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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

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audition (aw-dish′un)
SYN: hearing. [L. auditio, a hearing, fr. audio, to hear] chromatic a. SYN: color hearing.

auditive (aw′di-tiv)
One who recalls most readily that which has been heard. SYN: audile (3) .

auditory (aw′di-tor-e)
1. Pertaining to the sense of hearing or to the system serving hearing. 2. Used to describe a person who preferentially uses verbal mental imagery. SEE ALSO: internal representation. [L. audio, pp. auditus, to hear]

Auenbrugger
Leopold, Austrian physician, 1722–1809. See A. sign.

Auer
John, U.S. physician, 1875–1948. See A. bodies, under body, A. rods, under rod.

Auerbach
Leopold, German anatomist, 1828–1897. See A. ganglia, under ganglion, A. plexus.

Aufrecht
Emanuel, German physician, 1844–1933. See A. sign.

Auger (aw′ger)
Pierre-Victor, French physicist, 1899–1993. See A. electron.

augnathus (awg-na′thus)
SYN: dignathus. [G. au, again, + gnathos, jaw]

Aujeszky
Aládar, Hungarian pathologist, 1869–1933. See A. disease virus.

aur
Abbreviation for auris.

aura, pl .aurae (aw′ra, -re)
1. Epileptic ictal phenomenon/phenomena perceived only by the patient. 2. Subjective symptoms at the onset of a migraine headache. [L. breeze, odor, gleam of light] abdominal a. epileptic a. characterized by abdominal discomfort, including nausea, malaise, pain, and hunger; some phenomena reflect ictal autonomic dysfunction. SEE ALSO: a. (1) . auditory a. epileptic a. characterized by illusions or hallucinations of sounds. SEE ALSO: a. (1) . experiential a. epileptic a. characterized by altered perception of one's internal and/or external environment; may involve auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, somatosensory, or emotional altered perceptions. When one of the altered perceptions is clearly predominant, the specific a. classification should be used. SEE ALSO: a. (1) . gustatory a. epileptic a. characterized by illusions or hallucinations of taste. SEE ALSO: a. (1) . intellectual a. a dreamy, detached, or reminiscent a.. SYN: reminiscent a.. kinesthetic a. an a. consisting of a subjective feeling of movement of a part of the body. olfactory a. epileptic a. characterized by illusions or hallucinations of smell. SEE ALSO: a. (1) . reminiscent a. SYN: intellectual a.. somatosensory a. epileptic a. characterized by paresthesias or abdominal somatognosia of a clearly defined regional distribution. SEE ALSO: a. (1) . visual a. epileptic a. characterized by visual illusions or hallucinations, formed or unformed, including scintillations, teichopsia. SEE ALSO: a. (1) .

aural (aw′ral)
1. Relating to the ear (auris). 2. Relating to an aura.

auramine O (aw′ra-men) [C.I. 41000]
A yellow fluorescent dye, used as a stain for the tubercle bacillus and as a stain for DNA in Kasten fluorescent Feulgen stain.

auranofin (aw-ran′o-fin)
An oral form of gold complex used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

aureolic acid (aw-re-o′lik)
SYN: mithramycin.

auri-
Combining form denoting the ear. SEE ALSO: ot-, oto-. [L. auris, an ear.]

auriasis (aw-ri′a-sis)
SYN: chrysiasis.

auric (aw′rik)
Relating to gold (aurum).

auricle (aw′ri-kl) [TA]
1. The projecting shell-like structure on the side of the head, constituting, with the external acoustic meatus, the external ear. SYN: auricula (1) [TA] , ala auris, pinna (1) . 2. SYN: auricles (of atria). accessory auricles small, fleshy nodules or folds, sometimes with supporting cartilage, occasionally found along the margins of the embryonic branchial clefts. atrial a. SYN: auricles (of atria). SEE ALSO: left atrium of heart, right atrium of heart. cervical a. accessory a. on the neck. left a. [TA] the small conical projection from the left atrium of the heart. SYN: auricula atrii sinistra [TA] , a. of left atrium, left auricular appendage. a. of left atrium SYN: left a.. auricles (of atria) [TA] a small conical (“ear-shaped”) pouch projecting from the upper anterior portion of each atrium of the heart, increasing slightly the atrial volume. See left a., right a.. SYN: a. (2) [TA] , auricula (2) [TA] , auriculae atrii [TA] , atrial appendage, atrial a., atrial auricula, auricular appendix. right a. [TA] the small conical projection from the right atrium of the heart. SYN: auricula atrii dextra [TA] , a. of right atrium, auricular appendage (1) , right auricular appendage. a. of right atrium SYN: right a..

auricula, pl .auriculae (aw-rik′u-la, -le) [TA]
1. SYN: auricle (1) . 2. SYN: auricles (of atria), under auricle. [L. the external ear, dim. of auris, ear] atrial a. SYN: auricles (of atria), under auricle. SEE ALSO: left atrium of heart, right atrium of heart. auriculae atrii [TA] SYN: auricles (of atria), under auricle. See left atrium of heart, right atrium of heart. a. atrii dextra [TA] SYN: right auricle. a. atrii sinistra [TA] SYN: left auricle.

auricular (aw-rik′u-lar)
Relating to the ear, or to an auricle in any sense.

auriculare, pl .auricularia (aw-rik-u-la′re, -re-a)
A craniometric point at the center of the opening of the external acoustic meatus; or, in certain cases, the middle of the upper edge of this opening. SYN: auricular point. [L. auricularis, pertaining to the ear]

auriculocranial (aw-rik′u-lo-kra′ne-al)
Relating to the auricle or pinna of the ear and the cranium.

auriculotemporal (aw-rik′u-lo-tem′po-ral)
Relating to the auricle or pinna of the ear and the temporal region.

auriculoventricular (aw-rik′u-lo-ven-trik′u-lar)
Obsolete synonym for atrioventricular.

aurid, pl .aurides (aw′rid, aw′ri-dez)
A skin lesion due to injection of gold salts. [L. aurum, gold, + -id (1)]

auriform (aw′ri-form)
Ear-shaped.

aurin (aw′rin) [C.I. 43800]
A triphenylmethane derivative used as an indicator (changes from yellow to red at pH 6.8 to 8.2) and as a dye intermediate; also used to help differentiate tubercle bacilli from other acid-fast microorganisms. SYN: corallin, p-rosolic acid.

aurintricarboxylic acid (aw′rin-tri′kar-boks-il′ik)
A chelating agent that has a special affinity for beryllium and certain other materials, and may therefore be of use in combating beryllium poisoning; the ammonium salt is known as aluminon.

auris (a, a, aur) , pl .aures (aw′ris, aw′rez) [TA]
SYN: ear. [L.] a. externa SYN: external ear. a. interna SYN: internal ear. a. media SYN: middle ear.

aurochromoderma (aw′ro-kro-mo-der′ma)
SYN: chrysiasis. [L. aurum, gold, + chroma, color, + derma, skin]

auromercaptoacetanilid (aw′ro-mer-kap′to-as-e-tan′i-lid)
An organic gold compound, insoluble in water; used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and administered by intramuscular injection; more slowly absorbed than the water-soluble gold salts. SYN: aurothioglycanide.

aurone (aw′ron)
1. The parent compound of a series of plant pigments; they are substituted coumaranones, and may be formed from chalcones. They are often found as glycosides. 2. A class of compounds based on a. (1). SYN: benzalcoumaran-3-one.

aurotherapy (aw-ro-thar′a-pe)
SYN: chrysotherapy. [L. aurum, gold]

aurothioglucose (aw′ro-thi-o-gloo′kos)
Organic gold preparation with –SAu group in place of 1-OH group of glucose; used in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and discoid lupus erythematosus. It is thought to arrest the progression of disease. SYN: gold thioglucose.

aurothioglycanide (aw′-ro-thi-o-gli′ka-nid)
SYN: auromercaptoacetanilid.

aurum (aw′rum)
SYN: gold. [L.]

auscultate, auscult (aws′kul-tat, aws-kult′)
To perform auscultation.

auscultation (aws-kul-ta′shun)
Listening to the sounds made by the various body structures as a diagnostic method. [L. ausculto, pp. -atus, to listen to] immediate a., direct a. a. by application of the ear to the surface of the body. mediate a. a. performed with the use of a stethoscope.

auscultatory (aws-kul′ta-to-re)
Relating to auscultation.

Auspitz
Heinrich, Austrian physician, 1835–1886. See A. sign.

Austin Flint
See Flint.

aut-
See auto-.

autacoid (aw-ta′-koyd)
SYN: autocoid. [aut- + G. akos, relief, resource]

autecic, autecious (aw-te′sik, aw-te′shus)
Denoting a parasite that infects, throughout its entire existence, the same host. [G. autos, same, + oikion, house]

autemesia (aw-te-me′ze-a)
Rarely used term for: 1. Idiopathic or functional vomiting. 2. Vomiting induced by provoking the gag reflex. [G. autos, self, + emesis, vomiting]

authenticity (aw-then-tis′i-te)
1. The quality of being authentic, genuine, and valid. 2. In psychological functioning and personality, applied to the conscious feelings, perceptions, and thoughts that one expresses and communicates honestly and genuinely. [G. authentikos, original, primary]

autism (aw′tizm)
A mental disorder characterized by severely abnormal development of social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication skills. Affected individuals may adhere to inflexible, nonfunctional rituals or routine. They may become upset with even trivial changes in their environment. They often have a limited range of interests but may become preoccupied with a narrow range of subjects or activities. They appear unable to understand others' feelings and often have poor eye contact with others. Unpredictable mood swings may occur. Many demonstrate stereotypical motor mannerisms such as hand or finger flapping, body rocking, or dipping. The disorder is probably caused by organically based central nervous system dysfunction, especially in the ability to process social or emotional information or language. [G. autos, self] early infantile a. SYN: infantile a.. infantile a. a severe emotional disturbance of childhood characterized by qualitative impairment in reciprocal social interaction and in communication, language, and social development. SYN: childhood schizophrenia, early infantile a., Kanner syndrome.

autistic (aw-tis′tik)
Pertaining to or characterized by autism.

auto-, aut-
Prefixes meaning self, same. [G. autos, self]

autoactivation (aw′to-ak-ti-va′shun)
SYN: autocatalysis.

autoagglutination (aw′to-a-gloo-ti-na′shun)
1. Nonspecific agglutination or clumping together of cells ( e.g., bacteria, erythrocytes) due to physical and/or chemical factors. 2. The agglutination of red blood cells by specific autoantibody present in one's own serum.

autoagglutinin (aw′to-a-gloo′ti-nin)
An agglutinating autoantibody. anti-Pr cold a. a cold a. specific for the Pr (protease-sensitive) antigen of erythrocytes. cold a. an antibody that agglutinates particulate antigens ( i.e., bacteria) at temperatures below 37°C, often most actively at 4°C; most are the IgM class of immunoglobulins with affinity for the Ii system of erythrocyte antigens, but some are anti-Pr cold autoagglutinins; cold autoagglutinins may be associated with infection ( e.g., primary atypical pneumonia, infectious mononucleosis and other virus infections, certain protozoan infections) and in such instances usually are not active in vivo.

autoallergic (aw′to-a-ler′jik)
Pertaining to autoallergy.

autoallergization (aw′to-al′er-ji-za′shun)
Induction of autoallergy.

autoallergy (aw-to-al′er-je)
An altered reactivity in which antibodies (autoantibodies) are produced against an individual's own tissues, causing a destructive rather than a protective effect. SYN: autoimmunity (1) .

autoanalysis (aw′to-a-nal′i-sis)
Attempted analysis, or psychoanalysis, of one's self. SYN: self-analysis.

autoanalyzer (aw-to-an′a-liz-er)
An instrument capable of conducting analyses automatically; commonly used in chemical analyses. sequential multichannel a. (SMA) an automated instrument capable of performing multiple (usually chemical) analyses simultaneously by propelling samples and reagents in continuous flow fashion along tubes to the detector mechanisms.

autoanaphylaxis (aw′to-an′a-fi-lak′sis)
Obsolete term for certain kinds of autoimmunity.

autoantibody (aw-to-an′ti-bod-e)
Antibody occurring in response to antigenic constituents of the host's tissue against self antigen, and which reacts with the inciting tissue component. antiidiotype a. SYN: idiotype a..antiidiotype antibody. cold a. an a. that reacts at temperatures below 37°C. Donath-Landsteiner cold a. an a. of the IgG class responsible for paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria; it is adsorbed to red cells only at temperatures of 20°C or lower, causing the red cells to lyse in the presence of complement at higher temperatures; it has a specificity within the blood group P; it is also occasionally present for short periods of time following measles and other infections, and formerly was frequently associated with syphilis. SYN: cold hemolysin. hemagglutinating cold a. a cold autoagglutinin. idiotype a. SYN: antiidiotype a.. warm a. an a. that reacts optimally at 37°C.

autoanticomplement (aw′to-an-ti-com′ple-ment)
An anticomplement that is formed in the body of an animal and inhibits or destroys the complement of the same animal.

autoantigen (aw-to-an′ti-jen)
A “self” antigen; any tissue constituent that evokes an immune response by the host.

autoassay (aw′to-as-a)
Detection or estimation of the amount of a substance produced in an organism by means of a test object in that organism, as, for example, use of the denervated heart in situ of a cat to assay for epinephrine or sympathin liberated into its bloodstream.

autoaugmentation (aw′-to-awg′men-ta-shun)
Augmentation of the bladder by incision and excision of detrusor muscle leaving only bladder epithelium. SYN: autocystoplasty.

autoblast (aw′to-blast)
1. An independent cell. 2. A single, independent microbe, protozoon, or single-celled (acellular) organism. [auto- + G. blastos, germ]




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