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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


arthropodiasis (ar′thro-po-di′a-sis)
Direct effects of arthropods upon vertebrates including acariasis, allergy, dermatosis, entomophobia, and actions of contact toxins.

arthropodic, arthropodous (ar-thro-po′dik, ar-throp′o-dus)
Pertaining to arthropods.

arthropyosis (ar′thro-pi-o′sis)
Suppuration in a joint. [arthro- + G. pyosis, suppuration]

arthrorisis (ar′thro-ri′sis)
An operation for limiting motion in a joint in cases of undue mobility from paralysis, usually by means of a bone block. SYN: arthroereisis. [arthro- + G. ereisis, a propping up]

arthrosclerosis (ar′thro-skler-o′sis)
Stiffness of the joints, especially in the aged. [arthro- + G. sklerosis, hardening]

arthroscope (ar′thro-skop)
An endoscope for examining the internal anatomy of a joint.

arthroscopy (ar-thros′ko-pe)
Endoscopic examination of the interior of a joint. SYN: arthroendoscopy. [arthro- + G. skopeo, to view]

arthrosis (ar-thro′sis)
1. SYN: joint. [G. a., a jointing] 2. SYN: osteoarthritis. [arthro- + G. -osis, condition] temporomandibular a. a noninfectious degenerative dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint characterized by pain, cracking, and limited mandibular opening. SEE ALSO: myofascial pain-dysfunction syndrome.

arthrospore (ar′thro-spor)
SYN: arthroconidium. [arthro- + G. sporos, seed]

arthrostomy (ar-thros′to-me)
Establishment of a temporary opening into a joint cavity. [arthro- + G. stoma, mouth]

arthrosynovitis (ar′thro-sin-o-vi′tis)
Inflammation of the synovial membrane of a joint.

arthrotome (ar′thro-tom)
A large, strong scalpel used in cutting cartilaginous and other tough joint structures.

arthrotomy (ar-throt′o-me)
Cutting into a joint to expose its interior. [arthro- + G. tome, a cutting]

arthrotropic (ar-thro-trop′ik)
Tending to affect joints. [arthro- + G. tropos, a turning]

arthrotyphoid (ar-thro-ti′foyd)
Obsolete term for typhoid fever with joint involvement due to metastatic infection.

Maurice, French bacteriologist, 1862–1945. See A. phenomenon, A. reaction.

articular (ar-tik′u-lar)
Relating to a joint. SYN: arthral.

articulare (ar-tik-u-la′re)
In cephalometrics, the point of intersection of the external dorsal contour of the mandibular condyle and the temporal bone; the midpoint is used when a profile radiograph shows double projections of the rami.

articulate (ar-tik′u-lit)
1. SYN: articulated. 2. Capable of distinct and connected meaningful speech. (ar-tik′yu-lat). 3. To join or connect together loosely to allow motion between the parts. 4. To speak distinctly and connectedly. [L. articulo, pp. -atus, to a.]

articulated (ar-tik′u-la-ted)
Jointed. SYN: articulate (1) .

articulatio, pl .articulationes (ar-tik-u-la′she-o, -la-she-o′nez)
synovial joint. [L. a forming of vines] a. acromioclavicularis [TA] SYN: acromioclavicular joint. a. atlantoaxialis lateralis [TA] SYN: lateral atlantoaxial joint. a. atlantoaxialis mediana [TA] SYN: median atlantoaxial joint. a. atlanto-occipitalis [TA] SYN: atlanto-occipital joint. a. bicondylaris [TA] SYN: bicondylar joint. a. calcaneocuboidea [TA] SYN: calcaneocuboid joint. a. capitis costae [TA] SYN: joint of head of rib. articulationes carpi [TA] SYN: carpal joints, under joint. a. carpi [TA] SYN: carpal joints, under joint. articulationes carpometacarpales [TA] SYN: carpometacarpal joints, under joint. a. carpometacarpalis pollicis SYN: carpometacarpal joint of thumb. a. cartilaginis SYN: cartilaginous joint. articulationes cinguli membri inferioris SYN: joints of pelvic girdle, under joint. articulationes cinguli pectoralis joints of pectoral girdle, under joint. articulationes cinguli pelvici [TA] SYN: joints of pelvic girdle, under joint. articulationes cinguli membri superioris SYN: joints of pectoral girdle, under joint. a. complexa SYN: complex joint. a. composita [TA] SYN: complex joint. a. condylaris SYN: condylar joint. articulationes costochondrales [TA] SYN: costochondral joints, under joint. a. costotransversaria SYN: costotransverse joint. articulationes costovertebrales [TA] SYN: costovertebral joints, under joint. a. cotylica SYN: ball and socket joint. a. coxae [TA] SYN: hip joint. a. coxofemoralis hip joint. articulationes cranii [TA] SYN: cranial synovial joints, under joint. a. cricoarytenoidea [TA] SYN: cricoarytenoid joint. a. cricothyroidea [TA] SYN: cricothyroid joint. a. cubiti [TA] SYN: elbow joint. a. cuneonavicularis [TA] SYN: cuneonavicular joint. a. cylindrica [TA] SYN: cylindrical joint. a. dentoalveolaris SYN: gomphosis. a. ellipsoidea [TA] SYN: condylar joint. a. fibrosa SYN: fibrous joint. a. genus [TA] SYN: knee joint. a. glenohumeralis glenohumeral joint. a. humeri [TA] SYN: glenohumeral joint. a. humeroradialis [TA] SYN: humeroradial joint. a. humeroulnaris [TA] SYN: humeroulnar joint. a. incudomallearis [TA] SYN: incudomalleolar joint. a. incudostapedia [TA] SYN: incudostapedial joint. articulationes intercarpales carpal joints, under joint. articulationes interchondrales [TA] SYN: interchondral joints, under joint. articulationes intercuneiformes [TA] SYN: intercuneiform joints, under joint. articulationes intermetacarpales [TA] SYN: intermetacarpal joints, under joint. articulationes intermetatarsales [TA] SYN: intermetatarsal joints, under joint. articulationes interphalangeae manus [TA] SYN: interphalangeal joints of hand, under joint. articulationes interphalangeae pedis [TA] SYN: interphalangeal joints of foot, under joint. articulationes intertarseae SYN: intertarsal joints, under joint. a. lumbosacralis [TA] SYN: lumbosacral joint. a. mandibularis SYN: temporomandibular joint. articulationes manus [TA] SYN: joints of hand, under joint. a. mediocarpalis [TA] SYN: midcarpal joint. articulationes membri inferioris liberi [TA] SYN: synovial joints of free lower limb, under joint. articulationes membri superioris liberi [TA] SYN: synovial joints of free upper limb, under joint. articulationes metacarpophalangeae [TA] SYN: metacarpophalangeal joints, under joint. articulationes metatarsophalangeae [TA] SYN: metatarsophalangeal joints, under joint. articulationes ossiculorum auditoriorum joints of auditory ossicles, under joint. articulationes ossiculorum auditus [TA] SYN: joints of auditory ossicles, under joint. a. ossis pisiformis [TA] SYN: pisiform joint. a. ovoidalis SYN: saddle joint. articulationes pedis [TA] SYN: joints of foot, under joint. a. plana [TA] SYN: plane joint. a. radiocarpalis [TA] SYN: wrist joint. a. radioulnaris distalis [TA] SYN: distal radioulnar joint. a. radioulnaris proximalis [TA] SYN: proximal radioulnar joint. a. sacrococcygea [TA] SYN: sacrococcygeal joint. a. sacroiliaca [TA] SYN: sacroiliac joint. a. sellaris [TA] SYN: saddle joint. a. simplex [TA] SYN: simple joint. a. spheroidea [TA] SYN: ball and socket joint. a. sternoclavicularis [TA] SYN: sternoclavicular joint. articulationes sternocostales [TA] SYN: sternocostal joints, under joint. a. subtalaris [TA] SYN: subtalar joint. a. synovialis SYN: synovial joint. a. talocalcanea subtalar joint. a. talocalcaneonavicularis [TA] SYN: talocalcaneonavicular joint. a. talocruralis [TA] SYN: ankle joint. a. tarsi transversa [TA] SYN: transverse tarsal joint. articulationes tarsometatarsales [TA] SYN: tarsometatarsal joints, under joint. a. temporomandibularis [TA] SYN: temporomandibular joint. articulationes thoracis [TA] SYN: synovial joints of thorax, under joint. a. tibiofibularis [TA] SYN: tibiofibular joint. a. trochoidea [TA] SYN: pivot joint. articulationes zygapophysiales [TA] SYN: zygapophysial joints, under joint.

articulation (ar-tik-u-la′shun)
1. SYN: joint. 2. A joining or connecting together loosely so as to allow motion between the parts. 3. Distinct connected speech or enunciation. 4. In dentistry, the contact relationship of the occlusal surfaces of the teeth during jaw movement. [see articulatio] arthrodial a. SYN: plane joint. atlanto-occipital a. SYN: atlanto-occipital joint. balanced a. SYN: balanced occlusion. bicondylar a. SYN: bicondylar joint. cartilaginous a. SYN: cartilaginous joint. compound a. SYN: complex joint. condylar a. SYN: condylar joint. confluent a. a tendency to run the syllables together in speech. cricoarytenoid a. SYN: cricoarytenoid joint. cricothyroid a. SYN: cricothyroid joint. cuneonavicular a. SYN: cuneonavicular joint. dental a. the contact relationship of the occlusal surfaces of the upper and lower teeth when moving into and away from centric occlusion. SYN: gliding occlusion. distal radioulnar a. SYN: distal radioulnar joint. articulations of foot SYN: joints of foot, under joint. glenohumeral a. SYN: glenohumeral joint. articulations of hand SYN: joints of hand, under joint. humeral a. SYN: glenohumeral joint. humeroradial a. SYN: humeroradial joint. incudomalleolar a. SYN: incudomalleolar joint. incudostapedial a. SYN: incudostapedial joint. interchondral articulations SYN: interchondral joints, under joint. intermetatarsal articulations SYN: intermetatarsal joints, under joint. interphalangeal articulations SYN: interphalangeal joints of hand, under joint. intertarsal articulations SYN: intertarsal joints, under joint. metacarpophalangeal articulations SYN: metacarpophalangeal joints, under joint. metatarsophalangeal articulations SYN: metatarsophalangeal joints, under joint. peg-and-socket a. SYN: gomphosis. a. of pisiform bone SYN: pisiform joint. proximal radioulnar a. SYN: proximal radioulnar joint. radiocarpal a. SYN: wrist joint. sacroiliac a. SYN: sacroiliac joint. spheroid a. SYN: ball and socket joint. sternocostal articulations SYN: sternocostal joints, under joint. superior tibial a. SYN: tibiofibular joint. talocrural a. SYN: ankle joint. temporomandibular a. SYN: temporomandibular joint. tibiofibular a. 1. SYN: tibiofibular joint. 2. SYN: tibiofibular syndesmosis. transverse tarsal a. SYN: transverse tarsal joint. trochoid a. SYN: pivot joint.

articulator (ar-tik′u-la-tor)
A mechanical device which represents the temporomandibular joints and jaw members to which maxillary and mandibular casts may be attached. SYN: occluding frame. adjustable a. 1. an a. which may be adjusted to permit movement of the casts into recorded eccentric relationships; 2. an a. capable of adjustment to more than one eccentric position. arcon a. 1. an a. with the equivalent condylar guides fixed to the upper member and the hinge axis to the lower member; 2. an instrument that maintains a constant relationship between the occlusal plane and the arcon guides at any position of the upper member, thereby making possible more accurate reproductions of mandibular movements. non-arcon a. an a. with the equivalent condylar guides attached to the lower member and the hinge axis to the upper member.

articulatory (ar-tik′u-la-to-re)
Relating to articulate speech.

articulostat (ar-tik′u-lo-stat)
A research instrument that positions the dentition of a subject and the head of an x-ray machine in such a manner that films made at separate times may be accurately superimposed. [articulo- + G. stasis, a standing still]

articulus (ar-tik′u-lus)
SYN: joint. [L. joint]

artifact (ar′ti-fakt)
1. Anything, especially in a histologic specimen or a graphic record, that is caused by the technique used and not reflecting the original specimen or experiment. 2. A skin lesion produced or perpetuated by self-inflicted action, as in dermatitis artefacta. [L. ars, art, + facio, pp. factus, to make] chemical shift a. in magnetic resonance imaging, a dark band caused by a biochemical difference in resonant frequency of adjacent regions rather than a true anatomic separation. thermal a. distortion of microscopic structure in a tissue specimen, because of heat generated by the instrument ( e.g., loop electrocautery) used to obtain the specimen.

artifactitious (ar′ti-fak-tish′us)
SYN: artifactual.

artifactual (ar-ti-fak′chu-al)
Produced or caused by an artifact. SYN: artifactitious.

Artiodactyla (ar′ti-o-dak′ti-la)
An order of even-toed ungulates having either two or four digits, with the axis between the third and fourth; e.g., pig and hippopotamus with four; camel, deer, giraffe, antelope, and cow with two. [G. artios, even in number, + daktylos, finger]

aryepiglottic (ar′e-ep-i-glot′ik)
Relating to the arytenoid cartilage and the epiglottis; denoting a fold of mucous membrane (a. fold) and a muscle contained in it (a. muscle). SYN: arytenoepiglottidean.

aryl (ar′il)
An organic radical derived from an aromatic compound by removing a hydrogen atom. a. acylamidase an amidohydrolase cleaving the acyl group from an anilide by hydrolysis, producing aniline and an acid anion. SYN: arylamidase.

arylamidase (ar-il-am′i-das)
SYN: aryl acylamidase.

arylarsonic acid (ar′il-ar-son′ik)
An arsonic acid containing an aryl radical; e.g., arsenilic acid.

arylsulfatase (ar-il-sul′fa-tas)
An enzyme that cleaves phenol sulfates, including cerebroside sulfates ( i.e., a phenol sulfate + H2O → a phenol + sulfate anion). Some arylsulfatases are inhibited by sulfate (type II) and some are not (type I). SYN: sulfatase (2) .

arytenoepiglottidean (a-rit′e-no-ep′i-glo-tid′e-an)
SYN: aryepiglottic.

arytenoid (ar-i-te′noyd) [TA]
Denoting a cartilage (a. cartilage) and muscles (oblique and transverse a. muscles) of the larynx. [see arytenoideus]

arytenoidectomy (ar′i-te-noy-dek′to-me)
Excision of an arytenoid cartilage, usually in bilateral vocal fold paralysis, to improve breathing. [arytenoid + G. ektome, excision]

arytenoideus (ar-i-te-noy′de-us)
SYN: oblique arytenoid muscle, transverse arytenoid (muscle). [G. arytainoeides, ladle-shaped, applied to cartilage of the larynx, fr. arytaina, a ladle, + eidos, resemblance]

arytenoiditis (a-rit′e-noy-di′tis)
Inflammation of a cricoarytenoid joint, arytenoid cartilage, or its mucosal cover.

arytenoidopexy (ar′i-te-noy′do-pek′se)
Fixation by surgery of an arytenoid cartilage. [arytenoid + G. pexis, fixation]

Abbreviation for auris sinistra [L.], left ear.

Symbol for arsenic.

asafetida (as-a-fet′i-da)
A gum resin, the inspissated exudate from the root of Ferula foetida (family Umbelliferae); malodorous material used as a repellent against dogs, cats, and rabbits, and formerly used as an antispasmodic; in Asia, used as a condiment and flavoring agent. [Pers. aza, mastic, + L. fetidus, fetid]

Asarum (as′ar-um)
A genus of plants of the family Aristolochiaceae. [L., fr. G. asaron, hazelwort] A. canadense an aromatic stimulant and diaphoretic. SYN: Canada snakeroot, Indian ginger, wild ginger. A. europaeum an emetic and cathartic. SYN: European snakeroot, hazelwort.

asbestoid (as-bes′toyd)
SYN: amianthoid.

asbestos (as-bes′tos)
The commercial product, after mining and processing, obtained from a family of fibrous hydrated silicates divided mineralogically into amphiboles (amosite, anthrophyllite, and crocidolite) and serpentines (chrysotile); it is virtually insoluble and is used to provide tensile strength and moldability, thermal insulation, and resistance to fire, heat, and corrosion; inhalation of a. particles can cause asbestosis, pleural plaques, pleural fibrosis, pleural effusion, mesothelioma, and lung cancer. [G. unquenchable; so called in the erroneous belief that when heated, it could not be quenched]

asbestosis (as-bes-to′sis)
Pneumoconiosis due to inhalation of asbestos fibers suspended in the ambient air; sometimes complicated by pleural mesothelioma or bronchogenic carcinoma; ferruginous bodies are the histologic hallmark of exposure to asbestos.

ascariasis (as-ka-ri′a-sis)
Disease caused by infection with Ascaris or related ascarid nematodes. [G. askaris, an intestinal worm, + -iasis, condition]

ascaricide (as-kar′i-sid)
1. Causing the death of ascarid nematodes. 2. An agent having such properties. [ascarid + L. caedo, to kill]

ascarid (as′ka-rid)
1. A general name for any nematode of the family Ascarididae. 2. Pertaining to such nematodes.

Ascaridae (as-kar′i-de)
Former spelling for Ascarididae.


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