throm′e-ter)
SYN: goniometer (3) .

arthrometry (ar-throm′e-tre)
Measurement of the range of movement in a joint. [arthro- + G. metron, measure]

arthroophthalmopathy (ar′thro-of′thal-mop′a-the)
Disease affecting joints and eyes. [arthro- + ophthalmo- + G. pathos, suffering] hereditary progressive a. [MIM*108300] a skeletal dysplasia associated with multiple dysplasia of the epiphyses, overtubulation of long bones with metaphyseal widening, flattened vertebral bodies, pelvic bone abnormalities, hypermobility of joints, cleft palate, progressive myopia, retinal detachment, and deafness. Autosomal dominant inheritance caused by mutation in either the COL2A1 gene on 12q, COL11A1 gene on 1p or COL11A2 gene on 6p. SYN: Stickler syndrome.

arthropathia psoriatica
SYN: psoriatic arthritis.

arthropathology (ar′thro-pa-thol′o-je)
The study of diseases of joints.

arthropathy (ar-throp′a-the)
Any disease affecting a joint. [arthro- + G. pathos, suffering] diabetic a. a neuropathic a. occurring in diabetes. Jaccoud a. SYN: Jaccoud arthritis. long-leg a. a degenerative joint disease that develops, after many years, in the hip and/or knee of the longer leg of a person with unequal leg lengths. neuropathic a. SYN: neuropathic joint. static a. secondary involvement of a joint following disease in a joint of the same extremity; e.g., knee or ankle involvement in hip disease. tabetic a. a neuropathic a. that occurs with tabes dorsalis (tabetic neurosyphilis). SEE ALSO: neuropathic joint.

arthroplasty (ar′thro-plas-te)
1. Creation of an artificial joint to correct advanced degenerative arthritis, 2. An operation to restore as far as possible the integrity and functional power of a joint. [arthro- + G. plastos, formed] Charnley hip a. a form of total hip replacement consisting of the application of an acetabular cup and a femoral head prosthesis; it bears the name of John Charnley who is regarded as the pioneer in the development of this procedure. gap a. the surgical correction of ankylosis by creating a space between the ankylosed part of a joint and the portion for which movement is desired. interposition a. surgical correction of ankylosis by separation of the immobile part of a joint from the mobilized part and interposition of a substance ( e.g., fascia, cartilage, metal, or plastic) between them. intracapsular temporomandibular joint a. operative recontouring of the articular surface of the mandibular condyle without the removal of the articular disk. total joint a. a. in which both joint surfaces are replaced with artificial materials, usually composed of metal and high-density plastic; currently being performed for hip, knee, shoulder, and elbow.

arthropneumoradiography (ar′thro-noo′mo-ra-de-og′ra-fe)
Radiographic examination of a joint after it has been injected with air. [arthro- + pneumo- + radiography]

arthropod (ar′thro-pod)
A member of the phylum Arthropoda. [arthro- + G. pous, foot]

Arthropoda (ar-throp′o-da)
A phylum of the Metazoa that includes the classes Crustacea (crabs, shrimps, crayfish, lobsters), Insecta, Arachnida (spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks), Chilopoda (centipedes), Diplopoda (millipedes), Merostomata (horseshoe crabs), and various other extinct or lesser known groups. A. forms the largest assemblage of living organisms, 75% insects, of which over a million species are known. [arthro- + G. pous, foot]




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