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India


    • Location:
      Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Pakistan

    • Map references:
      Asia

    • Area:

        total area:
        3,287,590 km2

        land area:
        2,973,190 km2

        comparative area:
        slightly more than one-third the size of the US

    • Land boundaries:
      total 14,103 km, Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km

    • Coastline:
      7,000 km

    • Maritime claims:

        contiguous zone:
        24 nm

        continental shelf:
        200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

        exclusive economic zone:
        200 nm

        territorial sea:
        12 nm

    • International disputes:
      boundaries with Bangladesh and China; status of Kashmir with Pakistan; water-sharing problems with downstream riparians, Bangladesh over the Ganges and Pakistan over the Indus

    • Climate:
      varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

    • Terrain:
      upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

    • Natural resources:
      coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone

    • Land use:

        arable land:
        55%

        permanent crops:
        1%

        meadows and pastures:
        4%

        forest and woodland:
        23%

        other:
        17%

    • Irrigated land:
      430,390 sq km (1989)

    • Environment:

        current issues:
        deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and rapidly growing population is overstraining natural resources

        natural hazards:
        droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common; earthquakes

        international agreements:
        party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

    • Note:
      dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes






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