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    Turkmenistan Geography - 2003
    http://www.theodora.com/wfb2003/turkmenistan/turkmenistan_geography.html
    SOURCE: 2003 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

      Location: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan


      Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 60 00 E


      Map references: Asia


      Area: total: 488,100 sq km
      water: 0 sq km
      land: 488,100 sq km


      Area - comparative: slightly larger than California


      Land boundaries: total: 3,736 km
      border countries: Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km


      Coastline: 0 km; note - Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)


      Maritime claims: none (landlocked)


      Climate: subtropical desert


      Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west


      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya -81 m; note - Sarygamysh Koli is a lake in northern Turkmenistan with a water level that fluctuates above and below the elevation of Vpadina Akchanaya (the lake has dropped as low as -110 m)
      highest point: Gora Ayribaba 3,139 m


      Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt


      Land use: arable land: 3.47%
      permanent crops: 0.14%
      other: 96.39% (1998 est.)


      Irrigated land: 17,500 sq km (2003 est.)


      Natural hazards: NA


      Environment - current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification


      Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
      signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


      Geography - note: landlocked; the western and central low-lying, desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies over 80% of the country; eastern part is plateau


      NOTE: The information regarding Turkmenistan on this page is re-published from the 2003 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Guinea Geography 2003 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Turkmenistan Geography 2003 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    http://www.theodora.com/wfb2003/turkmenistan/turkmenistan_geography.html

    Revised 20-Sep-03
    Copyright © 2003 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)


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