Architecture - Encyclopedia

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ARCHITECTURE (Lat. architectura, from the Gr. &PXLTkTWV, master-builder), the art of building in such a way as to accord the principles determined, not merely by the ends the edifice intended to serve, but by high considerations of beauty and harmony (see FINE ARTS). It cannot be defined as the art of building simply, or even of building well. So far as mere excellence of construction is concerned, see BUILDING and its Lied articles. The aim of building as such is convenience, use, espective of appearance; and the employment of materials to this end is regulated by the mechanical principles of the instructive art. The aim of architecture as an art, on the other hand, is so to arrange the plan, masses and enrichments of a structure so as to impart to it interest, beauty, grandeur, unity, wer. Architecture thus necessitates the possession by the builder of gifts of imagination as well as of technical skill, and fat exist, and be harmoniously combined.

Like the other arts, architecture did not spring into existence sy an early period of mans history- The ideas of symmetry and E~ oportion which are afterwards embodied in material structures ac uld not be evolved until at least a moderate degree of civiliza- sk rn had been attained, while the efforts of primitive man in the hf nstruction of dwellings must have been at first determined sL lely by his physical wants. Only after these had been pro- th Sed for, and materials amassed on which his imagination ca ight exercise itself, would he begin to plan and erect structures, cc ssessing not only utility, but also grandeur and beauty. It or ay be well to enumerate briefly the elements which in corn- ar nation form the architectural perfection of a building. These hi ~ments have been very variously determined by different T, ,thorities. Vitruvius, the only ancient writer on the art whose a)rks have come down to us, lays down three qualities as in- or fpensable in a fine building: Firmitas, Utilitas, Venustas, ibilty, utility, beauty. From an architectural point of view tu e last is the principal, though not the sole element; and, b cordingly, the theory of architecture is occupied for the most es ,rt with aesthetic considerations, or the principles of beauty cc designing. Of such principles or qualities the following appear bi be the most important: size, harmony, proportion, symmetry, p1 nament and color. All other elements may be reduced under to e or other of these heads.

With regard to the first quality, it is clear that, as the feeling fo power is a source of the keenest pleasure, size, or vastness w, proportion, will not only excite in the mind of man the feelings hi awe with which he regards the sublime in nature, but will ar press him with a deep sense of the majesty of human power. ar is, therefore, a double source of pleasure. The feelings with T fich we regard the Pyramids of Egypt, the great hall of columns at Karnak, the Pantheon, or the Basilica of Maxentius at Rome, tv e Trilithon at Baalbek, the choir of Beauvais cathedral, w the Arc de lEtoile at Paris, sufficiently attest the truth of th is quality, size, which is even better appreciated when the bI ildings are contemplated simply as masses, without being th ~turbed by the consideration of the details. ru Proportion itself depends essentially upon the employment b mathematical ratios in the dimensions of a building. It is h curious but significant fact that such proportions as those of m exact cube, or of two cubes placed side by sidedimensions er creasing by one-half (e.g., 20 ft. high, 30 wide and 45 long) d(the ratios of the base, perpendicular and hypotenuse of a ar ~ht-angled triangle (e.g. 3, 4, 5, or their multiples)please the di e more than dimensions taken at random. No defect is more ~is iring or more unpleasant than want of proportion. ,The ac)thic architects appear to have been guided in their designs aI proportions based on the equilateral triangle. qi By harmony is meant the general balancing of the several b .rts of the design. It is proportion applied to the mutual rc lations of the details. Thus, supported parts should have p1 i adequate ratio to their supports, and the same should be a1 e case with solids and voids. Due attention to proportion a d harmony gives the appearance of stability and repose al aich is indispensable to a really fine building. Symmetry st uniformity in plan, and, when not carried to excess, is un- 10 ,ubtedly effective. But a building too rigorously symmetrical cc apt to appear cold and tasteless. Such symmetry of general of an, with diversity of detail, as is presented to us in leaves, qi iimals, and other natural objects, is probably the just medium tf ~tween the excesses of two opposing schools. si Next to general beauty or grandeur of form in a building fo mes architectural ornament. Ornament, of course, may hi used to excess, and as a general rule it should be confined si the decoration of constructive parts of the fabric; but, on m Le othet hand, a total absence or a paucity of ornament betokens m i unpleasing poverty. Ornaments may be divided into two cc a.ssesmouldings and the sculptured representation of natural pi fanciful objects. Mouldings, no doubt, originated, first, in at rnply taking off the edge of anything that might be in the way, B

Ilows of varfous forms; and thence were developed the stems of mouldings we now find in all styles and periods. ich of these has its own system; and so well are their charteristics understood, that from an examination of them a ilful architect will not only tell the period in which any building s been erected, but will even give an estimate of its probable e, as professors of physiology will construct an animal from e examination of a single bone. Mouldings require to be refully studied, for nothing offends an educated eye like a nfusion of mouldings, such as Roman forms in Greek work, Early English in that of the Tudor period. The same remark plies to sculptured ornaments. They should be neither too ,merous nor too few, and above all, they should be consistent. ie carved ox skulls, for instance, which are appropriate in temple of Vesta or of Fortune would be very incongruous a Christian church.

Color must be regarded as a subsidiary element in architecre, and although it seems almost indispensable and has always en extensively employed in interiors, it is doubtful how far ternal coloring is desirable. Some contend that only local. louring, i.e. the color of the materials, should be admitted; t there seems no reason why any color should not be used, ovided it be employed with discretion and kept subordinate the form or outline.

Origin of the ArtThe origin of the art of architecture is to be md in the endeavours of man to provide for his physical Lnts; in the earliest days the cave, the hut and the tent may ye given shelter to those who devoted themselves to hunting d fishing, to agriculture and to a pastoral and nomadic life, d in many cases still afford the only shelter from the weather. iere can be no doubt, however, that climate and the materials hand affect the forms of the primitive buildings; thus, in the o earliest settlements of mankind, in Chaldaea and Egypt, iere wood was scarce, the heat in the day-time intense, and e only material whichcould be obtained was the alluvial clay, ought down by the rivers in both, those countries, they shaped is into bricks, which, dried in the sun, enabled them to build de huts, giving them the required shelter. These may have en circular or rectangular on plan, with the bricks laid in rizontal courses, one projecting over the other, till the walls It at the top. The next advance in Egypt was made by the iployment of the trunks of the palm tree as a lintel over the orway, to support the wall above, and to cover over the hut d carry the flat roof of earth which is found down to the present ~y in all hot countries. Evidence of this system of construction found in some of the earliest rock-cut tombs at Giza, where the tual dwelling of the deceased was reproduced in the tomb, .d from these reproductions we gather that the corners, or ioins of the hut were protected by stems of the douva plant, und together in rolls by the leaves, which, in. the form of torus Ils, were also carried across the top of the wall. Down to the esent day the huts of the fellahs are built in the same way, d, surmounted as they are by pigeon-cots, bear so strong resemblance to the pylons and the walls of th.e temples as at events to suggest, if not to prove, that in their origin these me erections were copies of unburnt brick structures. From ag exposure in the sun, these bricks acquire a hardness and mpactness not much inferior to some of the softer qualities stone, but they are unable to sustain much pressure; conseiently it is necessary to make the walls thicker at the bottom an at the top, and it is this which results in the batter or raking les of all the unburnt brick walls. The same raking sides are and in all their mastabas, or tombs, sometimes built in unirnt brick and sometimes in stone, in the latter case being nple reproductions of the former. In some of the early astabas, built in brick, either to vary the monotony of the ass and decorate the walls, or to ensure greater care in their nstruction, vertical brick pilasters are provided, forming sunk ,nels. These form the principal decoration, as reproduced in me, of an endless number of tombs, some of which are in the -itish Museum. At the top of each panel they carve a portion orway a similar teature. In Chaldaea the same decorative itures are found in the stage towers which constituted their se nples, and broad projecting buttresses, indented panels and ea icr features, originally constructive, form the decorations of Ec Assyrian palaces. There also, built in the same material, ~ burnt brick, the walls have a similar batter, though they were raf;ed with burnt bricks. In later times in Greece and Asia fac nor, where wood was plentiful, the stone architecture suggests qu timber origin, and though unburnt brick was still employed for mass of the walls, the remains in Crete and the representans in painting, &c~, show that it was encased in timber ref ming, so that the raking walls were no longer a necessary ca~ ment in their structure. The clearest proofs of original ~Y aber construction are shown in the rock-cut tombs of Lycia, K(iere the ground sill, vertical posts, cross beams, purlins and trz)f joists are all direct imitations of structures originally rai cted in wood. ra The numerous relics of structures left by jrimeval man have pe aerally little or no architectural value; and the only interesting M)blem regarding themthe determination of their date and Cf rpose and of the degree of civilization which they manifest is within the province of archaeology (see ARCHAEOLOGY; wi RROW; LAKE-DWELLINGS; STONE MONUMENTS). un Technical terms in architecture will be found separately th :dained under their own headings in this work, and in this ide a general acquaintance with them is assumed. A number Sa architectural subjects are also considered in detail in. separate pl~ :icles; see, for instance, CAPITAL; COLUMN; DESIGN; ORDER; de d such headings as ABBEY; AQUEDUCT; ARcH; BASILICA; Pv THS; BRIDGES; CATACOMB; CRYPT; DOME; MOSQUE; PALACE; ~ RAMID; TEMPLE; THEATRE; &c., &c. Also such general articles cx national art as CHINA: Art; EGYPT: Art and Archaeology; an cEEK ART; ROMAN ART; &c., and the sections on archi- h :ture and buildings under the headings of countries and towns. In the remainder of this article the general history of the evolu- p~ n of the art of architecture will be considered in various mi :tions, associated with the nations and periods from which an leading historic styles are chronologically derived, in so far the dominant influences on the art, and not the purely local oft aracteristics of countries outside the main current of its WE tory, are concerned; but the opportunity is taken to treat WI th some attempt at comprehensiveness the leading features so the architectural history of those countries and peoples which foi intimately connected with the development of modern K]

hitecture. ar These consecutive sections are as follows: th Egyptian S~1

Assyrian Persian Greek rI

Parthian pr Sassanian cl(

Etruscan Roman in Byzantine ro Early Christian T,l Early Christian Work in Central Syria Coptic Church in Egypt e Romanesque and Gothic in Italy a~i France 0

Spain fu England Germany Belgium and Holland ~0 Renaissance: Introduction t Italy ar France m Spain England pl~

Germany t Belgium and Holland Mahommedan te Finally, a section on what can only be collectively termed Modern chitecture deals with the main lines of the later developments iwn to the present day in the architectural history of different untries. (R. P. S.) G

\Jthough structures discovered in Chaldaea, at Tello and Nippur, ming to date back to the fifth millennium B.C., suggest that the her settlements of mankind were in the valley of the Tigris and phrates, north of the Persian Gulf, it is to Egypt that we must n for the most ancient records of monumental architecture 1 also EGYPT: Art and Archaeology). The proximity of the ges of hiHs (the Arabian and Libyan chains) to the Nile, and the ilities which that river afforded for the transport of the material irried in them, enabled the Egyptians at a very early period to roduce in stone those structures in unburnt brick to which we ~e already referred.

dthough the great founder of the first Egyptian monarchy is uted to be Menes, the Thinite who traditionally founded the dtal at Memphis, he was preceded, according to Flinders Petrie, an earlier invading race coming from the south, who established ionarchy at This near Abydos, having entered the country by the sseir road from the Red Sea; and this may account for the early dition that it was the Ethiopians who founded the earliest dynastic e, Ethiopians being a wide term which may embrace several es.

igyptian architecture is usually described under the principal -iods in which it was developed. They are as follows i :(A) the ~mphite kingdom, whose capital was at Memphis, south-west of iro, the Royal Domain extending south some 30 to 40 m.; (B) first Theban kingdom with Thebes as the capital; this covers ee dynasties. Then follows an interregnum of five dynasties, en the invasion of the Hyksos took place; this was architecturally productive. On the expulsion of the Hyksos there followed (C) second Theban kingdom, consisting of three dynasties, under ose reign the finest temples were erected throughout the country. :er 1102 followed six dynasties (1102525 B.C.), with capitals at s, Tanis and Bubastis, when the decadence of art and power took ce. Then followed the,Persian invasion, 52533 I B.C., which was;tructive instead of being reproductive. On the defeat of the rsians by Alexander the Great, and after his death in 323 B.C., s founded (D) the Ptolemaic kingdom, with Aiexandiia as the)ital. A great revival of art then took place, which to a certain .ent was carried on under the Roman occupation from 27 B.C., :1 lasted about 300 years.

~Vith the exception of a small temple, found by Petrie in front of ~temple of Medum, and the so-called Temple of the Sphinx, only monuments remaining of the Memphite kingdom are the ramids, which were built by the kings as their tombs, and the stabas, in which the members of the royal family and of the priests :1 chiefs were buried. The mastaba (Arabic for bench) was a nb, oblong in plan, with battering side and a flat roof, containing rious chambers, of which the, principal were (I) the Chapel for 1 rings, (2) the Serdab, in which the Ka or double of the deceased s deposited, and (3) the well, always excavated -in the rock, in ich the mummy was placed.

The three best-known pyramids are those situated about 7 m. ith-west of Cairo, which were built by the second, third and irth kings of the fourth dynasty,Khufu (c. 3969-3908 s.c.), iafra (c. 3908-3845 B.C.), and Menkaura (c. 3845-3784 s.c.), who better known as Cheops, Cephren and Mycerinus. The first of ~se is the largest and most remarkable in its construction and ting out. The pyramid of Cephren was slightly smaller, and that Mycerinus still more so, compensated for by a casing in granite. .e dimensions and other details are given in the article PYRAMIDS. am the purely architectural point of view they are the least imIssive of masses, and their immense size is not realized until on a se approach.

The temple of the Sphinx, attributed to Cephren, is T-shaped plan, with two rows of square piers down the vertical and one v down the cross portion. These carried a flat roof of stone. e temple is remarkable for the splendid finish given to the granite rs, and to the alabaster slabs which cased the rock in which it had ~n partially excavated (but see EGYPT: History, L).

The Serapeum at Sakkara, in which the sacred bulls were embalmed d buried, the tomb of Ti (a fifth dynasty courtier), and the tombs the kings and queens of Thebes, have no special architectural tunes which call for description here.

We pass on to the first Theban kingdom, the eighth king of which, ~bheprb Menthotp III., built the temple lately discovered on the ith side of the temple at Deir-el-Bahri, of which it is the prototype. was a sepulchial temple, and being built on rising ground was proached by flights of steps. In the centre was a solid mass of isonry which, it is thought by some authorities, was crowned by a ramid. This was surrounded by a double portico with square ~rs in the outer range, and octagonal piers in the inner range, Ire being a wall between the two ranges.

The earliest tombs in which the column (q.v.) appears, as an archi:tural feature, are those at Beni Hasan, attributed to the period Senwosri (formerly read Usertesen) I., the second king of the elfth dynasty. These are carved inthe solid rock. There are two i For the various chronological systems proposed see EGYPT:


d a second variety known as the Lotus column, which is employed (1. ide, supporting the rock-cut roof, but having such slender prortions as to suggest that it was copied from the posts of a porch, Al md which the Lotus plant had been tied. th The culminating period of the Egyptian style begins with the ha igs of the eighteenth dynasty, their principal capital being Thebes, wi scribed by Herodotus as the City with the Hundred Gates; ha d although the execution of the masonry is inferior to that of the ler dynasties, the grandeur of the conception of their temples, d the wealth displayed in their realization entitle Thebes to the)st important position in the history of the Egyptian style, especiy as the temples there grouped on both sides of the river exceed number and dimensions the whole of the other temples throughout ypt. This to a certain extent may possibly be due to the distance Thebes from the Mediterranean, which has contributed to their sservation from invaders. We have already referred to the probable ,gin of the peculiar batter or raking side given to the walls of the Ions and temples, with the Torus moulding surrounding the same d crowned with the cavetto cornice. What, however, is more narkable is the fact that, once accepted as an important and aracteristic feature, it should never have been departed from, d that down to and during the Roman occupation the same batter found in all the temples, though constructively there was no cessity for it. The strict adherence to tradition may possibly ~ount for this, but it has resulted in a magnificent repose possessed these structures, which seem built to last till eternity.r An avenue with sphinxes on both sides forms the approach to 1 temple. These avenues were sometimes of considerable length, in the case of that reaching from Karnak to Luxor, which is 11/2 m.

long. The leading features of the temple (see fig. I) were:(A) The ii, pylon, consisting of two pyramidal masses of masonry crowned with a I cavetto cornice, united in the centre which on either side were seated figures of the king and obelisks.

1, 8 (B) A great open court surrounded by peristyles on two or three sides.

li ~ (C) A great hall with a range of ~ ~~ columns down the centre on either 1 ~ side, forming what in European 1:1 architecture would be known as ~i a ~ aisles on each side; these had hP .~ f~ columns of less height than those ___________ ~ first mentioned, so as to allow of 2 a clerestory, lighting the central ~ ~ o avenue. (D) Smaller halls with their flat roofs carried by columns.

B And finally (E) the sanctuary, with &

~ passage round giving access to the o halls occupied by the priest.

~ ~ Broadly speaking, the temples ii p bear considerable resemblance to iLl j~jjji one another (see TEMPLE), except C

A ___ in dimensions. There is one im portant distinction, however, to be J drawn between the Theban temples J r P1 n f the ~ and those built under the Ptolemaic IG.I. a 0 rule. In these latter-the halls are j Templeof Chons. ~ not enclosed between pylons, but A, Pylon, left open on the side of the entrance B, Great court. court with screens in between the C, Hall of columns, columns, the hall being lighted from D, Priests hall. above the screens. The temples of E, Sanctuary. Edfu, Esna and Dendera are thus arranged. -

The great temple of Karnak (fig. 2) differs from the type just scribed, in that it was the work of many successive monarchs. ms-the sanctuary, built in granite, and the surrounding chambers, sre erected by Senwosri (Usertesen) I. of the twelfth dynasty. In A nt of this, on the west side, pylons were added by Tethmosis hothmes, Tahutmes) 1. (1541-1516), enclosing a hall, in the walls which were Osirid figures. In front of this a third pylon was lded, which Seti (Sethos) I. utilized as one of the enclosures of the E1 eat hall of columns (fig. 3), measuring 170 ft. deep by 329 ft. wide, pc lying added a fourth pylon on the other side to enclose it. Again front of this was the great open court with porticoes on two sides, th a great pylon, forming the entrance. In the rear of all these I\ rildings, and some distance beyond the sanctuary, Tethmosis III. de 5031449) built a great colonnaded hall with other halls round, as nsidered to have been a palace. All these structures form a part fo fly of the great temple, on the right and left of wbich (i.e. to the fo rth-east and south-west) were other temples preceded by pylons id connected one with the other by avenues of sphinxes. Though pc small size comparatively, one of the best preserved is the temple ex Chons, built by Rameses III. It was from this temple that an b3

01 ~-~/ ~


)n the opposite or west bank of the Nile are the temple of Medinet u, the Ramesseum, the temples of Kurna and of Deir-el-Bahri; last being a sepulchral temple, which, built on rising ground, l flights of steps leading to the higher level (fig. 4), and porticoes;h square piers at the foot of each terrace. In the rear on the rightad side was found an altar, the only example of its kind known in I~I r B. Greet Coert mitt.

i~r~.~i_~_I ~j~j:: ~. Second Colon,,edeo I,, coot,..

ri LLJ~

D. P.11 of CoIo,,,,,a.

B. Third P.opyloe.

~: ::.~ p ~,- __________

0. Hell .oith Oooid figures.

- H. Gra,.,te Ea,sfuwy a,,d I. Open Area - adjoining ohw,,be,s.

I K. Columnar Edifice of Teth,,,o,ie III

(XVII I/h. Dynoso.P.

ii L. Temple of Ram0808 III.

. (XXIh. D~nerty.?.

f 3Ji.Temple of 800,0811.

rTT~ ~

~ ~i-f] ~ a. Scoliol,res of Set*oa I.

(XJXIh. .Dyno~y).

____________ b. Scolptore. of Shashook (XXIlad. Dys,oSiy,)


________________ C. Scolptoros of R.nmese$ II.

(XIXth. DjnoVy d Corn/I Obelio,ka.

e s~ 11

n. Lw-ge Obelislea, _______________ 1. P11/are of Senwosrll.

IXI/ti.. Dy.,asO -

g. Hail of A,cesto,e, COURT~OF l~l ~TETHMOSISI.

I ..... ... I

1s~. ... .

I...._.. .......Ic .,.D,... D. ....D...

I ......

IS....... .S~


I~~: I

L Ammon I r ?OURT I~

i: B o ~Rameono jfl GREA

I. e 0

I. 0


from Morsyo H.nd500k too Egipt by pmmimlon H: ~ ~ Edwwd Sta~to~

H0 ____


FIG. 2.

ypt. The halls behind this and the portico of the right flank had lygonal columns.

In the palace of Tell el-Amarna, built shortly before 1350 B.C. by 1 heretic king Akhenaton (whose name was originally Amenophis .), and discovered by Petrie there were no special architectural velopments, but the painted decoration of the walls and pavements;umed a literal interpretation of natural forms of plants and iage and of birds and animals, recalling to some extent that md at Cnossus in Crete.

Ascending the river from Cairo, the first temples of which imrtant remains exist are the two at Abydos. One of these has an :eptional plan, with seven sanctuaries in the rear. It was built SetS I., and consists of an outer portico with square piers, a hall, .,,~. .,.-.~- ..~.--.-f--.--~ ..,5...~..,..J ,., a ~ess to the seven sanctuaries. The second temple is of the ordinary ty pe, with pylon, court with portico on all four sides, two halls of th t~-, ~~-~ F~~ ~-

burnt brick, and in those cases where the rooms exceeded 8 or 9 ft.

width, columns in stone or wood were employed to assist in carry- foi the roof, which was constructed of beams carrying smaller bh nbers covered over with a flat roof of mud. The plans of the hotises its ~ p-~ :} ~ te ~ / II fr ________ - ~~Ft ~~i~1 th .:~i~,i~ th - - ~__:4~t~s4~l-l di - a ---~: - - -~ - - ~---- I, --- ~if c-k:- - ~ ~- -~j~-~\~ ~

ti_.K ~ .~ - .:- -. it~jS)~l ~ in J~ ~ - -- - I. S ~ef~ ~

/7 \\ ,-- :-. I- -~ // \~ hi ~ -~. -~ - - -- ~-: - - - sw~, - .s~ WI

~~em~ ~ ti~1L~,,lijl~lIa th Fii; 6,Exterior of thc- P~ Ion of the Temple of Edfu, sa re not unlike those found in Pompeii, with open courts and wi rticoes and no external windows. The streets ran at right angles CI

one another, and the houses varied in size from the workmans tk t, of one room, to the ocerseers house with several rooms and pa arts; the principal residence, in the centre, occupied by the of vernor of the town, being of still larger dimensions. th Further knowledge of the Egyptian dwellings is chiefly derived pa on the soul-houses recently discovered by Petrie, and from the w paintings in the tombs, which suggest that ea va_iir ~ ~ they corresponded to that class of residence N

~ II II III JIJU which in Rome was known as a villa, viz, a series of detached buildings built in immense of trees, artificial lakes, &c. The walls, gates wI and buildings were all built probably in on- of burnt brick, and the whole site, if on the SF borders of the river, raised on great mounds, or In this respect they accord with the houses N of the fellah at the present day, which are H,

~ enclostircs, with porticoes round, groves of p~

raised on the accumulation of centuries, for when, owing to the rise of the Nile, the of houses succumb to the moisture creeping up, is another house is built, on the top. The N representations in paintings show that the gr _________ ,houses were chiefly built in unburnt brick, and hi they sometimes were of two or three storeys ot FIG I Fa ade in height, with windows in the upper floors, to the Great ~Ialt and a flat roof with a kind of dormer known c~ Columns of the as the Mulhuf, turned towards the north-west to olemaic temple at to ventilate the house. The paintings fre- to If u quentl-j represent the store-rooms, or granaries; to and the preservation of those built by hi imeses the Great, in the rear of the Ramesseum at Thebes, as H snaries to hold corn, enables us to follow their construction. T iese granaries consist of a series of long cellars, about I2 to 14 ft. K de, placed side by side, and roofed over - with elliptical barrel w ults, The reason for the elliptical form and the method of their so nstruction is given in the article VAULT. bc The pavilion of Med met Abu was built in stone, and consequently ea s been preserved more or less complete to our clay. It consisted of Cr ree storevs with a flat roof and battlement round, said to be in UI itation of those on a Syrian fortress, as they are quite unlike bl ything else in Egypt. The floors were in wood, but there are traces as a stone staircase, The windows, of large size, were filled with m in stone slabs pierced with vertical slits, like those of the hall of of lumns at Karnak. (R. P. S.) p~


About 3800 B.C. the earlier inhabitants of Chaldaea or Babylonia th ,re invaded and absorbed by a Semitic race, whose first monarch to is Sargon of Agacle (Akkad). 1800 years later, ensigrations took th ice northward, and founded Nineveh on the banks of the Tigris, SI OOt 250 rn. north of Babylon. 1200 years later, the Assyrians nc gao building the magnificent series of palaces from which were Pt ought the winged man-headed bulls and the sculptured slabs now a the British Museum, The leading characteristics of the style, and WI e nature of the structures, ~mplcs and palaces, evolved by the at ialdaeans (or first Babylonian empire), the Assyrians, and the new ki ibylonian empire, are similar; they are best known by those th By a singular coincidence the remains of the oldest building md at Nippur (Niffar), in lower Mesopotamia, bear a close resem~ .nce to the oldest pyramid in Egypt, Medum, before it received final casing. The latter, however, is known to have been a tomb, ereas the strticture at Nippur was a temple, which took the form a ziggurat or stage tower, It consisted of several storeys built one Sr the other, the upper storey in each case being set back behind lower, in order to leave a terrace all round. In some cases the race was wider in front, to give space for staircases ascending m storey to storey. In consequence of the extreme flatness of country and its liability to sudden inundations, it became ~essary, when erecting buildings of any kind, to raise them on unds of earth, The more important the structure, the higher was leemed necessary to raise it, so as to make it the most conspicuous ture in the landscape. The result is that from Abu Shahrain, most southern town, to Akarkuf (Aqarquf), 220 m. north, ~re are a series of immense mounds, sometimes nearly a mile in ~meter, and rising to a height of 200 ft., crowned with the remains towns, which, notwithstanding the thirty centuries more or less ring which they have been exposed to the torrential rains and the ~tructive agencies of man, form still the most prominent features the country. The structures which were raised on the mound, the temples and palaces with their enclosure walls, were all ilt with bricks made of the alluvial clay of the country, shaped in oden moulds and dried in the heat of the sun, a heat so intense ft they acquired sometimes the hardness of the inferior qualities stone, The walls of the temples, palaces and enclosures had the ne batter as that already referred to in the preceding section on ypt. In the latter country they were reproduced in stone, of ich there were many quarries on either side of the Nile; in aldaea they were obliged to content themselves with the preservan of their ziggurats by outer casings of burnt brick and with cements of tiles for their terraces, In order to vary the monotony their temple walls, and perhaps to give them greater strength, fy built vertical bands or buttresses at intervals, or they sank nels in the walls to two depths, a natural decoration to which brick rk lends itself; and these two methods, ,which were employed in ly times, were followed by the Assyrians in the palaces of Nimrud, neveh and Khorsabad.

The earlier settlements were those founded between the mouths the Tigris and the Euphrates, on what was then the shore of the rsian Gulf, now some 140 m. farther south. The principal towns ere the remains of ziggurats have been found, all on the borders the Euphrates, beginning with the most southern, are:Abu abram (Eridu); Mugheir (TJr of the Chaldees); Senkera (? Ellasar Larsa); Warka (Erech); Tello (Eninnu); - Nippur; Birs mrOd (Borsippa); Babil (Babylon); El Ohemir (Kish); Abu ibba (Sippara); and Akarkuf (Durkurigalsu).

Although the ziggurats at Warka, Nippur and Tello are probably older foundation, the great temple of Borsippa at Birs Nimrud in better preservation, having been restored or rebuilt by ~buchadrezzar, and may be taken as a typical example. The)und storey was 272 ft. square, and, according to Fergtisson, 45 ft. th. The upper storeys or stages receded back, ,one behind the iier, so as to leave a terrace all round, Although it is not possible trace more than four storeys, it is known from the description on a linder found on the site that there were seven storeys, dedicated the planets, each colored with the special tint prescribed. The tal height was about 160 ft., and on the top was a shrine dedicated the god Nebo. An invaluable record of, the researches which ye been made during the last three centuries or more is given in V. Hilprechts Explorations in Bible Lands during the 19th Century. co or three of them might be mentioned here. At Warka Mr snneth Loftus uncovered a wall, strengthened by buttresses 15 ft. de and projecting 18 in,, between which were panels filled with a -ies of semicircular shafts side by side, both buttresses and shafts ing decorated with geometrical patterns consisting of small rthenware cones embedded in the wall, the ends of which were amelled in various colors. The design of these patterns is so like anything found in Assyrian work, but bears so close a resemince to the geometrical designs carved on the columns at Diarbekr :ribed to the Parthians, that this wall may have been built at a ich later period; and this becomes the more probable in view the discoveries made subsequently at Tello and Nippur, where .rthian palaces have been found, crowning the summits of the cient Chaldaean mounds, In both these towns the researches ide in later years have been carried otit far more methodically an previously, and, following the example of Schliemann, excavans have been made to great depths, caref iii notes being taken of strata shown by the platforms at different levels. At Tello, de rzac discovered the magnificent collection of statues of diorite w in the Louvre, one of them (unfortunately headless) of Gudea, iest-king and architect of Lagash, seated and carrying on his lap tablet, on which is engraved the plan of a fortified enclosure, iilst a divided scale and a stylos are carved in relief near the upper d right-hand side. A silver inlaid vase of Entemena, also priestig of Lagash (about 3950 B.C.), and other treasures, were found on same site, --~y~.-.~...--~ ~,,--.,--,-.-~J,

gurat dated from 4000-4500 B.C., of a barrel-vaulted tunnel, in det floor of which were found terra-cotta drain pipes with flanged in uths- At a later date (3750 nc.) Naram-Sin, the son of Sargon, dec :1 built over the older ziggurat a loftier and larger temple, above not ich was a third built by lJr Gur (2500 B.C.), which still retained wic burnt brick Casing, 5 ft. thick. Crowning all these was the imi rthian palace mentioned in the sectioo on Parthian architecture ow. The result of these researches has not only carried back the te of the earlier settlements to a prehistoric period quite unknown, has suggested that if similar researches are carried out in other Il-known mounds, among which the great city of Babylon should counted as the most important, further revelations may still made.

But we have now to pass to the principal cities of the Assyrian narchv on the river Tigris. At Nineveh, the capital, which is ut 250 m. north of Babylon, the remains of three palaces have m found, those of Sennacherib (705681 B.C.), Esarhaddon (68 1 BC-), and Assurbanipal (668626 B.C.). At Nimrud (the ancient ~J1TThIM 1~

up. ~

4.J4 ~

__ ttifi __

} ~:

_ I

prom TJ~e History a) Art in Chatdaea and Assyria, by permission of Chapman hail, Lid, FIG. 8.Plan of the Palace at Khorsabad.

A, Principal courtyard. E, Official residences.

B, The harem. F, The kings residence.

C, The offices, G, The ziggurat or t~mple.

DD, The halls of state.

lah, founded by Assur), 20 m. south of Nineveh, are also three laces, one (the earliest known) built by Assurnazirpal (885860 :.), the others by Shalmaneser II. (860825 ac.) and Esarhaddon. Balawat, 10 m. east of Nineveh, was a second palace of Shalfneser II., and at Khorsahad, 10 m. north-east of Nineveh, the lace (fig. 8) built by Sargon 722705 nc.), which was situated on 1 banks of the Khanscr, a tributary of the Tigris. As this palace one of the most extensive of those hitherto explored, its descripm will best give the general idea of the plan and conception of an syrian palace.

The palace was built on an immense platform, made of sun-dried icks, enclosed in masonry, and covering an area of nearly one)nt of the palace measured 900 ft., there being a terrace in front. ie approach was probably by a double inclined ramp which chariots d hoises could mount. A central and two side portals (fig. 9), nked with winged human-headed bulls (now in the British ha useum), led to the principal courtyard (A), measuring 300 ft. by Wt o ft. The block (B) on the left of the court, containing smaller or urts and rooms, constituted the harem; that on the right the be ices (C); those in the rear the halls of state (DDD), the residences fit the officers of the court (E), the kings private apartments (F) ac ing on the left, facing the ziggurat or temple (G). In the extreme fo ir were other state rooms with terraces probably laid out as in ,rdens and commanding a view of the river and country beyond. in U,- ~ ~UU~ ~,U ~

srmine, it will be sufficient to refer only to those state rooms which the principal sculptured slabs were found, and which orated the lower 9 ft. of the walls. The two chief factors to be ed are (1) the great length of the halls compared with their th, the chief hall being 150 ft. long and 30 ft. wide, and (2) the nense thickness of the walls, which measured 28 ft. The only :~~ ~ ki:Engels I

I ~ I~I

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I I i HI ~ -~

FIG. 9,Entrance gateway, Palace of Khorsabad.

son for walls of this thickness would be to resist the thrust of a fit, and as La Place, the French explorer, found many blocks of th of great size, the soffits of which were covered with stucco and I apparently fallen from a height, he was led to the conclusion, v generally accepted, that these halls were vaulted. These discries, and the fact that in none of the palaces excavated has a ~le foundation of the base of any column been found, quite dispose Fergussons restoration, which was based on the palaces of sepolis. Moreover, the two climates are entirely different. In mountainous country of Persia the breezes might be welcomed, in Mesopotamia the heat is so intense that every precaution FIG. fo.Bas-relief of group of buildings at Kuyunjik. (After Layard.)

s to be taken to protect the inmates of the house or palace. Thick us and vaults were a necessity in Nineveh, and even the windows openings must have been of small dimensions. No windows have ~n found, nor are any shown on the bas-reliefs, except on the per parts of towers. It is possible therefore that the light was mitted through terra-cotta pipes or cylinders, of which many were md on the site, and this is the modern system of lighting the dome the East. Although no remains have ever been found of domes any of the Assyrian palaces, the representation of many domical Reference has already beerrm~de to the bas-reliefs which decorated th e lower portion of the great halls; the less important rooms had as eir walls covered with stucco and painted. Externally the archi- co :tural deccration was of the simplest kind; the lower portion of an e walls was faced with stone; and the monumental portals, in bt dition to the winged bulls which flanked them, had deep archivolts in colored enamels on glazed brick, with figures and rosettes in di ight colors. A similar decoration would seem to have been X plied to the crenellated battlements, which crowned all the ca tenor walls, as also those of the courts. The buttresses inside the ru urts, and the towers which flanked the chief entrance, were th corated with vertical semicircular mouldings of brick. This of stem of decoration is also found in the ziggurats or observatories es hind the harem, where the three lower storeys still exist. A A1 nding ramp was carried round this tower, the storeys of which Ire set back one behind the other, the burnt brick paving of the be I) ii.

Ii / \_.


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/ ___

rT _____

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I ~~-y~-misrt .. ..~ .

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rnp and the crenellated battlements forming a parapet, portions ho which are still in situ. cei Although not unknown in either Chaldaea or Assyria, the stone co luinn, according to Perrot and Chipiez, found no place in those sic uctures of crude brick of which the real architecture of Mesopoaiia consisted. Only one example in stone, in which the shaft and St pita! together are 3 ft. 4 in. in height, has been found. Two bases sq similar design to the capital are supposed to have supported Sn oden columns carrying an awning. There are representations in th I bas-reliefs of kiosks in a garden, the columns in which, with at lute capitals, are supposed to have been of wood sheathed in Wi ital, and on the bronze bands of the Balawat gates in the British on useum are representations of the interior of a house with wood lumns and bracket capitals, and several awnings carried by posts. Pc naIl windows are shown in some of the bas-reliefs, with H lustrades of small columns, which were doubtless copied from ro e, ivory plaques found at Nimrud and now in the British pa useum. (R. P. S.) dr PERSIAN ARCEITEcTIJRE

The origin of Persian architecture must be sought for in that of the sh 0 earlier dynasties,the Assyrian and Median, to whose empire of mer, it borrowed the raised platform on which their palaces were a .ilt, the broad flights of steps leading up to them and the winged 22

portiCoes0f the palaces, so clearly described by Polybius (x. 24) existing at Ecbatana; the principal difference being that the umns of the stoas and peristyle, which there consisted of cedar d cypress covered with silver plates, were in the Persian palaces ilt of stone. The ephemeral nature of the one material, and the rinsic value of the other, are sufficient to account for their entire appearance; but as Ecbatana was occupied by Darius and rxes as one of their principal cities, the stone column, bases and Ditals, which still exist there, may be regarded as part of the toration and rebuilding of the palace; and as they are similar to)se found at Persepolis and Susa, it is fair to assume that the source the first inspiration of Persian architecture came from the Medians, iecially as Cyrus, the first king, wasbrought up at the court of tyages, the last Median monarch.

rhe earliest Persian palace, of which but scanty remains have In found, was built at Pasargadae by Cyrus. There is sufficient, ~ Plan of Persepoli~

Reference A. The Great Staircase B. Propylon _____ C. TheGreatPalaceofXerxes ~ D.Palaceof Darius E. Palace of Xerxes :: F. Second Propylort G. Palace of ioo columns H. Small Palace _-_r-T~.,?~z~9O Feet ~ever, to show that it was of the simplest kind, and consisted of a itral ball, the roof of which was carried by two rows of stone umfls, 30 ft. high, and porticoes in antis on two if not on three Cs.

rhe great platform, also at Pasargadae, known as the Takht-ileiman, or throne of Solomon, covered an area of about 40,000 ft., and is remarkable for the beauty of its masonry and the large nes of which it is built. These are all sunk round the edge, bein 1 earliest example of what is known as drafted masonry, whic Jerusalem and I-Iebron gives so magnificent an effect to the great lls of the temple enclosures. No remains have ever been traced this platform of the palace which it was probably built to support. We pass on therefore to Persepolis, the most important of the rsian cities, if we may judge by the remains still existing there. ~re, as at Pasargadae, builders availed themsel~es of a natural :ky platform, at the foot of a range of hills, which they raised in rts and enclosed with a stone wall. Here the masonry is not if ted, and the stones are not always laid in horizontal courses, t they are shaped and fitted to one another with the greatest ~uracy, and are secured by metal clamps. The plan (fig. II) sws the general configuration of the platform on which the palaces Persepolis are built, which covered an area of about 1,600,000 ft. The principal approach to it was at the north-west end, up nagnificent flight of steps (A) with a double ramp, the steps being ft. wide, with a tread of 15 in. and a rise of 4, so that they could be - .-.-- ~- ~J F-FJ- \-J,

Lumns carrying the roof and with portals in the front and rear br nked by winged bulls. The earliest palace on the platform (D) of that which was built by Darius, 521 ac. It Was rectangular on col in, raised on a platform approached by two flights of steps, and arc risisted of an entrance portico of eight columns, in two rows of th~ ir placed in antis, between square chambers, in which were prob- oti ly staircases leading to the roof. This portico led to the great hail, irare on plan, whose roof was carried by sixteen columns in four of ws. This hail was lighted by two windows on each side of the th ritral doorway, all of which, being in stone, still exist, the lintels pr d jambs of both doors and windows being monolithic. The walls ph tween these features, having been built in unburnt brick, or in wa bble masonry with clay mortar, have long since disappeared. th~ iere were other rooms on each side of the hall and an open court in)~I ~

I ~j ~ - _______________________________ (I II

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- - --- - 5./ of ~ J~:(~ ~o, 2.12.The Tomb of Darius, cut in the cliff at Nakshi Rustam, an near Persepolis. OP

iresented on the tomb of Darius (fig. 12) and other tombs carved the rock near Persepolis (qv.), there is no difficulty in forming a ny accurate conjectural restoration of the same. In the repreItation of this palace, as shown on the tomb, and above the portico, been sculptured the great throne of Darius, on which he sat, ba idering adoration to the Sun god. an 1d1 the other palaces on the site, built or added to by various mi inarchs and at different periods, preserve very much the same in, consisting always of a great square hall, the roof of which was arc Tied by columns, with one or more porticoes round, and smaller Eg ~ms and courts in the rear. In one of the palaces (G) the roof was ear -ned by 100 columns in ten rows of ten each. The most important sei ilding, however, and one which from its extent, height and magnifi- va Ice, is one of the most stupendous works of antiquity, is the great thi Lace of Xerxes (C), which, though it consists only of a great central Cr LI and three porticoes, covered an area of over 1o0,ooo sq. ft., an ater than any European cathedral, those of Milan and St Peters wa Rome alone excepted. we It was built on a platform raised 1o ft. above the terrace and str proached by four flights of steps on the north side, the principal str trance. The columns of the porticoes and of the great hall were tin ft. high, including base and capital. In the east and west porticoes we 1 capitals consist only of the double bull or griffin; the cross bels on their backs, similar to those shown on the tomb of Darius, C~ ye disappeared, being probably in wood. In the north or entrance ag Ic capitals set c~n end, and belo; that th~ calix and penct~nt leaves he lotus plant. It can only be supposed that Xerxes, thinking the Limns of the east portico required more decoration, instructed his hitects to add some to those of the entrance portico and hall, and .t they copied some of the spoils brought from Branchidae and .ers from Egypt.

rig. 13 shows the plan of the palace according to the researches ~Vlr Weld Blundell, who found the traces of the walls surrounding great hail and of the square chambers at the angles, and also ved that the lines of the drains as shown in Costes and Texiers ns were incorrect. M. Dieulafoy also traced the existence of portico which stopped on the lines of the wall. The plan of IT ~ ml ~ ~L-~b. _. .

e~ ~ ~ ~ Mc ~ Md ~fl ~l~II

a s ~ 5~ ~o z~o sfx~feet rom R. P. Spierss Architecture, East and West.

FIG. 13.Plan of the Hall of Xerxes.

palace at Susa was similar to that of the palace of Xerxes, :ept that on the side facing the garden facing south the apadana throne room was left open. M. Dieulafoys discoveries at Susa the frieze of archers, the frieze of the lions, and other decorations the walls flanking the staircase, all executed in bright colored imels on concrete blocks, revealed the exceptional beauty of the :oration both externally and internally applied to the Persian aces.

ribs; to those cut in the solid rock, of which there are some imples, we have already referred. The most ancient tomb is that cted to Cyrus the Elder at Pasargadae, and consists of a small me or celia in masonry raised on a series of steps, inspired (accordto Fergusson) by the xiggurat or terrace-temples of Assyria, on a small scale. The tomb was surrounded on three sides by ticoes of columns. There are two other tombs, one at Persepolis I one at Pasargadaesmall square towers with an entrance ining high up on one side, sunk panels in the stone, and a dentil nice, copied from early bonian buildings. (R. P. S.)


rehistoric Period.We have now to retrace our steps and go :k to the prehistoric period of Greek architecture, to the origin I early development of that style which sowed the seed and deteried the future form and growth of all subsequent European art. hitecture owes much less than was at one time supposed to yptian and Chaldaean architecture; and although from very ly times there may have been a commercial exchange between the eral countries, the objects imported suggested only new and ious schemes of decorative design, and exercised no influence on development of architectural style. The remains of the palace at ossus in Crete, together with the representations in fresco painting I other decorative objects, show that whilst the lower part of the ~ether, under one roof and in proper and regular intercommunica- I Itt n, of the numerous services, which in a palace are somewhat p0 iiplicated. The palace measured about 400 ft. square, and was pr ilt round an open court, nearly 200 ft. long by 90 ft. wide; as the p11 lie arrangement was found at Phaestus, excavated by the Italian th :haeologists, it may be assumed to have been the Cretan plan. re] was built on the crest of a hill, and in the western or highest portion of .s the court entrance from the agora to the megaron or throne- co m, and the halls of the officers of the state. In the lower portion wi ting the east (the rooms in which were two storeys below the level ep the court on account of the slope of the hill) was the private suite m, apartments of the king and queen. All tile services of the palace an re at the north end of tile palace, where the entrance gateway an the central court was situated. This northern entrance, Dr ha -ans points out, represents the main point of intercourse di tween the palace and the city on the one hand and the port on the sa her. This is the only part of the palace in which there is evidence en sonic kind of fortification, as the road of access is dominated by a of wer or bastion. Other provisions also in the plan of the western wt trance suggest that its passage was guarded to so~ne extent. In re is respect tile palace of Tiryns, excavated by Dr Schliemann, of esents an entirely different aspect; the whole stronghold bears a se igular resemblance to a fortified castle of the middle ages; a th ~h wall from 24 to 50 ft. thick surrounded the acropolis, and the of aimed paths of approach and the double gateways gave that it otection at .Tiryns which at Cnossus was assured, as Dr Evans in marks, by the bulwarks of the Minoan navy. The area on the spur gf the hill, on which the citadel of Tiryns was placed, was very much of ialler, but if we accept the forecourt at Tiryns as equivalent to fo e great central court at Cnossus, there are great similarities in in e plans of the two palaces. The propylaea, the altar court, the S:

rtico, and the megaron are found in both, and those details which lii e mms~ing in the one are found in the other. The discoveries at pm -lossus have enabled Dr Evaos to reconstitute the timber columns, al which the bases only were found at Tiryns, and the spur walls of sc e portico of the megaron and the sills of the doorways at Tiryns in s-c some clue to the restoration of similar features at Cnossus; ti d if in the latter palace we find the origin of the Doric column, at C(ryns is found that of the antae and of the door linings, further bstantiated by the careful analysis macic by Dr Dorpfeld of the A rraeurn at Olympia. t The reconstruction by Dr Evans of the timber columns at Cnossus, tc Etich tapered from the top downwards, the lower diameter being cc tout six-sevenths of the upper, has little historical importance (see nt EiDER), so that we may now pass on to the next early monument p~ importance, the tomb of Agamemnon, the principal and the best C eserved of the beehive tombs found at Mycenae and in other parts la Greece. This tomb consists of three parts, the dromos or open at trance passage, the tholos or circular portion domed over, and a n saIler chamber excavated in the rock and entered from the larger a Ic. The tomb was subterranean, the masonry being concealed t, tneath a large mound of earth. The domed part, 48 ft. 6 in. in d ameter and 45 ft. high, is built in horizontal courses of stone, 0

hich project one over the other till they meet at the top. Subse- a iently the projecting edges were dressed clown, so that the section q trough the dome is nearly that of an equilateral triangle. Notwith- j anding the great thickness of the lintel (3 ft.) over the entrance h)orway, the Mycenaeans left a triangular void over, to take off the ij iperincumbent weight, subsequently (it is supposed) filled with f~

ulpture, as in the Lions Gate at Mycenae. The doorway was t~

inked by semi-detached columns 20 ft. high, the shafts of which si pered downwards like those reconstituted at Cnossus; - the shafts 0

sted on a base of three steps, and carried a capital with echinus ti Id abacus. These shafts carried a lintel which has now dis- s Ipeared; the wall above was set back, and was at one time faced ith stone slabs carved with spiral and other patterns, of which there 0

v fragments in various museums, the most important remains being 12

lose of the shafts, of which the greater part, which was brought ti far to England in the beginning of the 19th century by the 2nd St arquess of Sligo, was presented by the 5th marquess to the British b luseum in 1905. These shafts, as also the echinus moulding of the g ipitals, are richly carved with the chevron and spirals, probably 0

)pied from the brass sheathing of wood columns and doorways mferred to by Homer. ft The Archaic Period.The buildings just referred to belong to 0

hat is known as the prehistoric age in Greece; the dispersion of the F

ibes by invaders from the north about 1100 n.e. destroyed the ii Iycenaean civilization, and some centuries have to pass before we mach the results of the new development. Among the invaders the 0

~orians would seem to have been the chief leaders, who eventually ~

ecame supreme. They brought with them from Olympus the p orship of Apollo, so that henceforth the sanctuary of the god takes a so place of the megaron of the king. From Greece the Dorians c Iread their colonies through the Greek islands and southern Italy. tater they passed on to Sicily and founded Syracuse, and subse- t uently Selinus and Agrigentum (Acragas). The prosperity of all ~

iese colonies is shown in the splendid temples which they built in tone, the remains of many of which have lasted to our day.

plan (fig. I 4) shows that tlie eiclosure of the sanctuary and its ticoes in a peristyle had already been found necessary, if only to)tect the walls of the celia, built in unburnt brick on a stone nth; further, that the antae of the portico and the dressings of entrance were in wood; and, following Pausanias statement ative to the wood column in the opisthodomos, all the columns the peristyle were in that material, gradually replaced by stone umns as theydecayed, evidenced by thecharacterof theircapitais, ich in style date from the 6th century B.C. to Roman times. The iemeral nature of the iterials employed in this ~-

ci other early temples, ~~ ~

ci the risk of fire, must ~ ~ WL_l!JJ ye naturally led to the A sire to render the Greek ,, -~

ictuaries more perman- - a -

by the employment j ,~~- -

stone. But the Greeks ~

re always timid as - D -

~ards the bearing value that material, and would ___________

mm to have imagined - ~ 14 I -

at unless the blocks were ~p) ~~%1/2Wr1

megalithic dimensions - - -

was impossible to build -

stone. This may be l t thered from the remains - - -

the earliest example ~ -

and, the temple of Apollo. I

the island of Ortygia, - -

racuse, where the mono- ~ c h columns had widely A - A

ojecting capitals, the - -

ad of which were set. /

close together that the 1 -

tercolumniation was less. -

an one diameter of the ~ - .

lumn. - -

Following the temple of -~ ,~ -

?ollo at Syracuse is the mple of Corinth, ascribed l~ -

650 B.C., of which seven ~.

lumns remain in situ, all ,~

onoliths, and the Olym- ~ - -

eum at Syracuse. Nearlyg~ ~j I

ntemporary with then I

tter is one of the tempies~L -

Selinus in Sicily, 63o B -

c., remarkable for the ~ I ~ I -

chaic nature of its scuip- ~ red metopes. Of later ~ A

ite there are five or six her temples in Sehinus, ~ ~ ~ I I

I overthrown by earth- ~-~ .--~-~--

iakes; the temple of S~e of Feet thena at Syracuse, which ,~.L.2 ~ ? ~ ~

wing been converted From Curtius and Adlers Olympia, by permisston to a church is in fair pre- ~ Beh,rend & Co.

rvation; an unfinished FIG. 14.Plan of the Heraeum. mple at Segesta; and A, Peristyle; B, Pronaos; C, Naos; mc at Agrigentum, built D, Opisthodomus; E Base of statue 1 the brow of a bill facing of Hermes.

Ic sea, one of which was large that it was necessary to build in walls between the columns. In Magna Graecia, in the acropolis at Tarentum, are the remains a 7th century temple and three at Paestum about a century ter in date. In one of these, the temple of Poseidon (figs. 15 and 16) te columns which carried the ceiling and roof over the celia are still anding; these are in two stages superimposed with an architrave mtween them, and although there are no traces in this instance of a illery, they serve to render more intelligible Pausanias description - that which existed in the temple of Zeus at Olympia.

The temple of Assus in Asia Minor is an early example remarkable r its sculptured architrave, the only one known, and in the temple - Aphaea in Aegina we find the immediate predecessor of the arthenon, if we may judge by its sculpture and the proportions of s columns.

So far we have only referred to the early temples of the Done der; of the origin and development of those of the Ionic order ,r less is known. The earliest examples are those of the temple of polio at Naucratis in Egypt, and of the archaic temple of Diana Ephesus, both about 560 B.C. The remains of the latter, diswered by Wood, are now in the British Museum; they consist of ro capitals, one with a portion of a shaft in good preservation; ie sculptured drum and the base of one of the columns, inscribed ith the name of Croesus, who is known to have it; ~-~k ~ J~~&~5 ~J ~

hing the cornice and architraves, and in the Naxian votive column be have another early example of an early voluted capital., cci The tombs of Tantalais, near Smyrna, and of Alyattes, near Sardis, WI long to the same date as those we shall find in Etruria. The ea~ arpy tomb, now in the British Museum, built after 547 B.C., is the fla edecessor of many other Lycian tombs of the 5th and 4th centuries, an which we return. hu As already pointed out, in the temple of Hera at Olympia (roth of nturv nc.), we find the complete plan of an hexastyle peripteral -eek temple, where columns originally in wood supported a wood sit ~hitrave and superstructure protected by terra-cotta plaques and TI 2fed over with tiles. The temple of Apollo at Syracuse, and the of nple at Corinth (7th century nc.) represent the earliest examples Wa stone, and in the temple of Poseidon at Paestum (6th century) lea a preserved the columns of the cella which carried the ceiling and ha roof. The structural development pO therefore of the temple was corn- wc pleted, and no great constructional Wi ____________ after 550 B.C. The next century w ~ ____________ i. improvements reveal themselves oh directed to the beautifying and sta - fl would seem to have been chiefly TI

_______ p refining of the features already prescribed, and it was the tradi- of ~~-.-~.11~ ~ tional respect for, and the con- pr~

servative adherence to, the older kn ivpe, which led the architects to g the production of such master .1 L; pieces as the Parthenon and the I Erechtheum, which wotild have - been impossible but forthecareful iZ~ and logical progression of pre ~ ~g ceding centuries.

~ a The Parthenon (g.e.) at Athens I I ~ represents the highest type of ception but in its realization. It ~ perfection, not only in its con ~ i L I is only necessary here to give a general description. It was 1 f~ ~ L designed by Ictinus in collabora ~ i1----~ ~

tion with Calhicrates, and built on the south side of the Acropolis on a foundation carried down to the solid rock. The temple, corn- ~

Li menced in 454 ii.C. and completed in 438 B.C., was of the Done order and raised on a stylobate of three steps; it had eight columns in 1

front and rear and was surrounded 1G. 15.Plan of theTempleof bya peristyle, there being twenty Poseidon at Paestum. columns on the flanks. It con tained two divisions; the eastern fre amber was originally known as the Hekatompedos (temple tei iou ft.), that being the dimension of the celIa of the ancient nple which it was built to replace. The chamber on the western wa e was called the Parthenon (i.e. chamber of the virgin), in the principal lines of the building had delicate curves. The be tablature rose about 3 in. in the middle to correct an optical rd isbn caused by the sloping lines of the pediment, which gave to cd horizontal cornice the appearance of having sunk in the centre. pr te stylobate had therefore to be similarly curved so that the an ,umns should be all of the same height. The columns are not all so uidistant, those nearer the angle being closer together than the wi sers, which gave a greater appearance of strength to the temple; ca ,s was increased by a slight inclination inwards of all the columns. co order to correct another optical illusion, which causes the shaft of th olumn, when it diminishes as it rises, and is formed with absolute Pa aight lines, to appear hollow or concave, an increment known as entasis was given to the column, about one-third up the shaft, be te columns were not monoliths, like those of the earliest stone nples mentioned above; they were built in several drums, so th sely fitted together that the joint would be imperceptible but for 18 slight discoloration of the marble. The setting of the lowest of am of these columns on the curved stylobate, with the slight to :hination of the column, must have been a work of an extra- at hoary nature, only possible with such a material as Pentelic tb irbie. The celIa or naos was built to enshrine the chryselephantine itue of Athena by Pheidias. In order to carry the ceiling and roof Pa Ire was a range of columns on each side of the celIa returning ch ,ind the end. These columns probably carried an upper range as an the temple of Poseidon at Paestum. The tympana of the two (a dirnents and all the metopes were enriched with the finest sculpture, vi~ d were realized, designed, and executed by Pheidias and his pupils. wa the upper part of the celia wall and under the peristyle was the sti ,nathenaic frieze, of which, as also of the other sculptures, the itish Museum possesses the finest examples. at The Propvlaea (q.v.), designed by Mnesicles and built 437432 B.C., tb s the only entrance to the Acropolis. It was of the Done order, an ists for sacrifices ascended. The columns carrying the marble hing of the vestibule were of the ionic order; beyond them the 11 was pierced by three doorways, and on the other side and facing t was another portico of six columns. The front entrance was ~ked on the left hand by a chamber known as the Pinacotheca, lhe Erechtheum on the north side of the Acropolis occupied the of three older shrines, which may account for its irregular plan. e eastern portion was the temple of Athena Polias, with a portico dx columns of the Ionic order. At a lower level on the north side s a portico of six columns (four in front and two at the sides) cling to the shrine of Erechtheus; the west front of this shrine 1 originally a frontispiece of four columns in antis raised on a hum; subsequently during the Roman occupation these columns re taken down and reproduced as semi-detached columns with idows between. On the west side was a court in which was the ye tree and the shrine of Pandrosus (Pandroseion). At the southit angle was the well-known portico or tribune of the Caryatides. crc was a small entrance through the podium at the side, and irs leading down to the shrine of Erechtheus.

Nik Apteros, raised on a lofty substructure south-west of the ~pylaea. It also was of the Ionic order, and belonged to the type wn as amphiprostyle, with a portico of four columns in the L.IIIl~~ ~ Iii~~it ~

I I ~ JilI~~ -i III ~~iiqJ- .~jl I ~ 11 ~ - - ~ ~~)J~j iI~

L1Engelsl1-i ~ ~ ~; iF.~HI..=. II l~ II~ ~Itl i -..-i - - -.

~ ~~I

.~ -.-- ~ -. ~~- ~

iI,,i~, l,y it r_,

FIG. i6.Temple of Poseidon at Paestun.

nt and rear but no peristyle. The term apteros applied to the aple and not to the goddess of victory.

~n 430 nc., shortly after the completion of the Parthenon, Ictinus s employed to design the temple of Apollo Epicunius, at Bassae, Arcadia. This temple externally was of the Done order, but, ng built in local stone, no attempt was made to introduce those Lnements which are found in the Parthenon, In the rear of the Ia is a second sanctuary with a doorway facing east; it was bably the site of an ancient temple which had to be preserved, I this may account for the fact that the temple runs north and ith. The celia is flanked by five columns of the Ionic order ich are connected by spur walls to the celia wall. These columns ~y an architrave, frieze richly sculptured with figure subjects, nice and wall above rising to the roof. There was no ceiling trefore, and the interior was probably lighted through pierced nan marble tiles, of which three examples were found. The rinthian capital found on the site is supposed by Cockerell to have onged to the shaft between the two cellas.

rhe same architect, Ictinus, was employed in 420 B.C. to rebuild hall of the mysteries at Eleusis on a larger scale. The hail was ft. square, and its ceiling and roof were carried byseven rows columns with six in each row. The propylaea, which gave access the sacred enclosure at Eleusis, was copied from the propylaea Athens. The so-called lesser propyiaea had some connection with, mysteries.

rthenon, being nearly contemporaneous, built to enshrine a second yselephantine statue by Pheidias, and in plan having a similar angement of columns inside the celia; the lower range of columns cording to Pausanias) supported a gallery round, so that privileged itors could approach nearer to the statue. The temple, however, s built in the local conglomerate stone covered with a thin coat of ceo and painted.

)f circular temples there are two examples known, the Phihippeion Olympia and the Tholos at Epidaurus. The latter had, inside celia, a penistyle of Corinthian columns, the capitals of which of great beauty and represent in their design the transition In the sacred enclosures of the Greek sanctuaries were other be taller temples or shrines, altars, statues and treasuries, the latter at ing built by the various Cities, from which pilgrimages were made, contain their treasures. At Olympia there were ten or eleven, th~ I remains of some of which are of great interest. Of the treasury ha the Cnidians at Delphi, discovered by the French, so much has (fi1 en found that it has been possible to evolve a complete conjectural an ,toration in plaster, now in the Louvre. Its sculpture and the rich ro rving of its architectural features show that it was lonian in de aracter. In front was a portico-in-antis, in which the caryatide ures standing on pedestals took the place of columns. These are Er 1 earliest examples known of caryatide figures, and they precede co ~se of the Erechtheum by about a century. at The most important temple in Asia Minor was the temple of Diana rtemis) at Ephesus (356334 n.c.). The archaic temple was burnt th 356, and was immediately rebuilt with greater splendour from the bu signs of Paeonius. The site of the temple was discovered by Wood wa 1869, and the remains brought over to the British Museum in th 75. There were 100 columns, 36 of which (according to Pliny) an re sculptured, and it was probably on account of the magnificence the sculpture that this temple was included among the seven ha nders of the world. The sculptured bases are of two kinds, oc uare and circular, in the latter case being the lower drums of the lumns. Examples of both are in the British Museum, and several an ~2Engels(

~ ~~iili __________ _____ ____ th _________ 4

____________ sh ______ 0eV TI

______ .... I

/ Sir FId. 17.Lycian Tomb of Telmessus.

njectural restorations have been made, among which that of Dr S. Murray has been generally accepted, but recent researches be ?05) suggest that it remains still an unsolved problem. WI The temple of Apollo Didymaeus, near Miletus, was the largest of n~ple in Asia Minor, and its erection followed that of the temple ret Ephesus, Paeonius and Daphnis of Miletus being the architects. sq ie temple was decastyle, dipteral, with pronaos and vestibule, th :t no opisthodomos. The celia was so wide (75 ft.) that it remained WI en to the sky. The bases of the columns were elaborately carved gr th ornament, as if in rivalry with the temple of Diana. Both these W rnples were of the Ionic order, as also were those of Athena Polias lai Priene (340 B.C.), many of the capitals of which are in the British co useum, and the temples of Aphrodite at Aphrodisias and Cybele at co rdis. fr The mausoleum at Halicarnassus, also of the Ionic order, built by de ieen Artemisia in memory of her husband Mausolus, who died in gr 3 B.C., was, according to Pliny, recorded as one of the seven wonders an the world, probably on account of the eminence of the sculptors bt iployed, Bryaxis, Leochares, Timotheus, Scopas and Pythius. di mys description is somewhat vague, so that its actual design is w~ prcblem not yet solved. Professor Cockereils restoration rs in th cord with the description, but does not quite agree with the actual wi nains brought over by Newton and deposited in the British nc useum. If the Nereid monument and the tombs at Cnidus and th ylasa be taken as suggesting the design, the peristyle (pteron) of su irty-six columns of the Ionic order with entablature stood on a wi ty podium, richly decorated with bands of sculpture, and was be)wned by a pyramid which, according to Pliny, contracted itself be twenty-tour steps into the summit of a meta. The steps found so 1 not high enough to constitute a meta, and it is possible therefore foi at, accordrng to Mr J. J. Stevenson, these steps were over the fla rrstyle only, and that the lofty steps which constituted the meta th n demonstrated by the discovery of the marble sarcophagi found Sidon by Hamdi Bey and now in the museum at Constantinople. rock in the south of Asia Minor, are copies of timber structures, ted on the stone architecture of the neighboring Greek cities :. 17). The Paiafaor Payava tomb (375362 B.C.),foundatXanthus I now in the British Museum, is apparently a copy, cut in the solid k, of a portable shrine, in which the wood construction is clearly med.

iapitals of the Greek Corinthian order have been found at Bassae, idaurus, Olympia and Mile~us, but the earliest example of the nplete order is represented in the Choragic monument of Lysicrates Athens.

tt of the temple of Jupiter Olympius at Athens, begun in 174 B.C., not completed till the time of Hadrian, A.D. 117. The temple S 135 ft. wide and 354 ft. long, built entirely in Pentelic marble, columns being 56 ft. high. There were eight columns in front I a double peristyle round.

(c. 75 B.C.) :1 Corinthian capitals. The upper part of the tower, which was ,agonal in plan, was sculptured with figures representing the winds. I unpretentious, but the palace near Palatitza in Macedonia, covered by Messrs Heuzey and Daumet, would seem to have ~n of a very sumptuous character. The front of the palace asured 250 ft. In the centre was a vestibule flanked with Ionic umns on either side, leading to a throne room at one time richly ~orated with marble, and with numerous other halls on either side. e date is ascribed to the middle 9f the 4th century B.C.

aftsbetwee~i ~heentrancedoorways,whichhadsemicircularheads, e;i ery third voussoir of the three larger doors being decorated by (fi1 sts in strong relief with a headgear similar to that shown on In irthian coins; other carvings, with the acanthus leaf, belonged to di, at type of Syrio-Greek work, of which Loftds found so many en Soale of Pee, (b, *0~? 0 00 3~ 40 SO br FIG. 1g.Portion of front of Palace of el Hadr. bu amples at Warka (Loftus, Chaldaea, Susiana, p. 225). In the great ,sque of Diarbekr are two wings at the north and south ends ba Spectively, which are said to have been Parthian palaces built by tn granes, 74 B.C.; they have evidently been rearranged or rebuilt As various times, the columns with their capitals and the entablature rer ving been utilized again. The shafts of the columns of the upper v~ rey are richly carved with geometrical patterns similar to those md by Loftus at Warka.

The American researches at Nippur have resulted in the discovery the top of the mounds of the remains of a Parthian palace; and 1 disposition of its plan (fig. 20), and the style of the columns of I-i-j~

rom Prof. H. V. Hilprechts Explora!ion in Bible Lands by permission of on J. Holman & Co. and T. & T. clark. ~i FIG. 20.Plan of the Parthian Palace at Nippur. th Rilar palace was discovered at Tello by the French archaeo- ca ~ists, and the bases of some of the brick columns are in the op uvre. (R. P. S.) all SASSANIAN ARCHITECTURE as Although, on the overthrow of the Parthian dynasty in A.D. 226, is I monarchs of the Sassanian dynasty succeeded to the immense mi rthian empire, the earliest building found, according to Fergusson, th that at Serbistan, to which he ascribes the date AD. 380. The m~ lace (fig. 21), which measures 130 ft. frontage and 143 ft. deep, ex th an internal court, shows so great an advance in the arrange- nc nts of its plan as to suggest considerable acquaintance with su iman work. The fine ashlar work of el-Hadr is no longer adhered de and in its place we find rubble masonry with thick mortar joints, ta 1 walls being covered afterwards, both externally and internally, wi ~,h stucco. While the barrel vault is still retained for the chief tel trance porches, it is of elliptical section, and the central hall is pa vered with a dome, a feature probably handed down from the of syrians, such as is shown in the bas-relief (fig. io) from Kuyunjik, th w in the British Museum. In order to carry a dome, circular on du in, over a square hall, it was necessary to arch across the angles, co:

d here to a certain extent the Sassanians were at fault, as they wc ellent tenacious pro;erties, these pendentive~ still remain in sit;. 22), and their defects were probably hidden under the stucco.

the halls which flank the building on either side, however, they played considerable knowledge of construction. Instead of having rmously thick walls to resist the thrust of their vaults, to which have already drawn attention in the Assynian work and at el dr, they built piers at intervals, covering over the spaces between rn, with semi-domes on which the walls carrying the vaults are iported, so that they lessened the span of the vault and brought thrust well within the wall.

is, however, lessened the width :he hall, so they replaced the ,

rer portions of the piers by the Ope umns, leaving a passage round F i.~,

is possible that this idea was tly derived from the great n ourt man halls of the thermae iths), where the vault is, - ~

ught forward on columns; - ./ .

it was an improvement to D-(~ d ye a passage behind. The .~ ~

ptical sections given to all the -

rel vaults may have been the ditional method derived from Syria, of which, however, no Rains exist. In the article PIT therewill befoundareason Plan.


Section in lines BC, DE, FG of plan.

FIG. 21 and FIG. 22.The Palace of Serbistan.

y these elliptical sections were adopted (see also below in the;cniption of the great hall at Ctesiphon). In the palace of uzabad, attributed by Fergusson to Perz (Firuz) (A.D. 459 5), the plan (fig. 23) follows more closely the disposition of the Syrian palaces, and we return again to the thick walls, which ~ht incline us to give a later date to Serbistan, except that the pendentives carrying the three great domes in the centre the palace at Firuzabad they show greater knowledge their construction. The angles of the square hall are vaulted, :h a series of concentric arches, each ring as it rises being brought ward, the object being to save centreing, because each ring rested the ring beneath it. The plan is a rectangular parallelogram a frontage of 180 ft. and a depth of 333 ft., more than double, refore, of the size of Serbistan.

immense entrance hall in the itre of the main front is flanked 1 .... (each side by two halls placed at ht angles to it, so as to resist the ~ o e ust of the elliptical barrel vaults the entrance hall. This hall leads a series of three square halls, side. side, each surmounted by a dome ned on pendentives. Beyond is an) f. 0 In court, the smaller rooms round -

covered with baFrel vaults. Here, ..~ o in Serbistan, the material employed .~ a -.. --

rubble masonry with thick joints of rtar, and fortunately portions of A stucco with which this Sassanian .sonry was covered remain both - .. (;ernally and internally. As there are windows of any sort, the wall face of the exterior has been FIG.23.PtanofthePalace ~orated with semi - circular at- at Firuzabad.

hed shafts and panelling between, ich recall the primitive decorations found in the early Chaldaean spIes, except that arches are carried at the top across the sunk riels. Internally an attempt has been made to copy the decoration the Persian doorway, which represents a kind of renaissance of ancient style. But instead of the lintel the arch has been intro~ed, and the ornament in stucco representing the Persian cavetto nice shows imperfect knowledge of the original and is clumsily rked. The niches also, in the main front, have been copied from Lrpose.

It there has been some difficulty in determining the exact date of In ruzabad, that of the third great palace, at Ctesiphon, on the borders sti the Tigris, is known to have been built by Chosroes I. in AD. 550. of ving probably to its proximity to Bagdad, from which it lies about S~ m. distant, it is much better known than the other examples we de ye quoted; but while they are constructed in rubble masonry, nc :esiphon is built of brick, because we have now returned to the an uvial plain where no stone could be procured. The only portion 18 the palace which still exists is that which was built in burnt brick, d this far exceeds in dimensions Serbistan and Firuzabad. Its fin front measured 312 ft.; its height was about 115 ft.; and its h pth 175 ft. The plan is very simple, and consisted of an aiwan ~ immense hall, 86 ft. in width and 163 ft. long, covered with an iptical barrel vault, the thrust of which is counteracted by five ig halls on each side, also covered with barrel vaults and probably ed as guard chambers or stores. The great hall was open in the pe int, and constituted an immense portal, 83 ft. wide and 95 ft. to a crown of the arch. The springing of the vault is 40 ft. from the ar Dund, but up to about 26 ft. above the springing the walls are ut in horizontal courses projecting inwards as they rise, so that the ~t tual width of the ~aulted portion (fig. 24) has been diminished ~o - _-..~ a - - ~ - Vt ~~n- .~- ___ - -

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- _________________ tb Fr~,m Di fv~ L,trt _i niiq S ly p~rni~ iii f \!nI ci t~ ha Fu;. 24.The c;rcat Hall al Ctesiphun. va e-sixth and measures only about 71 ft. The crown of the vault is ret t. thick, the walls at the base being 23 ft. The bricks or tiles of wi tich the vault is built are, like those at Thebes, laid fiat-wise, and of lte is also a similar inclination of the rings of brick-work, which ku about 10 out of the vertical. This leads fo the conclusion that of Is immense vault was built without centreing, as the tenacious ro ality of the mortar would probably be sufficient to hold each tile en its position until the ring was complete. In the building of the :h of the great portal other precautions were taken; bond timbers an ft. long and in five rows, one above the other, were carried through ho a wall from front to back. The lower portion of the arch (5 ft. in Ri ight) was built with bricks placed flat-wise; the upper portion wl ft. in height) in the usual way, viz, right angles to the face. The TI ison for this change was probably that the upper portions might D carved, as they have been, with a series of semi-circular wi sps. tir The decoration of the flanks of this great central portal is of the an)st bewildering description. There has evidently been a desire to co -e a monumental character to the main front. With this idea in tjr w they would seem to have attempted to reproduce Roman an itures, such as are found decorating the fronts of the various at iphitheatres of the Empire. But the semi-circular shafts which co -m the decoration do not come one over the other on the several re; uIuulcu Live, tue ~u1,dce.

There are remains of two other palaces at Imamzade and Tag ,n, and in Moab a small example, the Hall of Rabboth Ammon,)posed to have,been erected for Chosroes II. during the subjugation Palestine, which is richly decorated with carving, probably by rio-Greek artists, with a mixture of Greek, Jewish and Sassanian Lails. At Takibostan and Behistun (Bisutun), some 200 m. rth-east of Ctesiphon, are some remarkable Sassanian capitals I panels (published in Flandin and Costes Voyage en Perse, it, Paris). (R. P. S.)


Ajthough our acquaintance with Etruscan architecture is confined efly to the entrance gateways and the walls of towns, and to tombs, forms a very important link between the East and the West. ,ough little is known of the history of Etruria (q.v.), the influence ich her people exerted on Roman architecture, lasting down to the -iod when Greece was overrun and plundered of her treasures, s so great that it would be difficult to follow the origin of Roman :hitecture without some Inquiry into the work of its immediate n.lecessor. The,theory put forward by Fergusson, as to the migran of the Etruscans from Asia Minor in the 12th or 11th century nc., substantiated by the resemblance of the tumuli in the latter intry, such as those at Tantalais, on the northern shore of the Lf of Smyrna, and that of Alyattes near Sardis, as compared with Regulini Galeassi tomb at Cervetri and the Cucumella tomb at lci, in all cases consisting of a sepulchral chamber buried under immense mound surrounded by a podium in stone. The chamber s covered over with masonry, laid in horizontal courses, each stone)jecting slightly over the one below. The same system of conuctiun prevailed in the bee-hive tombs of Greece, except that the ter were always circular on plan, whilst these cited above were tangular. Similar methods of construction are found at Tusculum I in a gateway at Arpino. In all these cases the projecting courses re worked off on the completion of the tomb, in Greece and at sculum and Arpino following a curve, and in the Regulini Galeassi nb a raking line.

Fhe earliest example known of the arched vault, with regular ,issoirs in stone, is found in the canal of the Marta near Graviscae, ribed to the 7th century. The vault is 14 ft. in span, with issoirs from 5 to 6 ft. in depth. In the tomb of Pythagoras near rtona, with a span of about 10 ft., only four voussoirs were emyed. In the Cloaca Maxima at Rome the vault (now ascribed by mmendatore Boni to the 1st century B.C.) is built with three icentric rings of voussoirs. In all these cases the thrust of the h was amply resisted as they were constructed under ground, and the entrance gateways at Volterra, Perugia and Falerii a similar istance was given by the immense walls in which they were built. Ye have already referred to one class of tomb in which the sepulal chamber, built above the ground, ~sas covered over with a nod of earth; there is a second class, carved out of the solid rock, which we find the same treatment as that described in connexjon;h Egypt. The tomb represents, in its internal arrangements and its decorations, the earthly dwelling of the defunct (compare the yptian soul-houses). The ceilings are carved in imitation cf horizontal beams and slanting rafters of the roof, the former ned by square piers with capitals; one well-known tomb at rneto (fig. 25) represents the atrium of an Etruscan house, which responds with the description given by \Titruvius of the cavaedia pluviata, in which there was a small opening at the top, known as compluvium, the roof sloping down on all four sides.

tie character as those which are found on what were thought to ae been Etruscan, but are now generally considered as Greek;es, the principal difference being that instead of allegorical fleets, domestic scenes recalling the life of the deceased are resented. In a tomb at Cervetri the walls and piers were carved;h representations of the helmets, swords and other accoutrements a soldier, and also the mirrors and jewelry of his wife, even the chen utensils being included, so as to give the complete fittings the house they occupied. In two examples at Castel DAsso the Ic has been cut away on all sides, leaving a rectangular block, wned wifh reverse mouldings.

carcely any remains in situ of Etruscan temples have been found, I the description given by Vitruvius is very scanty. Of late years, wever, in the British Museum and in the museums at Florence and me, a large amount of material has been brought together, from ich it is possible to make some kind of conjectural restoration. is has been facilitated by the discoveries made at Olympia, Iphi and elsewhere in Greece, showing the important function ich terra-cotta served in the protection and decoration of the iber roofs of the Greek temples and treasuries. The cornices, Lefixae, pendant slabs and other decorative features in terrata, found on the sites of the Etruscan temples, show that the iber construction of their roofs was protected in the same way; I although Vitruvius (bk. iii. ch. 2) considered the temple of Ceres Rome to be clumsy and heavy, and its roofs low and wide, in nparison with the purer examples of Greek architecture, the nains of terra-cotta found at Civita Castellana (the ancient ssessed considerable decorative effect, and ;hen raised on an Ve nnence, as in the case of the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol, em med striking features of importance, enriched as they were with fac ding. There is one feature in the Etruscan examples which th ms to have been peculiar to their temples, viz, the pendant slabs tin ng round the eaves to protect the walls,; these latter were probably th vered with stucco and decorated with paintings. The lower cle, -,., -. wh ~ ~ vo]

--. _____ ~ Br IIL~i rd _________________________ de -, - - als ~ fot InLit ___ ~Z~-~I/L

_______ Cu, ________ (~~-~ - tJ wh -, - -- / S~i ~ ga - -. ,~T~~l-i~ -,,~ ~4, pl i-- -~..- - ~ ~ dif FIG. 25.The Corneto Tomb. tui rtions of many of these slabs were decorated in relief and in color the back, showing that they were exposed to view below the coi lit of the projecting eaves. ert Dwing to the ephemeral nature of the materials employed in the col ilding of the walls of Etruscan temples, viz, unburned brick or ro Lible maconLy with clay mortar, the roofs being in timber, little known of their general design; the terra-cotta decorations are, tra never, fortunately in good preservation, and suggest that although is Etruscan temple, architecturally speaking, was not of a very ~-i~ numental character, its external decoration and color added de~siderably to its effect. (R. P. S.) ha ROMAN ARcHITEcTIJRE

The rebuilding of Rome, which began in the reign of Augustus, wh was carried on by his successors to a much greater extent, has in ised the destruction of nearly all those examples of early work to thi ,ich the student, working out the history of a style, would turn. mc ere are, however, a few early buildings still existing, and these wil of value as showing the extremely simple nature of their design. It:

e temple of Fortuna Virilis (so-called) in the Forum Boarium, de ributed to the beginning of the 1st century B.C., shows the great or lerence between Greek and Roman temples. Like the Etruscan tio nple, it is raised on a podium, and approached by a flight of thi ps. The Etruscan celia is dispensed with; and what may be exI ked upon as the semblance of a Greek peristyle is retained in the exi ni-detached columns which are carried round the wails of the celia. cel the entrance portico, however, the-Roman architect attached be ~at importance, and we find here that one-third of the whole wil gth of the temple is given up to the portico. The Tabularium coi ut by Lutatius Catulus (78 n.e.) is a second example of early work, of .a lofty substructure, built of peperino stone, was raised an arcade, nil .ich formed a passage from one side of the capitol to the other, it 1 here we find the earliest example of the use of the Classic order, en a decorative feature only, applied to the face of a wall. The arcade suj isists of a series of arches with intermediate semi-detached Done an umna carrying an entablature- The architectural design of the de)structure is of the simplest kind, depending for its effect only on re~ size of the stones employed and the finish given to the masonry. of ,e same remark applies to the few remains left of the Forum Julium ac,), where an additional decorative effect was produced by de:

bevelled edge worked round all the stones, producing the effect an rusticated masonry. tec if, however, the remains are few, the records of classical writers va)W that already before the beginning of the 1st century B.C. the by luence of Greece had been shown in the transformation of the we rum, the embanking of the river Tiber, the erection of numerous sul rticoes throughout the Campus Martius, and of basilicas, one of str Lich, rebuilt by Paulus Aemilius in 50 B.C., was remarkable for its rec molithic columns of pavunazetto marble; and further that on the th latine hill were various mansions, the courts and penistyles of tn ich were richly decorated with marble. toI The boast of Augustus that he found Rome built of brick and left PA

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lus in the forum of Julius Caesar is said to have been built irely of that materialbut as a rule marble was only used as a ing. This, however, led to the substitution of solid concrete fur core of walls, in place of the unburnt brick which up to that e had been employed. On this subject the writings of Vitruvius, Roman architect, are of the greatest value, as they describe irly not only the materials used at this time (about 30 s.c.), but different methods of building walls (see ROME). The material ch contributed more than any other to the magnificent concepis of the Roman Imperial style was that known as pozzolana, a canic earth which, mixed with lime, formed an hydraulic cement treat cohesion and strength. Not only the walls but the vaults -e built in this pozzolana concrete, and formed one solid mass. cks were employed in arches, on the quoins of walls, occasionally)ond courses, and in the constructional vaults as ribs, in order to eve the centreing of the weight until the pozzolana concrete had n poured in and had consolidated. The bricks employed in these;, and for the voussoirs of arches, were of the kind we should cribe as tiles, being about 2 ft. square and 2 in. thick. Bricks of smaller size and triangular in shape were used for the facing walls, the triangular portions being embedded into the concrete be Romans themselves do not seem to have realized the tenacious pertie3 of this pozzolana cement which, when employed for the ndation of temples, formed a solid mass capable of bearing as ch weight as the rock itself. They feared also the thrust of the nense vaults over their halls, and always provided crosswalls to Lnteract the came, as shown in the plan of all the thermae; rn however, they had discovered the secret of covering over large ces with a permanent casing indestructible by fire, it not only v an impetus to the great works in Rome, but led to a new type of n, which spread all through the Empire, varied only by the erence in materials and in labor. In this respect the Romans ays availed themselves of the resources of the country, which they ned to the best account. As pozzolana was not to be found in rth Africa or Syria, they had to trust to the excellent qualities of Roman mortar, but even in Syria, where stone was plentiful and Lid be obtained in great dimensions, when they attempted to ct vaults of great span similar to those in Rome, these probably Lapsed before the building was finished, and were replaced by fs in wood.

n the styles hitherto described the gradual development has been red to their primitive, culminating and decadent periods. This Lot called for in a description of the Roman style of architecture, ich to a certain extent appeared phoenix-like in its highest ulopment under Augustus. Roman orders in the Augustan age I reached their culminating development. The capitals of the -tico of the ?antheon (27 B.C.), or of the temple of Mars Ultor s.c.), constitute the finest examples of the Corinthian order, ilst those of later temples show a falling off in style. It was only the application of the orders that new combinations presented mselves, and this can be better understood when we refer to the numents themselves. The description of the Roman orders, h the subsequent modifications, is given in the article ORDER. s necessary, however, here to draw attention to two very important ielopments which the Roman architect introduced as regards the ers: firstly, their employment as decorative features in combinai with the arcade, known as composite arcades, and secondly, ir superposition one above the other in storeys, The earliest ,mple of the first class is that found in the Tabularium as it now cts; of the second class the Colosseum and the theatre of Marus are the best known examples. In principle the practice must condemned, for the employment of the column and entablature, ich was designed by the Greek architect as an independent Lstructive feature, in a purely decorative sense stuck on the face i wall, is contrary to good taste, but it is impossible not to recoga in its application to the Colosseum the value of the scale which ~as given to the whole structure, a scale which would have been irely lost if the building had been treated as one storey. The erposition of the orders as exemplified in the Roman theatres I amphitheatres throughout the Empire constitutes the greatest Telopment made in the style, and it is one which, from the Italian ivalists down to our time, has had more influence in the design monumental work than any other Roman innovation.

,n the preceding sections it has been necessary to confine our criptions, in the case of Egypt and Greece, more or less to temples I tombs, and in that of Assyria to palaces, but in Roman architure the monuments are not only of the most extensive and ied kinds, but in some parts of the Empire they become modified the requirements of the country, so that a tabulated list alone uld occupy a considerable space. The following are the principal divisions: The R,oman forum (see ROME); the coionnaded lets in Syria and elsewhere, and temple enclosures; temples (q.v.), tangular and circular; basilicas (q.v.); theatres (q.-r.) and amphi -atres (q.v.); thermae or baths (g.e.); entrance gateways and imph arches (see TRIIJMPHAL ARCH); memorial buildings and abs, aqueducts (q.v.) and bridges (q.v.), palatial architecture (see LACE); domestic architecture (see Housa).

blic buildings occupied sites round it, and up to the time of Juirus en .esar there were shops on both sides: it was also used as a hippo- th me and served for combats and other displays. Under the wc npire, however, these were relegated to the amphitheatre and the fatre, markets were provided for elsewhere, and the forum became th 1 chief centre for the temples, basilicas, courts of law and exchanges. ex it already in the time of Julius Caesar the Forum Romanum had by come too small, and others were built by succeeding emperors. wi order to find room for these, not only were numerous crowded by es cleared, but vast portions of the Quirinal hill were cut away to m tke place for them. The Fora added were those of Julius Caesar, Wi Igustus, Trajan, Nerva and Vespasian. Outside Rome, in proscial towns and in Africa and Syria, the Forum was generally built by the intersection of the two main streets, and was surrounded by rticoes, temples and civic monuments.

Colonnaded Streets.We gather from some Roman authors that early days the Campus Martius was laid out with porticoes. All Ise features have disappeared, but there are still some existing Syria, North Africa and Asia Minor, which are known as colonded streets. The most important of these are found in Palmyra, iere the street was 70 ft. wide with a central avenue open to the ~ y and side avenues roofed over with stone. The columns employed re of the Corinthian order, 31 ft. high, and formed a peristyle on ch side of the street, which was nearly a mile in length. The triple :hway in this street is still one of the finest examples of Roman :hitecture. At Gerasa, the colonnaded streets had columns of the nic order, the street being 1800 ft. long, with other streets at right gles to it; similar streets are found at Amman, Bosra, Kanawat, :. At Pompeiopolis, in Asia Minor, are still many streets of urnns, and in North Africa the French archaeologists have traced merous others.

Temple Enclosures.In Rome the great cost, and the difficulty of taming large sites, restricted the size of the enclosures of the rnples; this was to a certain extent compensated for by the ignificence of the porticoes surrounding them. The most important ~s that built by Hadrian, measuring 480 ft. by 330 ft., to enclose 1 double temples of Venus and Rome. The portico of Octavia lasUres 400 ft. by 370 ft., enclosing two temples, and the portico the Argonauts, which enclosed the temple of Neptune, was about o ft. square. These dimensions, however, are far exceeded by ~se of the enclosures in Syria and Asia Minor. The court of the i~ple of the Sun at Palmyra was raised on an artificial platform ft. high, and measured 735 ft. by 725 ft., with an enclosure wall 74 ft. on the west and 67 ft. high or the other three sides.

At Baalhek the platform was raised 25 ft. above the ground, the nensions being 400 ft. wide and 900 ft. deep. At Damascus the closure of the temple of the Sun has been traced, and it extended about 1000 ft. square. Simiiar enclosures are found at Gerasa, nman and other Syrian towns. In Asia Minor, at Aizani the pInt~m was 520 by 480 ft., raised about 20 ft., and in Africa the French ye found the remains of similar enclosures. Roman Tern ples.The Romans, following the Etruscan custom, variably raised their temples on a podium with a flight of steps the main front. Their temples were not orientated, and being ~arded more as monuments than religious structures occupied ominent sites facing the Forum or some great avenue. Much portance was attached to the entrance portico, which was deeper an those in Greek temples, and the peristyle when it existed was rely carried round the back. On the other hand the celia exceeded span those of the Greek temples, as the Roman, being acquainted th the principle of trussing timbers, could roof over wider spaces. 1e principal temples in Rome, of which remains still exist, are ose of Fortuna Virilis, Mars Ultor, Castor, Neptune, Antoninus d Faustina, Concord, Vespasian, Saturn and portions of the uble temples of Venus and Rome. At Pompeii are the temples of ,piter and Apollo, at Cora the temple of Mercury. and in France, e Maison Carre at NImes and the temple at Vienne. In Syria 1 the temples of Jupiter at Baalbek, of the Sun at Palmyra and rasa, and in Spalato the temple of Aesculapius.

Of circular temples the chief are the Pantheon at Rome, the fo mple of Vesta on the Forum, of Mater Matuta, so-called, on the R rum Boarium, the temple of Vesta at Tivoli, of Jupiter at Spalato ar Id of Venus at Baalbek. re Of the rectangular temples the Maison Carre at Nimes is the ar ost perfect example existing (fig. 26). It was built by Antoninus us, and dedicated to his adopted sons Lucius and Martius. This bi mple, 59 ft. by 117 ft., is of the Corinthian order, hexastyle, ar eudoperipteral, with a portico three columns deep, and is raised of i a podium 12 ft. high. The next best preserved example is the It mple of Jupiter at Baalbek, also of the Corinthian order, octastyle, cc ripteral, with a deep portico, and a celia richly decorated with of ree-quarter detached shafts of the Corinthian order. er Of the circular temples the Pantheon is the most remarkable. It in ss built by Hadrian, and consists of an immense rotunda 142 ft. in 0 ameter, covered with a hemispherical dome 140 ft. high. Its ar Ills are 20 ft. thick, and have alternately semicircular and rectigular recesses in them. In the centre of the dome is a circular C

ening 30 ft. in diameter open to the sky, the only source from at -.--.i--..cted by him, taken down and re-erected after the completion of rotunda, with the omission of the two outer cclumns. In other rdsAgrippas portico was decastyle; the actual portico is octastyle. 8asilicas.The earliest example of which remains exist is that of Basilica Jtilia on the Forum, the complete plan of wlich is now)osed to view, it consisted of a central hall measuring 255 ft. 60 ft., surrounded by a double aisle of arches carried on piers, ich were covered with groined vaults. The Basilica Ulpia built Trajan was similar in plan, but in the place of the piers were nolith columns, with Corinthian capitals carrying an entablature, an upper storey forming a gallery round.

Ihe third great basilica, commenced by Maxentius and completed Constantine, differs entirely from the two above mentioned. It Scale of Yards Scale of Yards FIG. 26.Elevation and plan of the Maison Carr~e, Nimes.

lowed the design and construction of the Tepidarium of the)man thermae, and consisted of a hall 275 ft. long by 82 ft. wide d 114 ft. high, covered with an intersecting barrel vault with deep ~esses on each side which communicated one with the other by ahed openings and constituted the aisles.

Theatres.The only example in Rome is the theatre of Marcellus, ut by Augustus 13 B.C., and one of the purest examples of Roman :hitecture. Amongst the best preserved examples is the theatre Orange in the south of France, the stage of which was 203 ft. long. the theatre at Taormina in Sicily are still preserved some of the lumns which decorated the rear wall of the stage. The theatre Herodes Atticus at Athens (A.D. 160) retains portions of its closure walls and some of the marble seats. There are two theatres Pompeii where the seats and the stage are in fair preservation. her examples in Asia Minor are at Aizani, Side, Telmessus, Alinda, d in Syria at Amman, Gerasa, Shuhba and Beisan.

Amphztlieatres-.The largest amphitheatre is that known as the ilosseum, commenced by Vespasian in A.D. 72, continued by Titus d dedicated by the latter in A.D. So. This refers to the three lowet ci Gordianus. The building is elliptical in plan and measures pr oft, for the major axis and 513 ft. for the minor axis. There were ~hty entrances, two of which were reserved for the emperor and an suite. The Cavea was divided into four ranges of seats; th~ e whole of the exterior and the principal corridors were built in th~ ivertine stone, and all other corridors, staircases and substructures Ni concrete. Externally the wall was divided into four storeys, the Sp ree lower ones with arcades divided by semi-detached columns of de e Tuscan, the Ionic and the Corinthian orders respectively. The dii ills of the topmost storey were decorated with pilasters of the rai)rinthian order, the only openings there being small windows, to ha :ht the corridors and the upper range of seats. Among other Ali iphitheatres the best preserved are those found at Capua, Verona, no d Pompeii in Italy; at El Jem in North Africa; at Pola in Istria, du d at ArIes and Nimes in France. ml The Thermae or Imperial Baths.The term thermae is given to the mense bathing establishments which were built by the emperors pa ingratiate themselves with the people. Of the ordinary baths hil alneae) there were numerous examples not only in Rome but at eel mpeii and throughout the Empire. The thermae were devoted ov t only to baths but to gymnastic pursuits of every kind, and thi ing the resorts of the poets, philosophers and statesmen of the day, lib ritained numerous halls where discussions and orations could take an ice. The plans of these thermae were measured by Palladio about cai Go, at a time when they were in far better preservation and more on tensive than they are to-day. They have, however, been measured ovi tee by some of the French Grand Prix students; and Blouets of rk on the Thermae of Caracalla (1828) and Paulins on the Thermae ha Diode/ian (1890) give accurate drawings as well as conjectural sti;torations which are of the greatest value. The earliest thermae re those built by Agrippa (20 B.C.) in the Campus Martius, and of fot wrs those of Titus and Trajan are the best preserved; plans can of found in Camerons Baths (1775). bet Entrance Gateways and Arches of Triumph.As the entrance pa teways were sometimes erected to commemorate some important He Int, we have grouped these together, the real difference being mc ft the arch of triumph was an isolated feature and served no Pa ,litarian purpose, whereas the entrance gateway constituted part otl the external walls of the city and could be opened and closed at Bu II. Of the latter those at Verona, Susa, Perugia and Aosta in val ily, Autun in France, and the Porta Nigra at Trves (Trier) are thr best known, but there are also numerous examples throughout ha na and North Africa. The arches of triumph offered a fine scope decoration with bas-reliefs setting forth the principal events of his campaign; the representation on coins also suggests that they pr re looked upon as pedestals to carry large groups of sculpttire. ac Le best known examples are those of Titus, Septimius Severus ow ~l Constantine at Rome, of Trajan at Ancona, and, in France, ovi Orange, St Remi and Reims. There were numerous examples sid oughout North Africa and Syria, of which the arch of Caracalla sec Tebessa in the former and the great gateway of Palmyra in Syria fro the best preserved. Memorial Buildings and Tombs.Columns of victory constituted ho ether type of memorial, and the shafts of the columns of Trajan th ~ Marcus Aurelius in Rome lent themselves to a better representa- det n of the records of victory than those which could be obtained in lar I panels of a triumphal arch. Other columns erected are those of tra toninus Pius in Rome, a column at Alexandria, and others in Gr ance and Italy. wa If the Romans derived from the Etruscans a custom of erecting in nbs in memory of the dead, they did not follow on the same an Cs, for whilst the Etruscans always excavated the tomb in the lat id rock, constituting a more lasting memorial, the Romans wh ~arded them as monumental features and lined the routes of the thc sacra of their towns with them. The earliest example remaining dii that of Caecilia Metella (58 n.e.), of which the upper portion, isisting of a circular drum 93 ft. in diameter, remains. Of the i-tb of Hadrian the core only exists in the castle of Sant Angelo.

om the descriptions given it must have been a work of great wli ignificence. The tombs known as Columbaria (q.v.) were always th low ground, but in some cases an upper storey was built above 1m consisting of a small temple, and these flanked the Via Appia pr large numbers. At Pompeii outside the Herculaneum Gate the of a Appia was lined on both sides with tombs of varied design, and grf th exedrae or circular seats in marble, provided for the use of cvi ese visiting the tombs. The tombs in Syria form a very large and plc portant series, the earliest perhaps being those in Palmyra, of lere they took the form of lofty towers, from 70 to 90 ft. high, (St ternally simple as regards their design, but in the several storcys by side profusely decorated with Corinthian pilasters and coffered in Llings in stone. The tombs in Jerusalem built in the 1st century at our era are partly excavated in the rock and partly erected. The se~)St important were those known as the tomb of Absalom, the tomb thi St James, and the tombs of the judges and the kings, all cut in th 1 solid rock. In central Syria some of the tombs are excavated in an I rock, and over them are built a group of two or more columns tu, Id together by their entablatures. The most important series wi I the tombs at Petra, all cut in the side of cliffs and of elaborate rm II. 13

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duces a theatrical background.

4queducts and Bridges.Although at the present day aqueducts I bridges would be classed under the head of engineering works, se built by the Romans are so fine in their conception and design t they take their place as monuments. The Pont-du-Gard near nes, and the aqueducts of Segovia, Tarragona and Merida in fin, and some of those in or near Rome, are of the simplest design, iending for their effect on their magnificent construction, their iensions both in length and height, and the scale given in the Lges of arches one above the other. Few of the Roman bridges ~e lasted to our day; the bridges of Augustus at Rimini and of antara in Spain may be taken as types of the design, in which we .e that there are no architectural superfluities; the quality of the ign depends on the graceful proportion of the arches and the fine sonry in which they are built.

5alatial Architecture.By far the most magnificent group of aces are those which were erected by the Caesars on the Palatine at Rome. Commenced by Augustus and added to by his suesors down to the reign of Severus, they cover an area considerably r 1,000,000 sq. ft., and comprise an immense series of great halls, one room, banqueting ball, basilicas, peristylar courts, temple, aries, schools, barracks, a stadium and separate suites for princes I courtiers. The service of the palace would seem to have been ned on in vaulted corridors in several storeys, some of which the north side, overlooking the Circus Maximus, must have been r 100 ft. in height. Except under the Villa Mills, the greater part he plan has been traced; and large remains of mosaic pavements ie been found in situ, and in the approaches, vaulted halls, some 1 retaining their stucco decoration.

~ similar variety of groups of every description of structure is rid at Tivoli, but spread over a very much larger area. The villa Hadrian extended over 7 m.; the works there were probably un about AD. 123, the first portion being his own residential ace. In addition to the numerous halls, courts, libraries, &c., drian attempted to reproduce some of the most remarkable monuets which he had seen during his long travels; the Stadium, aestra, Odeum, the two theatres, the artificial lake, Canopus and er features were, however, constructed in the Roman style. LIt on a ridge between two valleys, the several buildings occupied ious levels, so that immense terraces and flights of stairs existed oughout the site and, combined with the natural scenery, must ~e been of extraordinary beauty.

abdication, constituted a fortress, three of its walls being tected by towers, the fourth on the south by the sea. For an ount of its well-preserved remains see SPALATO. The emperors ri residence was on the south side, and had a gallery 520 ft. ion i-looking the sea. The two main streets, with arcades on eac 1 and crossing one another, divided the whole palace into four tions. One of these streets crossed from gate to gate, the other tn the north gate led to the entrance into the palace of the emperor. 5rivate Houses.The entire absence of the remains of the private mses of Rome, with the single exception of the house of Livia on Palatine, would have left us with a very poor insight into their ign were it not for the discovery of Pompeii (q.v.) and Hercueum (qv.). The descriptions given by Pliny of the lavish exvagance in the Roman houses, and the employment of various cek marbles in the shape of monolith columns and panelling of fPropylaea of the temple at Damascus (v~. 151) and other Tx amples are found in North Africa. WI

Now when Constantine transferred the capital to Byzantium, he foi said to have imported immense quantities of monolith columns sp rn Rome, and also workmen to carry out the embellishments of ce new capital; for his work there was not confined to churches, 55

t included amphitheatres, palaces, thermae and other public pa ildings. Owing to the haste with which these were built, and in hg ~ne cases probably to the ephemeral materials employed, for the ap)fs of the churches were only in timber, all these early works have th en swept away; but there remain two structures at least, which co said to date from Constantines time, viz, the Binbirderek or an tern of a thousand columns, and the Yeri-Batan-Serai, both in wi nstantinople. As one of the first tasks a Roman emperor set in nself to perform was the provision of an ample supply of water, ul:

which Byzantium was much in need, there is every reason to co ppose that they are correctly attributed to Constantines time. If Cl as the construction of their vaults is quite different from that tployed by the Romans, it suggests that there already existed in East a traditional method of building vaults of whichthe emperor ailed himself; and, although it is not possible to trace all the earlier velopments, the traditional art of the East, found throughout na and Asia Minor, must from the first have wrought great changes the architectural style, and in some measure this would account the comparatively shrt period of two centuries which elapsed tween the foundation of the new empire and the culminating period the style under Justinian in AD. 532558.

Constantine is said to have built three churches in Palestine, but ese have either disappeared or have been reconstructed since; early basilican church is that of St John Studios (the Baptist) in instantinople, dating from AD. 463, and though it shows but little viation from classic examples, in the design and vigorous execution the carving in the capitals and the entablature we find the germ the new style. The next typical example is that found in the urch of St Demetrius at Salonica, a basilican church with atrium front, a narthex, nave and double aisles, with capacious galleries the first floor for women, and an apsidal termination to the nave, stead of the classic entablature, the monolithic columns of the ye carry arches both on the ground and upper storeys; above the pitals, however, we find a new feature known as the dosseret, -eady employed in the two cisterns referred to, a cubical block DjecLing beyond the capital on each side and enabling it to carry thicker wall above. In later examples, when the aisles were ulted, the dosseret served a still more important purpose, in rrying the springing of the vaults. The nave and aisles of this urch of St Demetrius were covered with timber roofs, as the ahitects had neither the knowledge, the skill, nor perhaps lestructible by fire-.

One of the first attempts at this (though the early date givers is 1puted) would seem to have been made at Hierapohis, on the rders of Phrygia in Asia Minor, where there are two churches covered with barrel vaults carried on transverse ribs across the nave, ______ ______ the thrust of which was met by I-V -. carrying up solid walls on each side, -. these walls being pierced with open ,~- ~ -~.: - ings so as to form aisles on the / - I P ground floor and galleries above.

-, The same system was carried out .~ a century earlier in central Syria,. where, in consequence of the absence af -- - of timber, the buildings had to be m -- .. / roofed with slabs of stone carried on th archesacrossthcnave. Itisprobable ~ that in course of time other examples dc ---~ ~ will be found in Asia Minor, giving gr - a more definite clue to the next at --~-~ - development, which we find in the ar work of justinian, who would seem ar, to have recognized that the employ- ar ment timber or combustible or Scale of Feet e mater~ s was fatal to the long fr duration of such buildings. Accord- cli 1G. 27.Plan of SS. Sergius ingly in the first church which he ca and Bacchus. built (fig. 27), that of SS. Sergius at and Bacchus (A.D. 527), the whole m hIding is vaulted; the church is about 100 ft. square, with a w irthex on one side. The central portion of the church is octagonal nf ght sides, which are filled in with columns on two storeys. These p1

e recessed on the diagonal lines, forming apses. The vault is or vided into thirty-two zones, the zones being alternately flat and m ncave. ft We now pass to Justinians greatest work, the church of St phia (fig. 28), begun in 532 and dedicated in 537, which marks tF

e highest development of the Byzantine style and became the 01

ode~ on which all Greek churches, and even the mosques built by ci alles and Isidorus of Miletus, and the~pr~b1em they had to solve s that of carrying a dome 107 ft. in diameter on four arches. The ir arches formed a square on plan, and between them were built ierical pendentives, which, overhanging the angles, reduced the itre to a circle on which the dome was built. This dome fell down in i, and when rebuilt was raised higher and pierced round its lower rt with forty circular-headed windows, which give an extraordinary htness to the structure. At the east and west ends are immense ies, the full width of the dome, whichare again subdivided into ee smaller apses. The north and south arches are filled with lofty umns carrying arches opening into the aisle on the ground storey a gallery on the upper storey, the walls above being pierced with ridows of immense size. The church was built in brick, and ernally the walls were encased with thin slabs of precious marble to a great height (fig. 29). The walls and vault above were iered with mosaics on a gold ground, which, as they represented ,ristian subjects, were all covered over with stucco by the Turks rUd ____ ____

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FIG. 28.Plan of St Sophia.

er the taking of Constantinople. During the restoration in the ddle of the 19th century, when it became necessary to strip off stucco, these mosaics were all drawn and published by Salzenrg, and they were covered again with plaster to prevent their structiun by the Turks. The columns of the whole church on the)Und floor are of porphyry, and on the upper storey of verd tique. The length of the church from entrance door to eastern se is 260 ft.; in width, including the aisles, it measures 238 ft., d it measures 175 ft. to the apex of the dome. The columns and ahes give scale to the small apses, the small apses to the larger es, and the latter to the dome, so that its immense size s grasped im the first. The lighting is admirably distributed, and the rich coration of the marble slabs, the monolith columns, the elaborate rving of the capitals, the beautiful marble inlays of the spandrils ove the arches, and the glimpse here and there of some of the)saic, which shows through the stucco, give to this church an effect fich is unparalleled by any other interior in the world. The rthex or entrance vestibule forms a magnificent hall 240 ft. in igth, equally richly decorated. Externally the building has little etensions to architecttiral beauty, but its dimensions and varied tline, with the groups of smaller and larger apses and domes, ike it an impressive structure, to which the Turkish minarets, ough ungainly, add picturesqueness.

In A.D. 536 a second important church was begun by Theodora. e church of the IToly Apostles, which was destroyed in 1454 by der of Mahommed II. to build his mosque. The design of this urch is known only from the clear description given by Procopius, which the church of St Mark at Venice was based, when it was bri tored, added to, anti almost rebuilt abotit 1063. tre The church of St Sophia was not oniy the finest of its kind at the or Ic of its erection, but no building approaching it has ever been chi ut since in the Byzantine style, nor does much seem to have been of ne for two or three centuries afterwards. At the same time the car ~ction of new churches must have been going on, because there are Co aain changes in design, the results probably of many trials. The wh liculty of obtaining sufficient light in domes of small diameter led vai the windows being placed in vertical drums, of which the earliest imple is that of the western dome of St Irene at Constantinople, pdr)uiit A.O. 7 18740. This simplified the construction and externally to ded to the effect of the church. The greatest change, however, at uch took place, arose in consequence of the comparatively small AtI sieosiuns given to the central dome, which rendered it necessary in provide more space in another way, by increasing the area on prc :h side,sc that the plan developed into what is known as the Greek ahi)SS, in which the four arms are almost equal in dimensions to the Bri itrai dome, and were covered with barrel vaults which amply pla isted its thrust. In front of the church a narthex and sometimes Ba exonarthex was added, which was of greater width than the Sti urch itself, as in the churches (both in Constantinople) of the dci ieotokos and of Chora (Au. 1080). The latter, better known as the acc _______ an,. sqi t--~-- ~~--:----~~

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Flo. 29.Cross section of the interior of St Sophia.

nosaic mosque, on account of its splendid decoration in that an iterial, is of special interest, because in the five arches of its faade wa find the same design as that which originally constituted the front th the lower part of St Marks at Venice, before it was encrusted with thc marble casing and the plethora of marble columns and capitals thi jught over from Constantinople. als Sometimes an additional church was built adjoining the first Th urch and dedicated to the immaculate Virgin, as in the church of cal Mary Panachrantos, Constantinople, the church of St Luke of thi ris, Phocis, and the church in the island of Paros. In the last- ch~ med church the apse still retains its marble seats, rising one above rer other, with the bishops throne in the centre. In addition to cci churches already mentioned in Constantinople, there are still arc ne which have been appropriated by the Turks and utilized as in)sques. At Mount Athos there are a large number of Greek fre urches, ranging from the 10th to the 16th centuries, which are ho :ached to the monasteries. At Athens one of the most beautiful amples is preserved in the Catholicon or cathedral, the materials ye, which were taken from older classical buildings. This cathedral of ~asures only 40 ft. by 25 ft., and is now overpowered by the new Tb thedral erected close by. sid The external design of the Byzantine churches, as a rule, is ba tremely simple, but it owes its quality to the fact that its features th those which arise out of the natural Construction of the church. wh ie domes, the semi-domes over the apses, and the barrel vaults fea er other parts of the church, appear externally as well as internally, scr d as they are all covered with lead or with tiles, laid direct on the thi ults, they give chara~ter to the design and an extremely picturesque I ect. The same principle is observed in the doorways and windows, (II whrch importance is given by accentuating their constructive eig and stone, have the most pleasing effect The same simple itment is given to the walls by the horizontal courses of bricks tiles, alternating with the stone courses. In the apse of the rch of the Apostles at Salonica, variety is given by the interlacing brick patterns. This elaboration of the surface decoration is ied still further in the palace of Hebdomon at Blachernae, in istantinople, built by Constantine Porphyrogenitus (913949), ,re the spandrils of the arches are inlaid with a mosaic of bricks in ious colors arranged in various patterns.

here would seem to have been a revival in the 11th century, sibly a reflex of that which was taking place in Europe, and it is his period we owe the churches of St Luke in Phocis, the church Daphne, and the churches of St Nicodemus and St Theodore in ens. The finest example of brick patterns is that which is found he church of St Luke of Stiris, attached to the monastery in the vince of Phocis, north of the Gulf of Corinth, of which an admirmonngraph was published in 1901 by the committee of the tish School at Athens, illustrated by measured drawings of the ns, elevations, sections and mosaics by Messrs Schultz and -nsley, with a detailed description. The church of St Luke of is is one of those already referred to, where a second church ording to Messrs Schultz and Barnsley, on the site of a more ient church of which the narthex alone was retained. The plan;he great church differs from the ordinary Greek cross in that the ~s of the cross are of much less width than the central domed are, and arches being thrown across the angles carry eight identives instead of four. On the east side the Diaconicon and thesis are included in the width of the domed portion instead of fling the eastern termination of the aisles., The churches at Daphne in Attica and of St Nicodemus at Athens have a similar plan.

The decoration of the smaller church of St Luke of Stiris is of the most elaborate character, bright patterns of infinite variety alternating with the brick courses, and as blocks of marble, removed ~ from the site of the old city near, were available, they have been utilized in various parts of the structure and richly carved. The church at - Mistra in the Peloponnesus, 13th century, built in the side of a hill, is one of the most picturesque examples, and is almost the only example in ______ which a tower is to be found.

- Armenia.One other phase of the Byzantine style has still to be mentioned, the development of church architecture in Armenia, which follows very much on the same lines as that of the Greek - church, with a central dome on ,the crossing, a narthex at the west end and a triapsal east end.

In two churches at Echmiadzin and Kutais there =, are transeptal apses in addition to those at the east end. One of the differences to he noted is that the domes and roofs are generally in stone externally, and this has led to another change; the domes, though hemispherical inside, have conical roofs over them. There is also a greater admixture of styles, the Persian, Byzantine ?ussia.The architecture of Fussia is only a somewhat degraded sion of the style of the Byzantine empire. The earliest buildings mportance are the cathedrals of Kiev and Novgorod, 1019-1054. original church of Kiev consisted of nave, with triple aisles each ~, the piers in which are of enormous size, a transept and square ~s of the choir beyond, each with deep apsidal chapels. E~ternally chief features are the bulbous domes adopted from the Tatars, ich sometimes assume great dimensions. Internally, the chief tune is the Iconostasis, which corresponds to the English rood ~en, except that in Russia it forms a complete separation between church and the sanctuary with its altar.

)ne of the most remarkable churches is that of St Basil at Moscow 341584), which in plan looks like a central hall, surrounded by it other halls of smaller dimensions, all separated one from the these halls is crowned by lofty towers with bulbous domes, the pr itre one rising above all the others and terminated with an si, ~agonai roof, probably derived from the Armenian conical roof, or te oldest and most interesting church in Moscow is the chtirch of a Assumption (1479), where the tsars are always crowned; but a it measures only 74 ft. by 50 ft., it is virtually little more than a tn apel; the plan is that of a Greek cross with central dome and four it, ~ers over the angles. One other church deserves mentionat m trtea de Argesh, in Rumania. It was built in 1517-1526, and Ri ugh small (90 by 50 ft.), is built entirely of stone, instead of brick sh vered with stucco, as is the case with the churches in Moscow. ac re interior has been entirely sacrificed to the exterior, the domes tr~ ing raised to an extravagant height. The relative proportion of th cith of nave to height of dome in St Sophia at Constantinople is ar out one to two; in the church at Curtea de Argesh it is about at e to five; and yet there can be little doubt the design was made one of those Armenian architects who seem to have been always pi tployed at Constantinople, and who presumably based their A. signs there on St Sophia as regards its principal features. Here, na \vever, he was working for Tatar employers who attached more ar portance to display than to good proportion. In general design an church is based on Armenian work. The elaborately carved cli nels and disks are copied from the inlays in the mosques in ar imascus and of Sultan Hassan at Cairo, and the stalactite cornices se d capitals of the columns are transcripts of the Mahommedan style sa Constantinople, which was derived from the style developed by bt e Seljuks. en We were only able to point to a single example of a tower in the bl zantine style, but in Russia the towers not only constitute the th incipal accessory to the church but were necessary adjuncts, in th icr to provide accommodation for bells, the casting of which has or all times formed one of the most important crafts in Rtissia. The 77 ief examples, all in Moscow, are the tower attached to the church th the Assumption; the tower of Boris, inside the Kremlin; and al at erected over the sacred gate of the same. But they abound in roughout Russia, and in some cases form important features in in 1 principal elevations on either side of the narthex. (R. P. S.) wi EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE re Of the earliest examples of the housing of the Christian church se w remains exist, owing partly to their destruction from time to al:

ne by imperial edicts, and partly to the fact that in most cases m~ were only oratories of a small and unpretending nature, which, in mediately after the Peace of the Church, were rebuilt of greater ez le and with increased magnificence. In Rome itself, the pr~cipal igious centre was that which was found in the catacombs (q.v.), (3 nost the only resort in times of persecution. In the houses of the Sl ~althy Romans who had been converted, rooms were set apart for cF e reception of the faithful, and these may have been increased in sp :e by the addition of side aisles. At all events, either in Rome or wi the East, where greater freedom of worship was observed, the al iuirements of the religious had already resulted in a traditional ar pe of plan, which may account for the similarity of all the great urches built by Constantine. It has often been assumed that the fa eat Roman basilicas, if not actually utilized by the Christians, were bI pied so far as their design is concerned. This, however, is not p1 me out by the facts, there being very little similarity between the m st churches built and the two great Roman basilicas, the Ulpian er silica and that built by Constantine; the latter was roofed with pi immense vault, an imperishable covering, not attempted till two tli nturies later in Byzantium, and the former had its entrance in the cF ntre of the longer side, and the tribunes at either end were divided from the basilica by a double aisle of columns. The basilica plan al is adopted because it was the simplest and most economical St iilding of large size which could be erected, having an immense tF ntral area or nave well lighted by clerestory windows, and single or R uble aisles to divide the two sexes, and further because the immense ni pply of columns which could be taken from existing temples or It ,rticoes enabled the architect to provide at small cost the colonnades ai arcades between the nave and the aisles. On the other hand, there or no doubt that the temples, for which there was no further use, were rgely appropriated, not only in Italy but in Greece, Sicily and bi ~ewhere, and it isto this appropriation that we owe the preservation 5~ the Parthenon, the Erechtheum and the temple of Theseus at cc thens. There are some cases in which it is interesting to note the tt anges which were made to convert the temple into a church. In bi e temple of Athena at Syracuse, walls were built in between the in lumns of the peristyle, the cella was appropriated for the nave, and w cades were cut through the celia walls to communicate with the m ristyle, so as to constitUte the aisles. In the temple of Aphrodisias, at Asia Minor, a further development occurred. The walls of the m lla were taken down, a wall was built outside the columns of the a1 ristyle to form aisles, and the columns of the east and west end tF fre taken down and placed in line with the others, in order to at crease the length of the church.

The earliest Christian basilica built in Rome was the Lateran, hi iich has, however, been so completely transformed in subsequent oi buildings as to have lost its original character. The next in date of .-,.-.-- --. ~ -.-,. .

fsent cathedral, begun by Pope Julius II. It was of considerable e, covering an area of 73,000 ft. Its plan consisted of an atrium, open court, having a fountain in the centre, and arcades round; iave, 275 ft. long and 77 ft. wide, with double aisles on each side;ransept, 270 ft. long by 54 ft. wide; and a semi-circular apse or bune with a radius of 27 ft.: the high altar being in the centre of choir, and ranges of marble seats and the papal throne in the ddle, corresponding to the benches and the judges seat of the man tribune. The nave, therefore, with its double aisles, was ailar to that of the Ulpian basilica, but the aisles were not returned ross the east end, and at the west end, in their place, was the great umphal arch opening into the transept. The monolith columns of nave and their capitals (together 40 ft. high) were all taken from cient buildings, as also were those of the aisle arcades and in the -ium.

The basilica of St Paul, outside the walls, was originally of comratively small dimensions, with its apse at the west end; in D. 386 the church was rebuilt on a plan similar to St Peters, with ye and double aisles, divided by columns carrying arches, transept d apse. In the Lateran basilica, StPeters, Santa Maria Maggiore, d St Lawrence (outside the walls), the columns of the nave were se-set (i.e. with narrow intercolumniations) and supported rhitraves, but in St Paul (outside the walls) the columns of the :ond church (A.D. 386) were wider apart and carried arches. The iae feature is found in the church of St Agnes, founded AD. 324, t rebtiilt 620640; here the arcade is carried across the west 3 and there are galleries above, the arches being carried on dosseret ,cks above the capitals; these are also found in the galleries over western end of St Lawrence, added by Honorius (A.D. 620640); 1 dosseret, a Byzantine feature, being derived either from Ravenna from the East. In the church of Santa Maria-in-Cosmedin (AD. 2795) another Byzantine feature appears in the triple apse at I east end, the earliest example in Europe. In this church, as 10 in those of San Clemente and San Prassede, piers are built at :ervals to carry the arcades separating the nave and aisles. Those the latter, however, were probably added when the great arches re thrown across the nave. The church of San Clemente was ilt in 1108, above a much older church dating from 385 and;tored later; it is almost the only church in Rome which has preved its atrium intact; the internal arrangement of the church 10 iS different from that found elsewhere, the choir, enclosed with irble piers and screens removed from the lower church and erected front of the tribune, dating from A.D. 514523. The mosaics scuted in 1112 are in fine preservation.

Other early churches in Rome are those of Santa Pudenziana ~5); San Pietro-in-Vincoli (442), with Done columns in the nave; Quattro Coronati (450); Santa Sabina (450), an interesting urch on account of the marble inlaid decoration in the arch Indrils of the nave, which date from 824; San Prassede (817), th arches thrown across the nave later; San Vincenzo ed Anastasjo e Tre Fontane (626); and Santa Maria in Domnica, where there 1 galleries over the aisles and across the east end as in St Agnes. Hitherto we have said little about the architectural design, the rt being that externally these churches had the appearance of rns; it is only in a few cases, notably in St Peters, that the incipal fronts were decorated with mosaics. The magnificent iterials employed internally, the monolith marble columns, the richment of the apse and the triumphal arch with mosaics, and obably the painting and gilding of the ceiling or roof, gave to e early basilican churches in Rome that splendour which aracterizes those in Byzantium and in Ravenna.

With the exception of the baptistery attached to St John Lateran, d the so-called tomb of Santa Constantia, both erected by Conintine, the circular form of church was not adopted in Rome; ere is one remarkable circular building of great size, San Stefano)tondo, at one time thought to have been a Roman market, but w known to have been erected by Pope Simplicius (468482)~ consisted of a central circular nave, 44 ft. in diameter, and double des round. In the arcade dividing the aisles the arches are carried dosserets, the earliest known example of this feature in Rome.

Although inferior in size, the two churches of S. Apollinare Nuovo, Lilt by Theodoric (493525) and Sant Apollinare-in-Classe (5389), both in Ravenna, have the special advantage that they were nstructed in new materials, there being no ancient Roman temples ere to pull down. The ordinary basilican plan was adhered to, t as the architects and workmen came from Constantinople, they rorporated in the building various details of the Byzantine style, th which they were best acquainted. Thus the contour of the uldings, the carrying of the capitals and imposts, the dosseret ove the capital, and the scheme of decoration of the interior with irble casing on the lower portion of the walls and mosaic above, 1 all Byzantine. Externally the churches are extremely plain, e wall surfaces of the nave and aisle walls being varied by blind cades.

The earliest building in Ravenna is the tomb of Galla Placidia, jilt 450, a small cruciform structure with a dome on pendentives er the centre, perhaps the earliest example known. The baptistery St John, which was attached to the cathedral built by Archbishop ned to replace this by a vault, in order to resist the thrust, the ch per part of the walls was brought forward on arches and corbels, Sy ci the interior richly decorated with paintings, stucco reliefs and a saics in the dome The most interesting building in Ravenna, fei wever, from many points of view, is the church of San Vitale pr ~. 30), built 539547, its plan and design being based on the cx jrch of SS. Sergius and Bacchus at Constantinople. The propor- of ns of the interior of St Sergius are much finer than those in San ro Lale, where the dome is raised too high; the timber roofs also of fri n Vitale have deprived the church externally of that fine archi- sb tural effect found in Byzantine churches. In order to lighten the or me, its shell was built with hollow pots, the end of one fitted into in. mouth of the other. The interior of the church is of great beauty, Gi ing to the alternating of the piers carrying the eight arches with Bc columns set back in apsidal recesses. Unfortunately the church pe been much restored, but the magnificent mosaics in the choir Se d the variety of design shown in the capitals and dosserets render in c~ce - to -. .- .

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~ of Scale ol Feet ex 0 !0 20 30 40 so 60 70 ~ be FIG. 30.Plan of S. Vitale, Ravenna. cei s church, though small, one of the most attractive in Italy. ~y e other Ravenna building must be mentioned, though it would re~

difficult to know under what style to class it. The tomb of ~

codoric, having a decagonal plan in two storeys, the lower one 1

ulted at the upper storey, set back to allow of a terrace round, ~n4

e sheltered by a small arcade, and covered by a single stone a ft. in diameter, belongs to no definite style; the mouldings ofthe te; per portion have some resemblance to the mouldings of some of m Etruscan tombs at Castel dAsso, which was probably known to ,eodoric. e As Dairnatia and Istria both formed part of Theodorics kingdom, ha find there the same Byzantine influence as that which was erted in Ravenna, in both cases the work being done by artists ~ ci masons from Constantinople. There is not much left in DalLtia, bfit in Istria are two important examples,the churches at renzo (535543) and Grado (57 1586). Like the two churches in .venna, they are basilican in plan, with apses, semi-circular in. ernally and polygonal externally, the latter being a characteristic md in all the churches in Europe which were influenced directly ~ Byzantine custom. Although the monolith columns were derived it rn ancient Roman buildings, all the capitals were specially carved ~

the two churches, and they have the same variety of design ~ ci in many cases are identical with those in San Vitale, Sant ollinare Nuovo, Sant Apollinare-in-Classe, and those brought ~ er from Constantinople, which now decorate St Marks at Venice sd :ernallv as well as externally. The decoration of the lower part ~i~ the walls internally with marble slabs, and the upper portion and sidal vaults with mosaic, follows on the same lines as those at ~ mvenna and Constantinople. The church at Parenzo still retains baptistery and atrium, from which fragments of the mosaics ,~e tich originally decorated the west front can be seen. The I

urch at Aquileia was rebuilt in the 11th century, and the e jomo of Trieste has been so altered as to lose its original Byzantine P

arac~er., (R. P. S.) in EARLY ChRIsTIAN WORK IN CENTRAL SYRIA co Contemporaneously with the early developments of the Christian is urches just described, anot her line of treatment was being evolved th central Syria, which would seem to have been quite independent in. the others, though at first sight it hears considerable resemblance th the Byzantine style, and for that reason was probably classed ha ~rehr~uhd;h all other features are grouped, whereas in central na, with the exception of two examplesone a circular, the other olygonal churchthere are no domes. There is considerable Greek ling in the mouldings and carvings of the capitals, but that is)bably due to the fact that the masons were originally of Greek :raction. A comparison, for instance, of the design and carving the largest church in central Syria, the famous building erected md the column of St Simeon Stylites at Kalat-Sernan, dating m the 6th century, with any Byzantine church of the same date,)Ws very little resemblance, because the former was inspired more less directly by the Roman remains in the country. A similar piration is found in the churches of St Trophime at Aries and St les in the south of France, and at Autun and Langres in Burgundy. th were founded on Roman work, and the mouldings of the liments and archivolts and the fluting of tile pilasters at Kalatilan, of the 6th century, are identical with what is found, quite lependently, in Provence and Burgundy in the 11th and f2th ituries. There is, however, another special characteristic found the masonry of the churches in central Syria, which is peculiar the whole of Palestine, and is found in the earliest remains there, also in Roman work, and to a certain extent in much of the ihommedan construction and in that of the Crusaders, viz, its galithic qualities. Instead of building an arch in several vousrs, they preferred to do it in three or five only, and sometimes uld cut the whole arch out of a single vertical slab. If they ployed voussoirs, they were not content with ordinary depth,)Wfl by the archivolt mouldings, but made them three or four ~es as deep.

The masons, in fact, would seem to have retained the traditional oenician custom of the country to employ the lagest stones they re able to quarry, transport and raise on the building. Subseentiy, in working down the masonry, they reproduaed the architural features they found in Roman buildings; this was done, wever, without any knowledge as to their constructional origin or aning; thus, in copying a Roman pilaster, the capital and part the shaft would be worked out of one stone, and the lower part the shaft and the, base out of another. It is only from this point view that we can account for the peculiar development given to decoration of their later work, where archivolts, wood moulds and window dressings are looked upon as simply surface :oration to be applied round doorways and windows, without any erence to the jointing of the masonry.

The immense series of monuments, civil as well as religious sting throughout central Syria, were almost entirely unknown ore the publication of the marquis of Vogfli~s work, La .Syrie Irate, in 1865-1867. This work, illustrated with measured plans, tions and elevations, with perspective views, and accompanied detailed descriptions of the vitrious buildings, forms an invaluable ord of an architectural style, more or less completely developed, ich flourished from the 3rd to the beginning of the 7th century. American archaeological expedition made further investigations 1899-1900, and its report, written by Mr H. C. Butler, contains ciitional plans and a large number of photogravures, which bear timony to the truth and accuracy of the engraved plates of the ,rquis de Vogue. The preservation of these central Syrian remains, re or less intact, is considered to have been due either to the;ertion of all the towns in which they were situated by the inbitants at the time of the Mahommedan invasion, or, according Mr H. C. Butler, to the deforesting of the whole country about the simencement of the 7th century.

The monuments and buildings illustrated may be divided into -Ce classes,ecclesiastical, including monasteries; civil and mnestic; and tombs. It is in the two first that the principal crest is centred.

Churches.The earliest of these date from the end of the 4th itury, and the latest inscription on a church is 609, so that a Ic over 200 years includes the whole series. With one or two all exceptions all the churches follow the basilican plan, with cc and aisles separated by arcades, the arches of which are carried columns, four arches on each side in the smaller churches, ten in largest. The churches are all orientated, and have generally a ni-circular apse, and occasionally a square or rectangular sanctuary the east end, on either side of which are square chambersthe cconicon, reserved for the priests, on tile south side, and the ,thesis, on the north side, in which the offerings of the faithful re deposited. Except in the earliest chtirches, the entrance was ~erally at the west end, and was sometimes preceded by a porch. addition to the west entrance, there were sometimes doorways ding direct into the north and south aisles, with projecting rticoes. About the middle of the 6th centtiry a change was made the design of the arcades in the nave, and rectangular piers with :hes of wide span were substituted for the ordinary arcade with umns. The effect as shown in the engravings and photogravures so fine that it is strange that the scheme was never adopted in earlier Romanesque churches of Europe. The two more portant examples are at Kalb-Lauzeh (fig. 31) and Ruweiha, but ye or four others are known, and this plan was adopted in the silica erected in the great court of the temple at Baalbek. All ring courses and cornices of sirnpie design. The;rinci;al decora- H vi externally is found in the hood-mould or label round the is ,ndows, continued as a string-course and carried round other de ndows, and sometimes terminating in a disk with cross in centre, ha hiese hood-moulds are occasionally richly carved. All the churches ar central Syria had open timber roofs which have now disappeared; is is proved by the sinkings in the end wails to receive the purlins, d the corbels provided to carry the tie beams. The apses were always covered with semi-domes. The ~f%, three most important churches were those of Turmanin, Kalb-Lauzeh and KalatSeman. The plans of the two first are F similar,except that in Turmanin the I nave arcade is of the ordinary type, p while in Kalb-Lauzeh (fig. 32) there are ~ I with seven arches carried on columns, U on two rectangular piers and responds.

Both have entrance porches (fig. 33),

I I which are flanked by angle buildings carried up as towers in three storeys; these probably contained wooden stair- I cases to ascend to an open gallery, which - consisted of four columns in-antis between the angle towers above the porch. The L~ ,J~j north and south walls were quite plain, 4,., except for window and door dressings and string courses; the apse was richly decorated, with wall shafts superimposed between the windows, and carrying a G. 31.Plan of Church projecting cornice with alternate corbels.

of Kalb-Lauzeh. The church at Ruweiha has a similar plan to that at Kalb-Lauzeh, but two insverse arches in stone are thrown across the nave, resting on utments attached to the nave piers. be The most remarkable example and by far the largest is the great gr silica at Kalat-Seman (fig. 34), which was erected round the pillar an which St Simeon Stylites spent thirty years of his life. The base the pillar stands in the centre of an immense octagonal court go en to the sky. The plan consists of nave, transept and choir, all ca rh side aisles, separated in the centre by the octagonal court all ich constitutes the crossing. The nave built on the side of a hill th raised on a crypt, and the principal entrance would seem to have ~___

-- ____

1-- -


_r-1l ~~-

~i ~

_____ _____

FIG. 32.Interior of the Church of Kalb-Lauzeh.

en through the porch of the north transept, which occupies the full dii dth of transept and aisles. There were, however, in addition two of orways with porches to each aisle, as well as portico and doors sti the north transept. At the eastern end were three apses, the o outer ones, facing the aisles, being additions in the second half go the 6th century. St Simeon died in 459, and the church was is Dbably begun shortly afterwards, but not completed till the oc hi century. The archivolts of the great arches on each side of the ca, as in the great s~ut~rn porch, the classic nature of the details remarkable, the pilasters are all fluted, and the modillion and ritil, derived from Roman models, exist throughout. On the other nd, the carving of the foliage was certainly executed by Greek;ists, and the well-known Byzantine capital, with the leaves -~-, r~

- --. r.e~ - -

- .. - - 1111L1

-~ ~ ~ -.~

~ -T -

~ - - ..--

F1u. 33.Church of Turmanin.

riding under the influence of the wind, is here reproduced. The at apse externally retains its decoration with superimposed shafts ~ cornice, as in Turmanin and Kalb-Lauzeh.

rhe monastery of Kalat-Seman was built on the south side of the at church, and many of the rooms had roofs of slabs of stone ned on arches across the room, a method of construction universy found in the Hauran, where the absence of timber nece~sitated s more permanent method of construction. The monasteries ~i~~i]t~f~l ~ ~.

FIG. 34.Plaa of Church of Kalat-Seman.

columns in the porticoes, having invariably square piers of ne.

i~mong circular churches, the walls of the cathedral at Bozra are rie, so that the conjectural restoration shown in de Vogues work purely speculative, but in the church at Ezra (510) the central iagon is covered by a high dome of elliptical section. An aisle is wied round the octagon with similar recesses on the diagonal lines, Domestic WorkThe domestic work in central Syria is, in a way, ea~ in more remarkable than the ecclesiastical. Broadly speaking, ea~ ~re are two types of planthose found in the towns and grouped ~ether, and those which with increased area, constituted a villa. dif El Barah the average house occupied a site of about 80 ft. by TI ft., of which about 30 ft. in width was occupied by an open court; th~;ing this court, which was enclosed with high walls, is an open oft onnade on two floors, which always faces south, occupies the do ole front (80 ft.) of the house, and is the only means of approach ani the rooms in the rear, three on each floor, side by side. In the an stre of these rooms, 14 ft. wide each, an arch is thrown across on an :h floor, which carries slabs of stone covering the first floor and Al roof: the upper storey was reached probably by a timber eel ircase, now gone, but in poorer dwellings an external flight of thl ps in stone led to an upper floor. All the houses face the same way. an e colonnade of the house consisted of about fifteen columns on be :h storey. Each column, including its capital and base, was cut cei of a single stone; on the upper storey, between the columns, stone vertical slabs forming a balustrade; the houses are all Dc ilt in fine ashlar niasonry with architraves and cornices to doors Ri 3 windows, a luxury which in England could rarely be indulged 24 for ordinary houses. At El Barah, in an area of about 250 ft. by tw ft. as shown by de Vogue, there are about 100 monolith columns, in ft. high, on the ground storey, alone. In a villa at El Barah the dir en court is surrounded on three sides by buildings, those at the east ap I of considerable extent and in three storeys. A smaller example sel Mujeleia has two courts, one of them being for stables and other Ar vices; otherwise the residence of the proprietor is similar to the thi e above described. Here and there the fantasy of the artist has St m allowed to revel in the carving of the balustrades, door hotels, St The capitals are of endless design, and show interpretations Cc Ionic and Corinthian capitals, in some cases not dissimilar to the wa zantine versions in St Marks at Venice. pr~ Flostelries and public baths are amongst other civil buildings th ich are recognizable, the hostelries in some cases being attached an the monasteries. th To,nbs.The principal tombs are either excavated in the rock, mc an open court in front and an entrance portico, like the tombs the kings at Jerusalem, and sometimes a superstructure of columns E~ a podium raised above them; or again they are built in masonry, l~ I take the form of sepulchral chapels; in the latter case, if many cophagi have to be deposited, and the chapel is of great length, hes are thrown across, about 6 ft. centre to centre, to support the bs of stone with which they are covered. This carries on the ditional custom of the Roman temples in Syria, the roofs of ich, in stone, were similarly supported. Sometimes there will be be o storeys, the upper one covered with a dome. Those which are to :uliar to the country are square tombs, with a pyramidal stone roof an built in horizontal courses, and either enclosed with a peristyle all ~ md. on one or two storeys, or having a portico in front with flat ne roof. The cornices, string courses and lintels of the doors of N he tombs of the 4th and 5th centuries, are enriched with carving, ch)wing strong Byzantine influence, though probably due to the R(ployment of Greek artists., (R. P. S.) tic THE COPTIc CiniRcu IN EGYPT Cl The earliest places of Christian worship in Egypt were probably su y chapels or oratories of small dimensions attached to the)nastenies, which were spread throughout the country; a wholesale m~ ~truction of these took place at various times, more especially by pe order of Severus, about 200 B.C., so that no remains have come wn to us. The most ancient examples known are those which are es ributed to the empress Helena, of which there are important rtions preserved in the churches of the White and Red monasteries an the foot of the Libyan hills near Suhag. in Although the plan of the Coptic church is generally basilican, i.e. de ~sists of nave and aisles, it is probable that they were not copied di m Roman examples, but were based on expansions of the first ~ itories built, to which aisles had afterwards been added. There -c no long transepts, as in the early Christian basilicas of St Peters aft Rome, and of St Paul outside the walls, and there is only one ow imple of a cruciform church with a dome in the centre following TI Byzantine plan. Even at an early period the nave and aisles re covered sometimes with barrel vaults, either semicircular or rer iptical. The Coptic church was always orientated with the El lctuaries at the east end. The aisles were returned round the west Dm I and had galleries above for women. Sometimes the western ali le has been walled up to form a narthex; in many cases a narthex ~s built, but, in consequence of the persecution to which the Copts Ar re subject at the hands o the Moslems, its three doors have been at cked up and a separate small entrance provided. The narthex is .s the place for penitents, but was sometimes used for baptism by Rc :al immersion, there being epiphany tanks sunk in the floor of the urches at Old Cairo, known as Abu Serga, Abu-s-Sifain (Abti fen) and El Adra; these are now boarded over, as total immersion fol no longer practised. ye There are a few exceptions to the basilican plan; and in four pri imoles (two in Cairo and two at Deir-Mar-Antonios in the eastern Ur h row, thus dividing the roof into twelve square compartments, h of which is covered with a dome.

Che sanctuaries at the east end, as developed in the Coptic church, er in some particulars from those of any other religious structures. ere are always three chapels or sanctuaries, with an altar in each, central chapel being known as the Haikal. The chapels are more en square than apsidal, and are always surmounted by a complete we, a peculiarity not found out of Egypt. The seats of the tribune still preserved in a large number of the sanctuaries, and there probably more examples in Egypt than in all Europe, if Russia I Mount Athos be excepted. Those of Abu-Serga, El Adra and u-s-Sifain, with three concentric rows of seats and a throne in the tre, are the most important; but even in the square sanctuaries tradition is retained, and seats are ranged against the east wall, I in one case (at Anba-Bishfli) three steps are carried across, and mind them is a segmental tribune of three steps, with throne in the tre.

Lhe most remarkable Coptic churches in Egypt are those of the ir-el-Abiad (the White monastery) and the Deir-el-Akhmar (the d monastery) at Suhag. These were of great size, measuring about ft. by 130 ft. with vaulted narthex, nave and aisles separated by rows of monolith columns taken from ancient buildings, twelve each row and probably roofed over in timber, and three apses, feted respectively towards the east, north and south. These;es are unusually deep and have five niches in each, in two storeys arated by superimposed columns. In the church of St John at tinoe there are seven niches. A similar arrangement is found in three apses, placed side by side, in the more ancient portion of Marks, Venice, built A.D. 820, and said to have been copied from Marks at Alexandria. There is no external architecture in the ptic churches; they are all masked with immense enclosure us, so as to escape attention. The walls of the interior still serve a great portion of the paintings of scriptural subjects; screens dividing off the Haikal and other chapels from the choir of great beauty, and evidently formed the models from which panelled woodwork, doors and pulpits of the Mahommedan sques have been copied and reproduced by Copts.

Ilustrations are given in A. J. Butlers Ancient Coptic Churches of ypt (1884); Wladimir de Bocks Matiriaux archologiques de gypte chrtienne (1901); and A. Gayets Lart coptique.

(R. P. S.)


Romanesque is the broad generic term adopted about the ~inning of the 19th century by French archaeologists in order bring under one head all the various phases of the round:hed Christian style, hitherto known as Lombard and Byzantine manesque in Italy, Rhenish in Germany, Romane and rman in France, Saxon and Norman in England, &c. In cracter, as well as in time, the Romanesque lies between the man and the Gothic or Pointed style, but its first manifestan in Italy has already been described in the section on Early ristian Architecture, and it only remains to deal with the)sequent development from the age of Charlemagne, which ,rks an epoch in the history of architecture, and from which iod examples are to be found in every countryl In consequence of the lack of homogeneousness in the Romanlue style as developed in Italy, owing to the mixture of styles, I the difficulty of tracing the precise influence of any one race buildings frequently added to, restored or rebuilt, their;cription will be more easily followed if a geographical subision be made, the simplest being Northern or Lombard manesque, Central Romanesque and Southern Romanesque; er the latter would follow the Sicilian Romanesque, which, ing to the Saracenic craftsman, constitutes a type by itself. is leaves still one other phase to be noted, the influence ognized in northern Italy of the architectural style of the stern Empire at Byzantium, either direct or through Istria and Imatia. In the churches at Ravenna, this influence has eady been referred to in the section on Early Christian ahitecture, but it appears again in the church of St Mark Venice, and in much of its domestic architecture, so that it necessary to recognize another term,- that of Byzantine manesque.

~7orthern or Lombard Romanesque.Although the materials for ming an adequate notion of the earlier work of the Lombards are y scanty, after their conversion to the Catholic faith the Church bably exercised a powerful influence in their architectural work. der Liutprand, towards the close of the 8th century, an order;mrnacini~so na~ned from the island in the lake of Como whence an fy sprang, were trained masons and builders, who in the 9th and ch th century would seem to have carried the Lombard style through th rth and south Italy, Germany and portions of France. It was at co:

e time assumed that they had influenced the church architecture rol roughout Europe, but this is not borne out by the evidence of the de ildings themselves, except in the Rhenish provinces and in the ap tricts on the slope of the Harz Mountains, where in sculpture a M ange mixture is found of monstrous animals with Scandinavian de :erlaced patterns and Byzantine foliage, bearing a close resemblance an the early sculpture in Sant Ambrogio at Milan and San Michele re Pavia (Plate V., fig. 72). Although the earliest Lombard buildings an Italy (such as those of San Salvatore in Brescia, San Viocenzo-in- If ato at Milan, the church of Agliate and Santa Maria delle Caccie Wa Pavia) were basilican in plan with nave and aisles, there are some is tances in which the adoption of a transept has produced the wa tin cross plan (e.g. San Michele at Pavia, Sant Antonino at to scenza, San Nazaro-Grande at Milan, and the cathedrals of Parma Sa d Modena), though to what extent this is due to subsequent na)uilding is not known. In the early basilicas above mentioned. thi 1 columns, carrying the arcades between nave and aisles, were thi ~en from earlier buildings, while the capitals, where not Roman, of re either rude imitations of Roman, or Byzantine in style. The)fs were always in wood, and the exteriors of the simplest descrip in. In the external decoration, however, of the apses of the urches of San Vincenzo-in-Prato, Santa Maria delle Caccie, the urch at Agliate and the ancient portion of S. Ambrogio at Milan, find the germ of that decorative feature which (afterwards veloped into the eaves-gallery) became throughout Italy and on e Rhine the most beautiful and characteristic element of the imbard style. In order to lighten the wall above the hemispherical ult of the apse, a series of niches was sunk within the arches of the rbel table, which gave to the cornice that deep shadow where it is most wanted for effect. In addition to the churches above med, similar niches are found in the baptisteries of Novara and sago, the Duomo Vecchio at Brescia and the church of San izaro Grande at Milan. Towards the close of the 11th century, i imposts of these niches take the form of isolated piers, with a rrow gallery behind, and eventually small shafts with capitals are bstituted for the piers, producing the eaves-galleries of the apses, rich in Santa Maria Maggiore at Bergamo (f 137) and the cathedral Piacenza are the forerunners of numerous others in Italy, and in 1 churches of Cologne, Bonn, Bacharach and other examples on the iine, constitute their most important external decoration.

In the apses of San Vincenzo-in-Prato and of the church at Agliate Dth of the 9th century) there is another decorative feature, destined ~ afterwards to become one of the most - important methods of breaking up or ~, subdividing the wall surface, i.e. the thin pilasterstrips, which, at regular intervals, rise from the lower part of the wall to the ~ ~ corbel table of the cornice.

~ - The two most important churches of -- :: !. the Lombard Romanesque style are;-~-::; I those of Sant Ambrogio at Milan and S.

Michele at Pavia, their importance being ~ i.,. increased by the fact that they probably i ~.:-4~-~~ p represent the earliest examples of the / solutian of the great problem which was pr I ~;ii, exercising the minds of the church an aK builders towards the end of the 11th an I ~*~T:-~~ century, the vaulting of the nave. In th the original church, of the 9th century, th ~ ..~ ,4.. ~:~:- the nave and aisles of Sant Ambrogio th ~ were divided in the usual way with pr ~ ..~- ~ ..--,~ arcades, and were covered with open co - timber roofs. In the rebuilding of the fir e~ :M11l~l:;< g church (fig. 35) the nave (38 ft. wide) re :~J ~j~< compound piers of large dimensions were of built, to carry the transverse and ce ~ ~ 1~ diagonal ribs of the new vault. To resist di v~-ffl ~1:i-.- ~ the thrust, thewallsacrosstheaisleswere th - ..4f.N -~..: ,~ built up to the roof, and had external ce :.i::Vj I~ji5(,,~$ buttresses; the diagonal ribs, instead of T~

~ ~7~i: following the elliptical curve which the Sf 1/. intersection of the Roman semicircular S.

-,~~-~ ~ barrel-vault gave to the groin, were made ni semicircular, so that the web or vaulting or surface which rested on these ribs rose ce FIG. 35.Plan of upwards towards the centre of the bay, at S. Ambrogio. giving a distinct domical form to the th vault. The aisles, being half the ar dth of the nave, were divided into eight compartments, two of each bay of the nave, and were covered both in the ground rey and the triforium with intersecting groin vaults. When this Si building took place, the front of the church was brought forward, th aring a narthex, and the arcades of the atrium were rebuilt in dc FIG. 36.Plan of San Michele, Pavia.

)bably begun shortly after the destructive earthquake of 1117,

1 was consecrated in 1132. In Sant Ambrogio the transverse ft there was no room for clerestory windows, and consequently interior is dark. In San Michele the ribs rise from the level of top of the triforium arcades, and two clerestory windows are wided to each bay. The crossing of the nave and transept is iered with a dome, carried on squinches, which dates from the;t building. The dome over the fourth bay of Sant Ambrogio)laced the original vault about the beginning of the 13th century. The cathedral of Novara, originally of the ordinary basilica type the 10th century with timber roofs, was reconstructed in the 11th Itury, compound piers being built to carry the transverse and igonal ribs, and walls built across the outer aisles to resist the rust; on the other hand SS. Pietro and Paolo at Bologna is a 12th atury church, which was designed from the first to be vaulted. these, and still belonging to the basilican plan, must be added o Pietro in Cielo doro (1136) and San Teodoro, both in Pavia; Evasio at Casale-Monferrato, having a comparatively narrow ye with double aisles on either side and a very remarkable narthea porch: S. Lorenzo at Verona (lately restored), which in the 12th ritury was rebuilt with compound piers to carry a vault (the apse d the two remarkable circular towers in the west front belong to ancient church); and Sant Abbondio at Como, often restored d partly rebuilt, retaining, however, some of the original sculpture the early Lombard period.

Of churches built on the plan of the Latin cross, examples are nt Antonino at Piacenza, with an octagonal lantern tower over I crossing; Parma cathedral (c. 1175), with an octagonal pointed me over the crossing; Modena cathedral, rebuilt and consecrated Reference has already been made to the eaves-galleries of the to ses of the Lombard churches. A similar gallery was carried across pr e main front, rising with the slope of the roof, as in San Michele, ex Lvia; also on the west fronts of San Pietro in Cielo doro and San no infranco, at Pavia; and in the cathedrals of Parma and Piacenza. wc all these cases the galleries are not quite continuous, vertical tic tttresses or groups of shafts or single shafts being carried up through ou em to the corbel tables. In S. Ambrogio at Milan the central en iginal lantern is surrounded with two tiers of galleries. The finest TI ample of their employment, however, is in the magnificent central, no wer of the Cistercjan church at Chiaravaile, near Milan, where the de o lower storeys form the drum of the internal dome, the two da reys above are set hack, and the upper storey consists of a lofty wi tagonal tower ~vi~h conical spire. mi One of the serious defects in the front of the church of San Michele sir Pavia is that it forms a mask, and takes no cognizance of the aisle ofs, which are at a lower level, and the same is found in San etro-in-Cielo doro at Pavia. This mask is carried to an absurd tent in the church of Santa Maria della Pieve at Arezzo, in which, ove the ground storey of the arcades, are three galleries forming rong horizontal lines, which suggest the numerous floors of a civic rIding instead of the vertical subdivisions of a church. This fect is not found in the church of San Zeno at Verona, which is one the finest of the Lombard churches; the church is basilican in ~n, the nave being divided into five bays with compound piers, In Sant Ambrogio, as if it were intended to vault it; t,his, however, is never done, but stone arches are thrown across the two westernDst bays of the nave as if to carry the rool (now concealed by a)oden ceiling). The faade is of marble and sandstone, with laster-strips rising from the base to the arched corbel table, and e outline of th nave and aisles is preserved in the front, in which the mouldings and carving are of the utmost delicacy. Both here d in the cathedral are fine examples of those projecting porchcs, e columns of which are carried on the backs of lions or other beasts. Piacenza, Parma, Mantua, Bergamo and Modena are porches of similar kind, and in the cathedral of Modena the columns which pport the balcony on the entrance to the crypt are all carried on e backs of lions. The cathedral of Verona has suffered so much im rebuilding and restoration that little remains of the earlier ucture, but the apse of the choir, decorated with a close set range pilaster-strips, with bases and Corinthian capitals and crowned th a highly enriched entablature, is quite unique in its design.

Among circular buildings, the Rotonda at Brescia was at one ne considered to date from the 8th century, owing to its massive ristruction and the simplicity and plainness of its external design. ter discoveries, however, have shown that the early date can only given to the crypt of San Filasterio situated to the eastward of the itonda. The church of Santo Sepolcro at Bologna, as its name plies, is one of those reproductions of the church of the Holy pulchre at Jerusalem which were built by the Templars during I crusades. Of much earlier date is the circular church of San mmaso-in-Limine, an early Lombard work of the 9th century, to iich period belong also the baptisteries of Aibenga, Arsago, Biella, illiano and Asti. One of the most beautiful examples is the ptistery of Santa Maria at Gravedona, at the northern end of the ce of Como, built in black and white marble. The plan is unusual, d consists of a square with circular apses on three sides.

Byzantine Romanesque.Although in the first basilican church of Mark at Venice, erected in 929 to receive the relics of the saint ~overed from St Marks in Alexandria, the capitals of the columns ,d other decorative accessories showed Greek influence, its transrmation into a five-domed Byzantine structure was not begun till out the middle of the 11th century. The date given by Cattanco 1063, the same year in which the cathedral of Pisa was begun; is probable, however, that the scheme had already been in con- T(mplation for some years, as the problem was not an easy one to of lye, owing to the restrictions of the site, and to the desire to of produce in some way the leading features of the church of the Holy Ca ostles at Constantinople. This church was destroyed in 1464, UT it its description by Procopius is so clear, and corresponds so closely tr th St Marks, completed towards the end of the 11th century, as to ex we little doubt about the source of its inspiration. From what has A~ ready been said with reference to the great changes made when it e~ is proposed to vault the early Lombard basilican churches, those at equal importance which were carried out in St Marks will be Sf tter understood. The nave was divided into three square bays ar g. 37), with additional bays on the north and south to form tran- tli pts; the five square bays thus obtained were covered with domes ,rried on pendentives, as in St Sophia at Constantinople, and on C ide transverse barrel vaults; the domes over the north and south cc ansepts and the choir were of slightly less dimensions than those T er the nave and crossing, in consequence of the limitations in area of ,used by the chapel of St Theodore on the north, the ducal palace hi i the south, and the ancient apse of the original basilica which it am as desired to retain. In the reconstruction, many of the old columns, ea pitals and parapets wem utilized again in the arcades carrying the in tlleries and in the balustrades over them. Externally the brick m ails were decorated with blind arcades and niches of Lombard m Darry out, not including the florid work of later date. There is no cedent in the East for the superimposed columns and capitals iorted from Constantinople and Syria which now decorate the -tb south and west fronts (Plate I., fig. 63), though the materials re all of the finest Byzantine type. Internally, the mosaic decoran of the domes, vaults and the upper part of the walls, was carried by Greek artists from Constantinople, who probably also were ployed for the marble panelling of the lower part of the walls. e marble casing of the front was certainly executed by ConstantiDolitan artists, since the moulded string known as the Venetian ~til is a direct reproduction of that in St Sophia. At a later ~e the domes were all surmounted by lanterns in wood, covered;h lead, and the roofs were all raised. So far, therefore, the builddeparts from its prototype, the church of the Apostles. A iilar transformation took place in the church of Santa Fosca at s~.R~o.e ~ ~ I

~ ~ ~

~ ~I I 1.

~~:~:~:.:1I .~.

~iiNEngels -..III .. 1 B;



~ ~ ~

~,jDeeo~-am;o,, (*?s,bl~ Mosaics), 1700-1350. C. Trcassy.

~ W obost 1300. D. Chapel of ,St.Zga~,

Scale of Feet 0~~O 203040506 7080 9Or~o ~rom R. P. Spierss Archilecture, East and Wes2.

FIG. 37.Plan of St Marks, Venice.

rcello, where a single large dome was contemplated over the centre the original basilican church, but was never built. The cathedral Torcello and the church at Murano are richly decorated with rved panels, capitals, choir screens and other features, either ported from the East or reproduced by Greek artists or Italians tined in the style. The influence of St Marks in this respect tended far and wide on the east coast of Italy; and at Pomposa, icona, and as far south as Brindisi, Byzantine details can be traced erywhere. The designs of the churches of San Ciriaco at Ancona d of Sant Antonio at Padua were both based on St Marks. nt Antonios had six domes, there being two over the nave; d in all cases the domes were surmounted by domes in timber like ose of St Marks.

In domestic work, Venice is richer in Byzantine architecture than instantinople, for with the exception of the Hebdomon palace the ntinual fires there have destroyed all the earlier palaces and houses. ie Fondaco-dei-Turchi, built probably in the If th century, is one the most remarkable; the front on the great canal is 160 ft. long, ving a lofty arcade with ten stilted arches on the ground storey d an arcade of eighteen arches above; the pavilion wings at the st end are in three storeys, with blind arcades and windows pierced the central arcade. The whole was built in brick encased with irble, with panels or disks enriched with has-reliefs or colored irbles. A second example is found in the Palazzo Loredan, having oscari. Throughout Venice the decoration of these Byzantine ii alacee would seem to have influenced those of later date; for the f enetian dentil, interlaced scroll-work and string courses, with the ~ yzantine pendant leaf, are found intermingled with Gothic work, a ren down to the 15th century, and the same to a certain extent is >uod at Padua, Verona and Vic,enza.

Central Romanesque.The builders in the centre of Italy would c rem to have followed more closely the Roman basilican plan, for r two of the earliest churches, Santa Maria Fuorcivitas at Lucca I rid San Paolo a Ripa dArno at Pisa, the 1-shaped plan of St Peters a rid St Pauls, with widely projecting transepts, was adopted; the t ifference also between the north and central developments is very iarked, as in the place of the massive stone walls, compound piers, sd internal and external buttresses deemed necessary to resist the irusts of the great vaults, and the low clerestory of the northern riurches, those in the south retain the light arcades with classic)lumns, the wooden roofs, and the high clerestory of the Roman asilicas. Instead of the vigorous sculpture of the Lombards in se Tuscan churches, marbles of various colors take its place, the Irving being more refined in character and much quieter in effect.

The earliest church now existing is that of San Frediano at Lucca, ating from the end of the 7th century. Originally it was a fivesled basilica, with an eastern apse, but when it was included ithin the walls in the i ith century the apse and the entrance oorway changed places, and a fine eaves-gallery was carried round se new apse; the outer aisles were also transformed into chapels. o many of the churches in Pisa and Lucca had new fronts given to -mm in the 11th or 12th century, that it is interesting to find, in e church of San Pietro-in-Grado at Pisa, an example in which se external decoration with pilaster strips and arched corbel tables retained, showing that in the 9th century, when that church was uilt, the Lombard style prevailed there. Other early churches are ose of San Casciano (9th century), San Nicola and San Frediano all in Pisa.

Of early foundation, but probably rebuilt in the 11th century, re two interesting churches in Toscanella, Santa Maria and San ietro; they are both basilican on plan, but the easternmost bay is wice the width of the other arches of the arcade, and is divided om the nave by a triumphal arch. In both churches the floor of he transept is raised some feet above the nave, and a crypt occupies he whole space below it.

One of the earliest and most perfect examples of this subdivision the church of San Miniato, on a hill overlooking Florence. - The hurch was rebuilt in 1013, and some of the Roman capitals of the arlier building are incorporated in the new one. It is divided into ave and aisles by an arcade of nine arches, and every third support onsists of a compound pier with four semi-detached shafts, one of rhich, on each side of the nave, rises to the level of the summit of he arcade and carries a massive transverse arch to support the roof. he east end of the church, occupying the last three bays of the rcade, is raised II ft. above the floor of the nave, over a vaulted rypt extending the whole width of the church and carried under the astern apse. The interior of the church, which is covered over ,jth an open timber roof, painted in color and gilded, is decorated dth inlaid patterns of black and white marble of conventional esign, and the same scheme is adopted in the main faade, enriching he panels of the blind arcade on the lower storey, and above an xtremely classic design of Corinthian pilasters, entablature and ediment.

As none of the faades of the Pisan churches was built before the riiddle of the 11th century, it is possible that Buschetto, the architect f the cathedral of Pisa, may have profited by the scheme suggested a the lower storey of San Miniato; if so he departed from its classic roportions. There are seven blind arcades in the lower storey of he Pisan cathedral, the arcades are loftier, and the position of the ide doors which open into the inner aisle on each side is of much etter effect. The cathedral was begun in 1063, the year following he brilliant capture of Palermo by the Pisans, when they returned n triumph with immense spoils. In plan it consists of a Latin cross, vith double aisles on either side of the nave extending to the east nd, a central apse, transepts with single aisles on each side, and iorth and south transepted apses (fig. 38). The nave arcade, with l ts Corinthian capitals and monolith stone columns, is of exceptional)oldness, and as it is carried across the transept up to the east end a length of 320 ft) it forms a continuous line greater than that I n any other cathedral. The crossing is covered by a dome, elliptical in plan, being from east to west the length of the transept and I Lisles. The result is unfortunate, and detracts both externally and i nternally from its beauty; otherwise the exterior decoration, which nust have been schemed out in its entirety from the beginning (with he exception of the dome, which is of later design), has the most ntisfactory and pleasing effect. The lofty blind arcade of the lower torey and the open gallery above on the faade (the latter repre- I ented by a blind arcade), are carried round the whole building, nd the horizontal lines of the galleries of the upper storeys accord with the roofs of the aisles and nave respectively and the blind arcade I)f the clerestory. The walls are faced within and without with i white and grey marble, and the combination of sculpture and inlay om those of any building found in the East, and the mosaics, hich constitute the finest decorative element in that style, were not Ided till the i4th century, and formed no part of the architect uschettos scheme.

The Baptistery, begun in 1153, was not completed till towards the ose of the 13th century, when important alterations were made i the design to bring it into accordance with the new Gothic style. he crocketed gables, and the upper gallery, substituted for the rcades, which followed on the lines of those in the cathedral, have iken away the quiet repose found in the latter; the lower storey, PISA

Campanile, or Leaning Tower, 1174-1350 -

Cathedral, 1067.1250,, ~.~Campanm e Baptistery restored after fire 1596. ~

Cemetery (Camps Santo), 1278-1465.


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7 Jean FIG. 38.

owever, with its lofty blind arcades, similar to those of the cathedral, ,nd the principal doorway, are of great beauty. The central area f the baptistery, which is surrounded by aisles and triforium allery, is covered by a conical dome; internally as well as exernally this can never have been a beautiful feature, and the ,dditions of the 13th century have made it one of the ugliest roofs a existence.

The Campanile or leaning tower was begun in 1174. Owing, Lowever, to the treacherous nature of the ground, the piles driven a to support the tower gave way on the south side, so that, when nly 35 ft. above the ground, a settlement was noticed, and slight dditions in height were made from time to time in order to obtain horizontal level for the stone courses; but this was without avail, nd on the completion of the third gallery above the ground storey he work was suspended for many years. In 1350 it was reommenced, three more gallery storeys were added, and the upper r belfry stage was set back in the inner wall. The tower is now 178 ft. igh, and overhangs nearly 14 ft. on the south side; its design is made toharmonize with the cathedral,but shows much less refinement nd grace.

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