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satellite (sat′e-lit)
1. A minor structure accompanying a more important or larger one; e.g., a vein accompanying an artery, or a small or secondary lesion adjacent to a larger one. 2. The posterior member of a pair of gregarine gamonts in syzygy, several of which may be found in some species. SEE ALSO: primite. [L. satelles (sattelit-), attendant] chromosome s. a small chromosomal segment separated from the main body of the chromosome by a secondary constriction; in humans it is usually associated with the short arm of an acrocentric chromosome. perineuronal s. an oligodendroglia cell surrounding the neuron.

satellitosis (sat′e-li-to′sis)
1. A condition marked by an accumulation of neuroglia cells around the neurons of the central nervous system. 2. The presence of satellite, smaller structures, or lesions, e.g., metastatic melanoma in the skin adjacent to the primary tumor, or lymphocytes in contact with a damaged keratinocyte in acute cutaneous graft versus host reaction. [L. satelles (satellit-), an attendant, + G. -osis, condition]

satiation (sa-she-a′shun)
The state produced by fulfillment of a specific need, such as hunger or thirst. [L. satio, pp. -atus, to fill, satisfy]

sat. sol., sat. soln.
Abbreviation for saturated solution.

Hubert, Austrian ophthalmologist, 1844–1928. See S. elastic layer, S. veil.

saturate (satch′u-rat)
1. To impregnate to the greatest possible extent. 2. To neutralize; to satisfy all the chemical affinities of a substance (as by converting all double bonds to single bonds). 3. To dissolve a substance up to that concentration beyond which the addition of more results in two phases. [L. saturo, pp. -atus, to fill, fr. satur, sated]

saturation (satch-u-ra′shun)
1. Impregnation of one substance by another to the greatest possible extent. 2. Neutralization, as of an acid by an alkali. 3. That concentration of a dissolved substance that cannot be exceeded. 4. In optics, see saturated color. 5. Filling of all the available sites on an enzyme molecule by its substrate, or on a hemoglobin molecule by oxygen (symbol SO2) or carbon monoxide (symbol SCO). [L. saturatio, fr. saturo, to fill, fr. satis, enough] secondary s. a technique of nitrous oxide anesthesia consisting of an abrupt curtailment of the oxygen in the inhaled mixture to produce a deep plane of anesthesia, following which oxygen is administered to correct hypoxia.

saturnine (sat′er-nin)
1. Relating to lead. 2. Due to or symptomatic of lead poisoning. [Mediev. L. saturninus, fr. saturnus, lead, fr. L. saturnus, the god and planet Saturn]

saturnism (sat′er-nizm)
SYN: lead poisoning. [Mediev. L. saturnus, alchemical term for lead]

satyriasis (sat-i-ri′a-sis)
Satyromania; excessive sexual excitement and behavior in the male; the counterpart of nymphomania in the female. SYN: satyrism. [G. satyros, a satyr]

satyrism (sat′i-rizm)
SYN: satyriasis.

saucerization (saw′ser-i-za′shun)
Excavation of tissue to form a shallow depression, performed in wound treatment to facilitate drainage from infected areas. SYN: craterization.

Robert, English physician, 1849–1918. See S. test.

sauriasis (saw-ri′a-sis)
SYN: ichthyosis. [G. sauros, lizard, + -iasis, condition]

Henry, English anatomist and gynecologist, 1810–1900. See S. perineal body.

A metal operating instrument having an edge of sharp, toothlike projections, for dividing bone, cartilage, or plaster; edges may be attached to a rigid band, a flexible wire or chain, or a motorized oscillator. [A.S. saga] Gigli s. a hand-held wire s. for use in craniotomy. Stryker s. a rapidly oscillating s. used for cutting bone or plaster casts; it cuts hard matter, but soft tissues give and thus are not injured.

saxitoxin (sak-si-tok′sin)
A potent neurotoxin found in shellfish, such as the mussel or the clam, produced by the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax catenella, which is ingested by the shellfish; the cause of cases of poisoning from eating California sea mussel (Mytilus californianus), the scallop, and the Alaskan butterclam (Saxidomus giganteus).

George P., U.S. ophthalmologist, *1911. See Kearns-S. syndrome.

Symbol for antimony.

Abbreviation for subacute bacterial endocarditis.

Abbreviation for shaken baby syndrome.

Symbol for scandium.

Abbreviation for subcutaneous; subcutaneously.

scab (skab)
A crust formed by coagulation of blood, pus, serum, or a combination of these, on the surface of an ulcer, erosion, or other type of wound. [A.S. scaeb]

scabicidal (ska-bi-si′dal)
Destructive to scabies mites.

scabicide (ska′bi-sid)
An agent lethal to scabies mites.

scabies (ska′bez)
1. An eruption due to the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis; the female of the species burrows into the skin, producing a vesicular eruption with intense pruritus between the fingers, on the male or female genitalia, buttocks, and elsewhere on the trunk and extremities. 2. In animals, s. or scab is usually applied to cutaneous acariasis in sheep, which may be caused by Sarcoptes, Psoroptes, or Chorioptes. [L. scabo, to scratch] crusted s. SYN: Norwegian s.. Norwegian s. a severe form of s. with innumerable mites in thickened stratum corneum; has been linked with cellular immune deficiencies, including AIDS. SYN: crusted s., Norway itch.

scabrities (ska-brish′i-ez)
Roughness of the skin. [L., fr. scaber, scurfy] s. unguium thickening and distortion of the nails.

scala, pl .scalae (ska′la, -le)
One of the cavities of the cochlea winding spirally around the modiolus. [L. a stairway] Löwenberg s. SYN: cochlear duct. s. media SYN: cochlear duct. s. tympani [TA] the division of the spiral canal of the cochlea lying on the basal side of the spiral lamina. s. vestibuli [TA] the division of the spiral canal of the cochlea lying on the apical side of the spiral lamina and vestibular membrane. SYN: vestibular canal.

scald (skawld)
1. To burn by contact with a hot liquid or steam. 2. The lesion resulting from such contact. [L. excaldo, to wash in hot water]

scalding (skawl′ding)
A burning pain on urinating.

scale (skal)
1. A standardized test for measuring psychological, personality, or behavioral characteristics. SEE ALSO: score, test. 2. SYN: squama. 3. A small thin plate of horny epithelium, resembling a fish s., cast off from the skin. 4. To desquamate. 5. To remove tartar from the teeth. 6. A device by which some property can be measured. [L. scala, a stairway] absolute s. obsolete term for Kelvin s.. activities of daily living s. a s. to score physical activity and its limitations, based on answers to simple questions about mobility, self-care, grooming, etc; widely used in geriatrics, rheumatology, etc. adaptive behavior scales a behavioral assessment device to quantify the levels of skills of mentally retarded and developmentally delayed individuals in interacting with the environment; consists of three developmentally related factors: 1) personal self-sufficiency, e.g., eating, dressing; 2) community self-sufficiency, e.g., shopping, communicating; 3) personal and social responsibility, e.g., use of leisure time, job performance. See intelligence. Ångström s. a table of wavelengths of a large number of light rays corresponding to as many Fraunhofer lines in the spectrum. Baumé s. a hydrometer s. for determining the specific gravity of liquids heavier and lighter than water, respectively: for liquids lighter than water, divide 140 by 130 plus the Baumé degree; for liquids heavier than water, divide 145 by 145 minus the Baumé degree. Bayley Scales of Infant Development a psychological test used to measure the developmental progress of infants over the first 2 1/2 of life; consists of three scales: mental, motor, and behavior record. Binet s. a measure of intelligence designed for both children and adults. Binet-Simon s. forerunner of individual intelligence tests, particularly the Stanford-Binet intelligence s., and sometimes referred to as the Binet s.. Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment S. a s. used by obstetricians, pediatricians, and pediatric psychologists to assess the sensory, motor, emotional and physical development of the neonate, usually beginning at birth or in the first month of life. Cattell Infant Intelligence S. a standardized s. for assessment of the cognitive development of infants between the ages of 3 and 30 months. Celsius s. a temperature s. that is based upon the triple point of water (defined to be 273.16 K) and assigned the value of 0.01°C; this has replaced the centigrade s. because the triple point of water can be more accurately measured than the ice point, although, for most practical purposes, the two scales are equivalent. centigrade s. a thermometer s. in which there are 100 degrees between the freezing point of water (assigned the value of 0.0°C) and the boiling point of water at sea level; technically, supplanted by the Celsius s.. Cf.:Celsius s.. Charrière s. SYN: French s.. Columbia Mental Maturity S. an individually administered intelligence test that provides an estimate of the intellectual ability of children; provides mental ages ranging from 3–12 years and requires no verbal response and minimal motor response. [Columbia University, NY] coma s. a clinical s. to assess impaired consciousness; assessment may include motor responsiveness, verbal performance, and eye opening, as in the Glasgow (Scotland) c.s., or the same three items and dysfunction of cranial nerves, as in the Maryland (U.S.) c.s. digital gray s. SYN: latitude. expanded disability status s. (EDSS) a commonly used rating system for evaluating the degree of neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis, based on neurologic findings, and not symptoms; there are 10 grades in all, in steps and half-steps ( e.g., 4, 4.5, 5), with “1” being neurologically normal and “10” being death. SYN: Kurtzke multiple sclerosis disability s.. Fahrenheit s. a thermometer s. in which the freezing point of water is 32°F and the boiling point of water 212°F; 0°F indicates the lowest temperature Fahrenheit could obtain by a mixture of ice and salt in 1724; °C = 59(°F − 32). French s. (F) a s. for grading sizes of sounds, tubes, and catheters as based on a diameter of 13 mm equaling 1 F on the s. ( e.g., 3 F = 1 mm); grading to s. is carried out using a metal plate with holes ranging from 13 mm to 1 cm in diameter. SYN: Charrière s.. Gaffky s. SYN: Gaffky table. gray s. SYN: latitude. See gray-s. ultrasonography. Guttman s. a measurement s. that ranks response categories to a question with each unit representing an increasingly strong expression of an attribute such as pain or disability. Hamilton anxiety rating s. a list of specific symptoms used as a measure of severity of anxiety. Hamilton depression rating s. a list of specific symptoms used as a measure of severity of depression. hardness s. a qualitative s. in which minerals are classified in order of their increasing hardness, based on the fact that the harder of two materials will scratch the softer and will not be scratched by it. The s. lists 15 substances: 1, talc; 2, gypsum; 3, calcite; 4, fluorite; 5, apatite; 6, orthoclase, periclase; 7, vitreous pure silica; 8, quartz, stellite; 9, topaz; 10, garnet; 11, tantalum carbide, fused zirconia; 12, fused alumina; 13, silicon carbide; 14, boron carbide; 15, diamond. SYN: Mohs s.. homigrade s. a special thermometer s. in which 100° indicates the normal human temperature (98.6°F, 37°C), 0° the freezing point, and 270° the boiling point of water. interval s. like a temperature s. in centigrade or Fahrenheit units, a s. on which the intervals are equal but which has an arbitrary zero point; e.g., intelligence quotient values are values along an interval s.. Karnofsky s. a performance s. for rating a person's usual activities; used to evaluate a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure. Kelvin s. temperature s. in which the triple point of water is assigned the value of 273.16 K; °C = K − 273.15. Kurtzke multiple sclerosis disability s. SYN: expanded disability status s.. Leiter International Performance S. a nonverbal (performance) test for measuring intelligence that contains norms for each age between 2 and 18; originally developed as a method of assessing the comparative intellectual abilities of Caucasian, Chinese, and Japanese children, but now occasionally used for assessing slow learners and those who are blind, deaf, or verbally handicapped. Likert s. ordinal s. of responses to a question or statement, ordered in hierarchical sequence from strongly negative to strongly positive. Used mainly in behavioral sciences and psychiatry. masculinity-femininity s. any s. on a psychological test that assesses the relative masculinity or femininity of an individual; scales vary and may focus, for example, on basic identification with either sex or preference for a particular sex role. Mohs s. SYN: hardness s.. ordinal s. a s. that is based on classification of persons or things into ordered qualitative categories, such as socioeconomic status. pH s. SYN: Sörensen s.. Rahe-Holmes social readjustment rating s. a widely used s. in the social and behavioral sciences that assigns values to significant life events such as marriage, birth of offspring, bereavement, loss of job; such events correlate with emotional states. Rankine s. a thermometer s. in which each degree Rankine (°Rank) is equal to the Fahrenheit but applied to the absolute temperature s. with its zero point at absolute zero; °Rank = °F + 459.67. ratio s. a s. that involves physical units and demonstrates their relations. Réaumur s. a thermometer s. in which each degree Réaumur (°R) is 180 of the temperature difference between the freezing point and boiling point of pure water at 1 atm, with 0°R set at the freezing point and 80°R set at the boiling point of water. Shipley-Hartford s. a test of intellectual and conceptual aptitude. [Hartford Retreat, CT, where Shipley was employed] Sörensen s. the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration, used as a s. for expressing acidity and alkalinity. SEE ALSO: pH. SYN: pH s.. Stanford-Binet intelligence s. a standardized test for the measurement of intelligence consisting of a series of questions, graded according to the intelligence of normal children at different ages, the answers to which indicate the mental age of the person tested; primarily used with children, but also contains norms for adults standardized against adult age levels rather than those of children, as formerly was the case. SYN: Binet test. Wechsler-Bellevue s. a measure of general intelligence superseded by the Wechsler adult intelligence s. and its subsequent revision. SEE ALSO: Wechsler intelligence scales. Wechsler intelligence scales continuously revised and updated standardized scales for the measurement of general intelligence in preschool children (Wechsler preschool and primary s. of intelligence), in children (Wechsler intelligence s. for children), and in adults (Wechsler adult intelligence s., the successor to the Wechsler-Bellevue s.). Zubrod s. a 5-point s. similar to the 10-point Karnofsky s.; both measure the performance status of a patient's ambulatory nature, from normal activity to total dependence on others for care. SEE ALSO: Karnofsky s..

scalene (ska′len)
1. Having sides of unequal length, said of a triangle so formed. 2. One of several muscles so named. See scalenus anterior (muscle), musculus scalenus anticus, scalenus medius (muscle), scalenus minimus (muscle), scalenus posterior (muscle), musculus scalenus posticus. SYN: scalenus. [G. skalenos, uneven]

scalenectomy (ska′le-nek′to-me)
Resection of the scalene muscles. [scalene + G. ektome, excision]

scalenotomy (ska′le-not′o-me)
Division or section of the anterior scalene muscle. [scalene + G. tome, incision]

scalenus (ska-le′nus)
SYN: scalene. [L.]

scaler (ska′ler)
1. An instrument for removing tartar from the teeth. 2. A device for counting electrical impulses, as in the assay of radioactive materials. hoe s. a hoe-shaped s. with a very short blade. ultrasonic s. an ultrasonic instrument that uses high frequency vibration to remove adherent deposits from the teeth.

scaling (ska′ling)
In dentistry, removal of accretions from the crowns and roots of teeth by use of special instruments.

scalloping (skal′o-ping)
A series of indentations or erosions on a normally smooth margin of a structure.

scalp (skalp)
The skin and subcutaneous tissue, normally hair-bearing, covering the neurocranium. [M. E. fr. Scand. skalpr, sheath]

scalpel (skal′pl)
A knife used in surgical dissection. [L. scalpellum; dim. of scalprum, a knife] plasma s. a s. that uses a fine high-temperature gas jet, instead of a blade, for cutting.

scalpriform (skal′pri-form)
Chisel-shaped. [L. scalprum, chisel, + forma, shape]

scalprum (skal′prum)
1. A large, strong scalpel. 2. A raspatory. [L. chisel, penknife, fr. scalpo, pp. scalptus, to carve]

scaly (ska′le)
SYN: squamous.

scammony (skam′o-ne)
The plant, Convolvulus scammonia (family Convolvulaceae), the dried root of which contains a cathartic resin. SEE ALSO: ipomea. [G. skammonia]

scan (skan)
1. To survey by traversing with an active or passive sensing device. 2. The image, record, or data obtained by scanning, usually identified by the technology or device employed; e.g., CT s., radionuclide s., ultrasound s., etc. 3. Abbreviated form of scintiscan, usually identified by the organ or structure examined; e.g., brain s., bone s., etc. CT s. See tomography. duplex Doppler s. a method of visualizing and selectively assessing the flow patterns of peripheral arteries and veins using ultrasound imaging and pulsed Doppler. EMI s. historically, the name commonly used for computed tomography of the head, the technique devised by Hounsfield, who was a scientist at EMI, an English electronics firm. Meckel s. use of 99mtechnetium pertechnetate in a s. of the small bowel to detect ectopic gastric mucosa in Meckel diverticulum; the pertechnetate anion is secreted by epithelial cells in the gastric mucosa. multiple-gated acquisition s. (MUGA) a nuclear medicine cardiac blood pool study collected by multiple-gated acquisition; used for ejection fraction and wall motion assessment. SEE ALSO: radionuclide ejection fraction. renal cortical s. an imaging technique wherein a renal cortex–localizing radiopharmaceutical ( e.g., 99mTc-DMSA, 99mTc-glucohepatanate) is injected to image the renal cortex to find scarring or pyelonephritis. sector s. in ultrasonography, a system in which the transducer or transmitted ultrasound beam is rotated through an angle, resulting in a pie-shaped image. ventilation-perfusion s. a lung function test, especially useful for pulmonary embolism, employing an inhaled radionuclide for ventilation and an intravenous radionuclide for perfusion; their respective distributions in the lung are recorded scintigraphically.

scandium (Sc) (skan′de-um)
A metallic element, atomic no. 21, atomic wt. 44.955910. [L. Scandia, Scandinavia, where discovered]

scanner (skan′er)
A device or instrument that scans.

scanning (skan′ing)
The act of imaging by traversing with an active or passive sensing device, often identified by the technology or device employed. transvaginal s. ultrasonography of the female pelvis with the transducer placed inside the vagina.

scanogram (skan′o-gram)
A radiographic technique for showing true dimensions by moving a narrow orthogonal beam of x-rays along the length of the structure being measured, e.g., the lower extremities. [scan- + G. gramma, something written]

Friedrich W., German obstetrician, 1821–1891. See S. maneuver.

scapha (skaf′a, ska′fa)
1. [TA] The longitudinal furrow between the helix and the antihelix of the auricle. SYN: fossa of helix. 2. Obsolete term for scaphoid fossa. [L. fr. G. skaphe, skiff]

A scapha, scaphoid. [G. skaphe, skiff, boat]

scaphocephalic (skaf-o-se-fal′ik)
Denoting or relating to scaphocephaly. SYN: scaphocephalous, tectocephalic.

scaphocephalism (skaf-o-sef′a-lizm)
SYN: scaphocephaly.

scaphocephalous (skaf-o-sef′a-lus)
SYN: scaphocephalic.

scaphocephaly (skaf-o-sef′a-le)
A form of craniosynostosis that results in a long, narrow head in which the parietal eminences are absent and frontal and occiptal protrusions are conspicuous; there may be a crest indicating the site of a prenatally closed sagittal suture; sometimes accompanied by mental retardation. SYN: cymbocephaly, sagittal synostosis, scaphocephalism, tectocephaly. [scapho- + G. kephale, head]

scaphohydrocephalus, scaphohydrocephaly (skaf′o-hi′dro-sef′a-lus, -le)
Occurrence of hydrocephalus in a scaphocephalic individual.

scaphoid (skaf′oyd) [TA]
Boat-shaped; hollowed. See s. (bone). [scapho- + G. eidos, resemblance]

scapula, gen. and pl. scapulae (skap′u-la, -le) [TA]
A large triangular flattened bone lying over the ribs, posteriorly on either side, articulating laterally with the clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint and the humerus at the glenohumeral joint. It forms a functional articulation with the chest wall, the scapulothoracic articulation. SYN: blade bone, shoulder blade. [L. scapulae, the shoulder blades] s. alata SYN: winged s.. s. elevata SYN: Sprengel deformity. winged s. condition wherein the medial border of the s. protrudes away from the thorax; the protrusion is posterior and lateral, as the s. rotates out; most commonly caused by paralysis of the serratus anterior muscle. SYN: s. alata.

scapulalgia (skap′u-lal′je-a)
Rarely used term meaning pain in the shoulder blades. SYN: scapulodynia. [scapula + G. algos, pain]

scapular (skap′u-lar)
Relating to the scapula.


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