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Grifulvin V Tablets Microsize and Oral Suspension Microsize (Orthoneutrogena)



  • Description
  • Clinical Pharmacology
  • Indications and Usage
  • Contraindications
  • Warnings
  • Precautions
  • Drug Interactions
  • Adverse Reactions
  • Dosage and Administration
  • How Supplied



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  • DESCRIPTION

    Griseofulvin is an antibiotic derived from a species of Penicillium. Each GRIFULVIN V Tablet contains either 250 mg or 500 mg of griseofulvin microsize, and also contains calcium stearate, colloidal silicon dioxide, starch, and wheat gluten. Additionally, the 250 mg tablet also contains dibasic calcium phosphate. Each 5 mL of GRIFULVIN V Suspension contains 125 mg of griseofulvin microsize and also contains alcohol 0.2%, docusate sodium, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 6, flavors, magnesium aluminium silicate, menthol, methylparaben, propylene glycol, propylparaben, saccharin sodium, simethicone emulsion, sodium alginate, sucrose, and purified water.

    CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

    GRIFULVIN V (griseofulvin microsize) acts systemically to inhibit the growth of Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton genera of fungi. Fungistatic amounts are deposited in the keratin, which is gradually exfoliated and replaced by noninfected tissue.

    Griseofulvin absorption from the gastrointestinal tract varies considerably among individuals, mainly because of insolubility of the drug in aqueous media of the upper G.I. tract. The peak serum level found in fasting adults given 0.5 g occurs at about four hours and ranges between 0.5 and 2.0 mcg/mL.

    It should be noted that some individuals are consistently "poor absorbers" and tend to attain lower blood levels at all times. This may explain unsatisfactory therapeutic results in some patients. Better blood levels can probably be attained in most patients if the tablets are administered after a meal with a high fat content.

    INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    Major indications for GRIFULVIN V are:

    Tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp)

    Tinea corporis (ringworm of the body)

    Tinea pedis (athlete's foot)

    Tinea unguium (onychomycosis; ringworm of the nails)

    Tinea cruris (ringworm of the thigh)

    Tinea barbae (barber's itch)

    GRIFULVIN V inhibits the growth of those genera of fungi that commonly cause ringworm infections of the hair, skin, and nails, such as:

    Trichophyton rubrum

    Trichophyton tonsurans

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Trichophyton interdigitalis

    Trichophyton verrucosum

    Trichophyton sulphureum

    Trichophyton schoenleini

    Microsporum audouini

    Microsporum canis

    Microsporum gypseum

    Epidermophyton floccosum

    Trichophyton megnini

    Trichophyton gallinae

    Trichophyton crateriform

    Note:   Prior to therapy, the type of fungi responsible for the infection should be identified. The use of the drug is not justified in minor or trivial infections which will respond to topical antifungal agents alone.

    It is not effective in:

    Bacterial infections

    Candidiasis (Moniliasis)

    Histoplasmosis

    Actinomycosis

    Sporotrichosis

    Chromoblastomycosis

    Coccidioidomycosis

    North American Blastomycosis

    Cryptococcosis (Torulosis)

    Tinea versicolor

    Nocardiosis

    CONTRAINDICATIONS

    This drug is contraindicated in patients with porphyria, hepatocellular failure, and in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to griseofulvin.

    Two cases of conjoined twins have been reported in patients taking griseofulvin during the first trimester of pregnancy. Griseofulvin should not be prescribed to pregnant patients.

    WARNINGS

    Prophylactic Usage:   Safety and efficacy of prophylactic use of this drug have not been established.

    Chronic feeding of griseofulvin, at levels ranging from 0.5-2.5% of the diet, resulted in the development of liver tumors in several strains of mice, particularly in males. Smaller particle sizes result in an enhanced effect. Lower oral dosage levels have not been tested. Subcutaneous administration of relatively small doses of griseofulvin once a week during the first three weeks of life has also been reported to induce hepatomata in mice. Although studies in other animal species have not yielded evidence of tumorigenicity, these studies were not of adequate design to form a basis for conclusions in this regard.

    In subacute toxicity studies, orally administered griseofulvin produced hepatocellar necrosis in mice, but this has not been seen in other species. Disturbances in porphyrin metabolism have been reported in griseofulvin-treated laboratory animals. Griseofulvin has been reported to have a colchicine-like effect on mitosis and cocarcinogenicity with methylcholanthrene in cutaneous tumor induction in laboratory animals.

    Reports of animal studies in the Soviet literature state that a griseofulvin preparation was found to be embryotoxic and teratogenic on oral administration to pregnant Wistar rats. Rat reproduction studies done in the United States and Great Britain were inconclusive in this regard. Pups with abnormalities have been reported in the litters of a few bitches treated with griseofulvin. Because the potential for adverse effects on the human fetus cannot be ruled out, additional contraceptive precautions should be taken during treatment with griseofulvin and for a month after termination of treatment. GRIFULVIN V should not be prescribed to women intending to become pregnant within one month following cessation of therapy.

    Suppression of spermatogenesis has been reported to occur in rats but investigation in man failed to confirm this. Griseofulvin interferes with chromosomal distribution during cell division, causing aneuploidy in plant and mammalian cells. These effects have been demonstrated in vitro at concentrations that may be achieved in the serum with the recommended therapeutic dosage.

    Since griseofulvin has demonstrated harmful effects in vitro on the genotype in bacteria, plants, and fungi, males should wait at least six months after completing griseofulvin therapy before fathering a child.

    PRECAUTIONS

    Patients on prolonged therapy with any potent medication should be under close observation. Periodic monitoring of organ system function, including renal, hepatic and hemopoietic, should be done.

    Since griseofulvin is derived from species of penicillin, the possibility of cross sensitivity with penicillin exists; however, known penicillin-sensitive patients have been treated without difficulty.

    Since a photosensitivity reaction is occasionally associated with griseofulvin therapy, patients should be warned to avoid exposure to intense natural or artificial sunlight. Should a photosensitivity reaction occur, lupus erythematosus may be aggravated.

    Drug Interactions:    Patients on warfarin-type anticoagulant therapy may require dosage adjustment of the anticoagulant during and after griseofulvin therapy. Concomitant use of barbiturates usually depresses griseofulvin activity and may necessitate raising the dosage.

    The concomitant administration of griseofulvin has been reported to reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives and to increase the incidence of breakthrough bleeding.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    When adverse reactions occur, they are most commonly of the hypersensitivity type such as skin rashes, urticaria and rarely, angioneurotic edema or erythema multiforme-like drug reaction, and may necessitate withdrawal of therapy and appropriate countermeasures. Paresthesias of the hands and feet have been reported rarely after extended therapy. Other side effects reported occasionally are oral thrush, nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, diarrhea, headache, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia, mental confusion and impairment of performance of routine activities.

    Proteinuria and leukopenia have been reported rarely. Administration of the drug should be discontinued if granulocytopenia occurs.

    When rare, serious reactions occur with griseofulvin, they are usually associated with high dosages, long periods of therapy, or both.

    DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    Accurate diagnosis of the infecting organism is essential. Identification should be made either by direct microscopic examination of a mounting of infected tissue in a solution of potassium hydroxide or by culture on an appropriate medium.

    Medication must be continued until the infecting organism is completely eradicated as indicated by appropriate clinical or laboratory examination. Representative treatment periods are tinea capitis, 4 to 6 weeks; tinea corporis, 2 to 4 weeks; tinea pedis, 4 to 8 weeks; tinea unguium--depending on rate of growth--fingernails, at least 4 months; toenails, at least 6 months.

    General measures in regard to hygiene should be observed to control sources of infection or reinfection. Concomitant use of appropriate topical agents is usually required, particularly in treatment of tinea pedis since in some forms of athlete's foot, yeasts and bacteria may be involved. Griseofulvin will not eradicate the bacterial or monilial infection.

    Adults:    A daily dose of 500 mg will give a satisfactory response in most patients with tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea capitis.

    For those fungus infections more difficult to eradicate such as tinea pedis and tinea unguium, a daily dose of 1.0 g is recommended.

    Children:    Approximately 5 mg per pound of body weight per day is an effective dose for most children. On this basis the following dosage schedule for children is suggested:

    Children weighing 30 to 50 pounds--125 mg to 250 mg daily.

    Children weighing over 50 pounds--250 mg to 500 mg daily.

    HOW SUPPLIED

    GRIFULVIN V 250 mg Tablets in bottles of 100 (NDC 0062-0211-60) (white, scored, imprinted "ORTHO 211").

    GRIFULVIN V 500 mg Tablets in bottles of 100 (NDC 0062-0214-60) and 500 (NDC 0062-0214-70) (white, scored, imprinted "ORTHO 214").

    Dispense GRIFULVIN V Tablets in a tight container as defined in the USP.

    GRIFULVIN V Suspension 125 mg per 5 mL in bottles of 4 fl oz (120mL) (NDC 0062-0206-04).

    Dispense GRIFULVIN V Suspension in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.

    STORE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

    Revised January 1997

    631-10-560-2








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    This page was last modified 30-JUN-07
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