|DRUGS INDEX | MANUFACTURERS INDEX | ANATOMY | GEOGRAPHY | USA STATISTICS | CHINA STATISTICS | RELIGION | JOBS|
Dynacin Tablets (Medicis)
- Drugs index
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of the minocycline hydrochloride tablets and other antibacterial drugs, minocycline hydrochloride tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Minocycline hydrochloride, a semisynthetic derivative of tetracyline, is 4,7-Bis(dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-2-naphthacenecarboxamide monohydrochloride. Its structural formula is:
Minocycline hydrochloride tablets for oral administration contain minocycline HCl equivalent to 50 mg, 75 mg or 100 mg of minocycline. In addition, 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: Colloidal Silicon Dioxide, Lactose Anhydrous, Magnesium Stearate, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Povidone and Sodium Starch Glycolate. The 50 mg tablets also contain Opadry White which contains: Titanium Dioxide, Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose, Polyethylene Glycol and Polysorbate 80. The 75 mg and 100 mg tablets contain Opadry Gray which contains: Titanium Dioxide, Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose, Polyethylene Glycol and Iron Oxide Black.
Minocycline hydrochloride tablets are rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration. Following a single dose of one 100 mg tablet of minocycline hydrochloride administered to 28 normal fasting adult volunteers, maximum serum concentrations were attained in 1 to 3 hours (average 1.71 hours) and ranged from 491.71 to 1292.70 ng/mL (average 758.29 ng/mL). The serum half-life in the normal volunteers ranged from 11.38 to 24.31 hours (average 17.03 hours).
When minocycline hydrochloride tablets were given concomitantly with a meal, which included dairy products, the extent of absorption of minocycline hydrochloride tablets was slightly decreased (6%). The peak plasma concentrations were slightly decreased (12%) and delayed by 1.09 hours when administered with food, compared to dosing under fasting conditions.
In previous studies with other minocycline dosage forms, the minocycline serum half-life ranged from 11 to 16 hours in 7 patients with hepatic dysfunction, and from 18 to 69 hours in 5 patients with renal dysfunction. The urinary and fecal recovery of minocycline when administered to 12 normal volunteers is one-half to one-third that of other tetracyclines.
The tetracyclines are primarily bacteriostatic and are thought to exert their antimicrobial effect by the inhibition of protein synthesis. The tetracyclines, including minocycline, have similar antimicrobial spectra of activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Cross-resistance of these organisms to tetracyclines is common.
Minocycline has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section:
AEROBIC GRAM-POSITIVE MICROORGANISMS
Because many strains of the following gram-positive microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to tetracyclines, culture and susceptibility testing are especially recommended. Tetracycline antibiotics should not be used for streptococcal diseases unless the organism has been demonstrated to be susceptible. Tetracyclines are not the drug of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infection.
Bacillus anthracis **/*
Listeria monocytogenes **/*
AEROBIC GRAM-NEGATIVE MICROORGANISMS
Because many strains of the following groups of gram-negative microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to tetracyclines, culture and susceptibility tests are especially recommended.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae **/*
Neisseria meningitidis **/*
Actinomyces species **/*
Clostridium species **/*
Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. fusiforme **/*
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum **/*
Treponema pallidum subspecies **/*
**/* When penicillin is contraindicated, tetracyclines are alternative drugs in the treatment of infections caused by the cited microorganisms.
Susceptibility testing should be performed with tetracycline since it predicts susceptibility to minocycline. However, certain organisms (e.g., some staphylococci, and Acinetobacter ssp.) may be more susceptible to minocycline and doxycycline than tetracycline.
Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method 1,3 (broth or agar) or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations and standardized concentrations of tetracycline powder. The MIC values should be interpreted according to the following criteria:
For testing aerobic gram-negative microorganisms (Enterobacteriaceae), Acinetobacter ssp. and Staphylococcus aureus.
For testing Haemophillus influenzae a and Streptococcus pneumoniae b .
For testing Neisseria gonorrhoeae c .
c These interpretative standards are applicable only to agar dilution susceptibility testing using GC agar base and 1% defined growth supplements. 1
A report of "Susceptible" indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable. A report of "Intermediate" indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone which prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of "Resistant" indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable; other therapy should be selected.
Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. Standard tetracycline powder should provide the following MIC values:
Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure 2,3 requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 30 mcg tetracycline (class disk) or 30 mcg minocycline to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to minocycline. Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 30 mcg tetracycline or minocycline disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria:
For testing aerobic gram-negative microorganisms (Enterobacteriaceae). Acinetobacter spp. and Staphylococcus aureus:
For testing Haemophilus influenzaed d :
d These zone diameter standards are applicable only to susceptibility testing with Haemophilus influenzae using Haemophilus Test Medium and a 30 mcg tetracycline disk. 2
For testing Neisseria gonorrhoeae e :
e These interpretative standards are applicable only to disk diffusion testing using GC agar and 1% growth supplements, and a 30 mcg tetracycline disk. 2
For testing Streptococcus pneumoniae f :
f These interpretative standards are applicable only to disk diffusion testing using Muller-Hinton agar adjusted with 5% sheep blood and a 30 mcg tetracycline-class disk. 2
For testing Vibrio cholerae g :
g These interpretative standards are applicable only to disk diffusion testing performed with a 30 mcg tetracycline-class disk. 2
Interpretation should be as stated above for results using dilution techniques. Interpretation involves correlation of the diameter obtained in the disk test with the MIC for tetracycline.
As with standardized dilution techniques, diffusion methods require the use of laboratory control microorganisms that are used to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. For the diffusion technique, the 30 mcg tetracycline or minocycline disk should provide the following zone diameters in these laboratory test quality control strains:
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Minocycline hydrochloride tablets are indicated in the treatment of the following infections due to susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms:
Minocycline hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
When penicillin is contraindicated, Minocycline is an alternative drug in the treatment of the following infections:
Infections caused by Clostridium species.
In acute intestinal amebiasis, minocycline may be useful adjunct to amebicides.
In severe acne, minocycline may be useful adjunctive therapy.
Oral minocycline is indicated in the treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Neisseria meningitidis to eliminate the meningococci from the nasopharynx. In order to preserve the usefulness of minocycline in the treatment of asymptomatic meningococcal carrier, diagnostic laboratory procedures, including serotyping and susceptibility testing, should be performed to establish the carrier state and the correct treatment. It is recommended that the prophylactic use of minocycline be reserved for situations in which the risk of meningococcal meningitis is high.
Oral minocycline is not indicated for the treatment of meningococcal infection.
Although no controlled clinical efficacy studies have been conducted, limited clinical data show that oral minocycline hydrochloride has been used successfully in the treatment of infections caused by Mycobacterium marinum.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of, minocycline hydrochloride tablets and other antibacterial drugs, minocycline hydrochloride tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antimicrobial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines.
MINOCYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS, LIKE OTHER TETRACYCLINES-CLASS ANTIBIOTICS, CAN CAUSE FETAL HARM WHEN ADMINISTERED TO A PREGNANT WOMAN. IF ANY TETRACYCLINE IS USED DURING PREGNANCY OR IF THE PATIENT BECOMES PREGNANT WHILE TAKING THESE DRUGS, THE PATIENT SHOULD BE APPRISED OF THE POTENTIAL HAZARD TO THE FETUS. THE USE OF DRUGS OF THE TETRACYCLINE CLASS DURING TOOTH DEVELOPMENT (LAST HALF OF PREGNANCY, INFANCY, AND CHILDHOOD TO THE AGE OF 8 YEARS) MAY CAUSE PERMANENT DISCOLORATION OF THE TEETH (YELLOW-GRAY-BROWN).
This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drug but has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. TETRACYCLINE DRUGS, THEREFORE, SHOULD NOT BE USED DURING TOOTH DEVELOPMENT UNLESS OTHER DRUGS ARE NOT LIKELY TO BE EFFECTIVE OR ARE CONTRAINDICATED.
All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in premature human infants given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every six hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.
Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity has been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy.
The anti-anabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. While this is not a problem in those with normal renal function, in patients with significantly impaired function, higher serum levels of tetracycline may lead to azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis. If renal impairment exists, even usual oral or parenteral doses may lead to excessive systemic accumulations of the drug and possible liver toxicity. Under such conditions, lower than usual total doses are indicated, and if therapy is prolonged, serum level determinations of the drug may be advisable.
Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. This has been reported rarely with minocycline.
Central nervous system side effects including light headedness, dizziness, or vertigo have been reported with minocycline therapy. Patients who experience these symptoms should be cautioned about driving vehicles or using hazardous machinery while on minocycline therapy. These symptoms may disappear during therapy and usually disappear rapidly when the drug is discontinued.
As with other antibiotic preparations, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, the antibiotic should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.
Pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension) in adults has been associated with the use of tetracyclines. The usual clinical manifestations are headaches and blurred vision. Bulging fontanels have been associated with the use of tetracyclines in infants. While both of these conditions and related symptoms usually resolve after discontinuation of the tetracycline, the possibility for permanent sequelae exists.
Incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy when indicated.
Prescribing minoclycline hydrochloride tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug resistant bacteria.
Information For Patients
Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema. This reaction has been reported rarely with use of minocycline.
Patients who experience central nervous system symptoms (see WARNINGS ) should be cautioned about driving vehicles or using hazardous machinery while on minocycline therapy.
Concurrent use of tetracycline may render oral contraceptives less effective (see Drug Interactions ).
Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs, including minocycline hydrochloride tablets, should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When minocycline hydrochloride tablets are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that, although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may: (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment, and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by the antibacterial drug product or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
In long-term therapy, periodic laboratory evaluations of organ systems, including hematopoietic, renal, and hepatic studies should be performed.
All patients with gonorrhea should have a serologic test for syphilis at the time of diagnosis. Patients treated with minocycline should have a follow-up serologic test for syphilis after 3 months.
Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.
Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracycline-class drugs in conjunction with penicillin.
Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium or magnesium, and iron-containing preparations.
The concurrent use of tetracycline and methoxyflurane has been reported to result in fatal renal toxicity.
Concurrent use of tetracyclines with oral contraceptives may render oral contraceptives less effective.
Drug Laboratory Interactions
False elevations of urinary catecholamine levels may occur due to interference with the fluorescence test.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Dietary administration of minocycline in long term tumorigenicity studies in rats resulted in evidence of thyroid tumor production. Minocycline has also been found to produce thyroid hyperplasia in rats and dogs. In addition, there has been evidence of oncogenic activity in rats in studies with a related antibiotic, oxytetracycline (i.e., adrenal and pituitary tumors). Likewise, although mutagenicity studies of minocycline have not been conducted, positive results in in vitro mammalian cell assays (i.e., mouse lymphoma and Chinese hamster lung cells) have been reported for related antibiotics (tetracycline hydrochloride and oxytetracycline). Segment I (fertility and general reproduction) studies have provided evidence that minocycline impairs fertility in male rats.
Pregnancy Category D.
(See WARNINGS )
(See WARNINGS ).
Labor and Delivery
The effect of tetracyclines on labor and delivery is unknown.
Tetracyclines are excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from the tetracyclines, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother (see WARNINGS ).
See WARNINGS .
Due to oral minocycline's virtually complete absorption, side effects to the lower bowel, particularly diarrhea, have been infrequent. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving tetracyclines.
Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, pancreatitis, inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region, and increases in liver enzymes have been reported. Rarely, hepatitis and liver failure have been reported. These reactions have been caused by both the oral and parenteral administration of tetracyclines. Rare instances of esophagitis and esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients taking the tetracycline-class antibiotics in capsule and tablet form. Most of these patients took the medication immediately before going to bed (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
Skin: Maculopapular and erythematous rashes. Exfoliative dermatitis has been reported but is uncommon. Fixed drug eruptions have been rarely reported. Lesions occurring on the glans penis have caused balanitis. Erythema multiforme and rarely Stevens-Johnson syndrome have been reported. Photosensitivity is discussed above (see WARNINGS ). Pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes has been reported.
Renal toxicity: Elevations in BUN have been reported and are apparently dose related (see WARNINGS ). Acute renal failure has been rarely reported and, in most cases is reversible.
Hypersensitivity reactions: Urticaria, angioneurotic edema, polyarthralgia, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid purpura, pericarditis, exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus and rarely pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia have been reported. A lupus-like syndrome and serum sickness-like reactions have also been reported.
Blood: Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and eosinophilia have been reported.
Central nervous system: Bulging fontanels in infants and benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri) in adults (see PRECAUTIONS -- General ) have been reported. Headache has also been reported.
Other: When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of the thyroid glands. Very rare cases of abnormal thyroid function have been reported.
Tooth discoloration in pediatric patients less than 8 years of age (see WARNINGS ) and also, rarely, in adults have been reported.
Tinnitus and decreased hearing has been rarely reported in patients on minocycline hydrochloride.
In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures. Minocycline is not removed in significant quantities by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
THE USUAL DOSAGE AND FREQUENCY OF ADMINISTRATION OF MINOCYCLINE DIFFERS FROM THAT OF THE OTHER TETRACYCLINES. EXCEEDING THE RECOMMENDED DOSAGE MAY RESULT IN AN INCREASED INCIDENCE OF SIDE EFFECTS.
Minocycline hydrochloride tablets should be taken at least one hour before meals or 2 hours after meals (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ).
For Pediatric Patients Above 8 Years of Age:
Usual pediatric dose: 4 mg/kg initially followed by 2 mg/kg every 12 hours.
The usual dosage of minocycline hydrochloride tablets is 200 mg initially followed by 100 mg every 12 hours. Alternatively, if more frequent doses are preferred, two or four 50 mg tablets may be given initially followed by one 50 mg tablets four times daily.
Uncomplicated gonococcal infections other than urethritis and anorectal infections in men: 200 mg initially, followed by 100 mg every 12 hours for a minimum of four days, with post-therapy cultures within 2 to 3 days.
In the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in men, 100 mg every 12 hours for 5 days is recommended.
For the treatment of syphilis, the usual dosage of minocycline hydrochloride should be administered over a period of 10 to 15 days. Close follow-up, including laboratory tests, is recommended.
In the treatment of meningococcal carrier state, the recommended dosage is 100 mg every 12 hours for five days.
Mycobacterium marinum infections: Although optimal doses have not been established, 100 mg every 12 hours for 6 to 8 weeks have been used successfully in a limited number of cases.
Uncomplicated urethra, endocervical, or rectal infection in adults caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Ureaplasma urealyticum: 100 mg orally, every 12 hours for at least seven days.
Ingestion of adequate amounts of fluids along with tablet form of drugs in the tetracycline-class is recommended to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration.
In patients with renal impairment (see WARNINGS ), the total dosage should be decreased by either reducing the recommended individual doses and/or by extending the time intervals between doses.
Minocycline hydrochloride tablets are supplied as aqueous film coated tablets containing minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 100 mg, 75 mg and 50 mg minocycline.
The 100 mg tablets are dark gray, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed "DYN-100" on one side and "749" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 100 mg minocycline, supplied as follows:
NDC 99207-492-50 Bottle of 50
NDC 99207-492-11 Bottle of 1000
The 75 mg tablets are gray, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed "DYN 75" on one side and "748" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 75 mg minocycline, supplied as follows:
NDC 99207-491-10 Bottle of 100
NDC 99207-491-11 Bottle of 1000
The 50 mg tablets are white, unscored, modified capsule shaped, coated tablet debossed "DYN-50" on one side and "747" on the other. Each tablet contains minocycline hydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg minocycline, supplied as follows:
NDC 99207-490-10 Bottle of 100
NDC 99207-490-11 Bottle of 1000
Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Protect from light, moisture and excessive heat.
ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
Minocycline hydrochloride has been observed to cause a dark discoloration of the thyroid in experimental animals (rats, minipigs, dogs and monkeys). In the rat, chronic treatment with minocycline hydrochloride has resulted in goiter accompanied by elevated radioactive iodine uptake and evidence of thyroid tumor production. Minocycline hydrochloride has also been found to produce thyroid hyperplasia in rats and dogs.
Medicis, The Dermatology Company ®
Scottsdale, AZ 85258
Par Pharmaceutical, INC.
Spring Valley, NY 10977
Revised: 10/03 49010-08B