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Colombia Geography 2017
http://www.theodora.com/wfbcurrent/colombia/colombia_geography.html
SOURCE: 2017 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Colombia Geography 2017
SOURCE: 2017 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on January 12, 2017

Location:
Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates:
4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references:
South America

Area:
total: 1,138,910 sq km
[see also: Area - total country ranks ]
land: 1,038,700 sq km
[see also: Area - land country ranks ]
water: 100,210 sq km
[see also: Area - water country ranks ]
note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank
country comparison to the world: 26

Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Area comparison map: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 6,672 km
border countries (5): Brazil 1,790 km, Ecuador 708 km, Panama 339 km, Peru 1,494 km, Venezuela 2,341 km
[see also: Land boundaries country ranks ]

Coastline:
3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
[see also: Coastline country ranks ]

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain:
flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains (Llanos)

Elevation:
mean elevation: 593 m
[see also: Mean Elevation country ranks ]
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m
note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation

Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower

Land use:
agricultural land: 37.5% arable land 1.4%; permanent crops 1.6%; permanent pasture 34.5%
[see also: Land use - agricultural land country ranks ]
forest: 54.4%
[see also: Land use - forest country ranks ]
other: 8.1% (2011 est.)
[see also: Land use - other country ranks ]

Irrigated land:
10,900 sq km (2012)
[see also: Irrigated land country ranks ]

Population - distribution:
the majority of people live in the north and west where agricultural opportunities and natural resources are found; the vast grasslands of the llanos to the south and east, which make up approximately 60% of the country, are sparsely populated

Natural hazards:
highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
volcanism: Galeras (elev. 4,276 m) is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes, having erupted in 2009 and 2010 causing major evacuations; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Nevado del Ruiz (elev. 5,321 m), 129 km (80 mi) west of Bogota, erupted in 1985 producing lahars (mudflows) that killed 23,000 people; the volcano last erupted in 1991; additionally, after 500 years of dormancy, Nevado del Huila reawakened in 2007 and has experienced frequent eruptions since then; other historically active volcanoes include Cumbal, Dona Juana, Nevado del Tolima, and Purace

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:
only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea


NOTE: The information regarding Colombia on this page is re-published from the 2017 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Colombia Geography 2017 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Colombia Geography 2017 should be addressed to the CIA.




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