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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


anastral (an-as′tral)
Lacking an astrosphere.

anatomical (an′a-tom′i-kal)
1. Relating to anatomy. 2. SYN: structural. 3. Denoting a strictly morphological feature distinct from its physiological or surgical considerations, e.g., a. neck of humerus, a. dead space, a. lobulation of the liver.

anatomicomedical (an-a-tom′i-ko-med′i-kal)
Referring to both medicine and anatomy.

anatomicopathologic (an-a-tom′i-ko-path-o-loj′i-kal)
Relating to anatomical pathology.

anatomicosurgical (an-a-tom′i-ko-ser′ji-kal)
Relating to surgical anatomy.

anatomic snuffbox (snuf′boks)
A hollow seen on the radial aspect of the wrist when the thumb is extended fully; it is bounded by the prominences of the tendon of the extensor pollicis longus posteriorly and of the tendons of the extensor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus anteriorly. The radial artery crosses the floor which is formed by the scaphoid and the trapezium bones. SYN: tabatière anatomique.

anatomist (a-nat′o-mist)
A specialist in the science of anatomy.

anatomy (a-nat′o-me) [TA]
1. The morphologic structure of an organism. 2. The science of the morphology or structure of organisms. 3. SYN: dissection. 4. A work describing the form and structure of an organism and its various parts. [G. anatome, dissection, from ana, apart, + tome, a cutting] applied a. SYN: clinical a.. artificial a. the manufacture of models of anatomic structures, or the study of a. from such models. artistic a. the study of a. for artistic purposes, as applied to painting, drawing, or sculpture. clastic a. the construction or study of models in layers which can be removed one after the other to show the structure of the organism and/or organ. SYN: plastic a.. clinical a. the practical application of anatomical knowledge to diagnosis and treatment. SYN: applied a.. comparative a. the comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. dental a. that branch of gross a. concerned with the morphology of teeth, their location, position, and relationships. descriptive a. a description of, especially a treatise describing, physical structure, more particularly that of man. SYN: systematic a.. developmental a. a. of the structural changes of an individual from fertilization to adulthood; includes embryology, fetology, and postnatal development. functional a. a. studied in its relation to function. SYN: morphophysiology, physiologic a.. general a. the study of gross and microscopic structures as well as of the composition of the body, its tissues and fluids. gross a. general a., so far as it can be studied without the use of the microscope; commonly used to denote the study of a. by dissection of a cadaver. See practical a.. SYN: macroscopic a.. living a. the study of a. in the living individual by inspection. macroscopic a. SYN: gross a.. medical a. a. in its bearing upon the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. microscopic a. the branch of a. in which the structure of cells, tissues, and organs is studied with the light microscope. See histology. pathological a. SYN: anatomic pathology. physiologic a. SYN: functional a.. plastic a. SYN: clastic a.. practical a. a. studied by means of dissection. See gross a.. radiologic a. the study of bodily structure using radiographs and other imaging methods. regional a. an approach to anatomic study based on regions, parts, or divisions of the body ( e.g., the foot or the inguinal region), emphasizing the relationships of various systemic structures ( e.g., muscles, nerves, and arteries) within that area; distinguished from systemic a.. SYN: topographic a., topology (1) . special a. the a. of certain definite organs or groups of organs involved in the performance of special functions; descriptive a. dealing with the separate systems. surface a. the study of the configuration of the surface of the body, especially in its relation to deeper parts. surgical a. applied a. in reference to surgical diagnosis, dissection, or treatment. systematic a. SYN: descriptive a.. systemic a. a. of the systems of the body; an approach to anatomical study organized by organ systems, e.g., the cardiovascular system, emphasizing an overview of the system throughout the body; distinguished from regional a.. topographic a. SYN: regional a.. transcendental a. the theories and deductions based upon the morphology of the organs and individual parts of the body. ultrastructural a. the ultramicroscopic study of structures too small to be seen with a light microscope.

anatopism (a-nat′o-pizm)
Failure to conform to the cultural pattern. [G. ana, backward, + topos, place]

anatoxic (an-a-tok′sik)
Pertaining to the characteristic properties of anatoxin (toxoid).

anatoxin (an-a-tok′sin)
SYN: toxoid.

anatricrotic (an′a-tri-krot′ik)
Characterized by anatricrotism; denoting a sphygmographic tracing with three waves on the ascending limb.

anatricrotism (an′a-trik′ro-tizm)
A condition of the pulse manifested by a triple beat on the ascending limb of the sphygmographic tracing. [G. ana, up, + tri-, thrice, krotos, beating]

anatripsis (an-a-trip′sis)
Therapeutic use of rubbing or friction with or without simultaneous application of a medicament. [G. a rubbing, fr. anatribo, fr. ana, intensive, + tribo, to rub]

anatriptic (an-a-trip′tik)
1. Pertaining to anatripsis. 2. A remedy to be applied by friction or rubbing.

anaxon, anaxone (an-aks′on, -aks′on)
Having no axon; denoting certain nerve cells first described by S. Ramón y Cajal as amacrine cells in the retina, and later discovered in several brain regions. [G. an- priv. + axon, axis]

anazoturia (an′az-o-too′re-a)
A deficiency or lack of nitrogenous metabolic products excreted in the urine; pertains especially to unusually small quantities of urea in the urine. [G. an- priv. + azoturia]

Abbreviation for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, under antibody.

Abbreviation for anodal closure contraction.

A person in the direct line of descent from which a subject of interest is derived (parents, grandparents, etc.; but no collaterals or descendants). leading a. in genetic counseling given to a consultand unaffected by but possibly a carrier or a latent subject of the disease; the most recent a. in the direct line of descent known to have had the affected gene in question.

anchorage (ang′kor-ij)
1. Operative fixation of loose or prolapsed abdominal or pelvic organs. 2. The part to which anything is fastened. In dentistry, a tooth or an implanted tooth substitute with which a fixed or removable partial denture, crown, or restoration is retained. 3. The nature and degree of resistance to displacement offered by an anatomical unit when used for the purpose of effecting tooth movement. [L. ancora, fr. G. ankyra, anchor] cervical a. a. in which the back of the neck is used for resistance by means of a cervical strap. extraoral a. a. in which the resistance unit is outside the oral cavity; e.g., cranial, occipital, or cervical a.. intermaxillary a. a. in which the units in one jaw are used to effect tooth movement in the other jaw. intramaxillary a. a. in which the resistance units are all situated within the same jaw. intraoral a. a. in which the resistance units are all located within the oral cavity. multiple a. a. in which more than one type of resistance unit is utilized. SYN: reinforced a.. occipital a. a. in which the top and back of the head are used for resistance by means of a headgear. reciprocal a. a. in which the movement of one or more teeth is balanced against the movement of one or more opposing teeth. reinforced a. SYN: multiple a.. simple a. a. in which the resistance to the movement of one or more teeth comes solely from resistance to tipping movement of the a. unit. stationary a. a. in which the resistance to the movement of one or more teeth comes from the resistance to bodily movement of the a. unit; a questionable concept since the selected teeth remain only relatively stable.

anchorin (ang′kor-in)
SYN: ankyrin. [anchor + -in]

anchusin (an′koo-sin)
SYN: alkannin.

ancillary (an′si-lar-e)
Auxiliary, accessory, or secondary. [L. ancillaris, relating to a maidservant]

ancipital, ancipitate, ancipitous (an-sip′i-tal, -i-tat, -i-tus)
Two-headed; two-edged. [L. anceps, two-headed]

ancon (ang′kon)
SYN: elbow (2) . [G. ankon, elbow]

anconad (ang′ko-nad)
Toward the elbow. [G. ankon, elbow, + L. ad, to]

anconal, anconeal (ang′ko-nal, ang-ko′ne-al)
1. Relating to the elbow (ancon). 2. Relating to the anconeus muscle.

anconeus (ang-ko′ne-us)
SYN: a. muscle. [L.]

anconoid (ang′ko-noyd)
Resembling the elbow.

ancrod (an′krod)
A fraction obtained from the venom of the pit viper, Angkistrodon rhodostoma, which contains a fibrinogen-splitting enzyme; produces hypofibrinogenemia and diminution of both whole blood and plasma viscosity for improvement of the rheologic properties of blood, and is used in treatment of chronic peripheral vascular disease.

See ankylo-.

Ancylostoma (an-si-los′to-ma, an-ki-)
A genus of Nematoda, the Old World hookworm, the members of which are parasitic in the duodenum. They attach themselves to villi in the mucous membrane, suck blood, and may cause a state of anemia, especially in cases of malnutrition. The eggs are passed with the feces, and the larvae develop in moist soil to become infectious third-stage (filariform) larvae that enter the human body through the skin and possibly in drinking water; they migrate by the bloodstream to lung alveoli, are carried to bronchi and trachea, swallowed, and passed to the intestine, where they mature. SEE ALSO: ancylostomiasis, Necator. SYN: Ankylostoma (1) . [G. ankylos, curved, hooked, + stoma, mouth] A. braziliense a species characterized by one pair of ventral buccal teeth, normally an intestinal parasite of dogs and cats but also found in humans as a cause of human cutaneous larva migrans. A. caninum a species possessing three pairs of ventral teeth in the oral cavity; common in dogs, but also occurring in human skin as a cause of cutaneous larva migrans. A. ceylanicum species found in the civet cat of Ceylon; rarely, reported from humans as an intestinal parasite in Southeast Asia. A. duodenale the Old World hookworm of humans, a species widespread in temperate areas, in contrast to the more tropical distribution of the New World hookworm, Necator americanus, that is the only hookworm found in the U.S. A. tubaeforme a nematode species found in the cat; cutaneous larva migrans seen in humans.

ancylostomatic (an′si-lo-sto-mat′ik, an′ki-)
Referring to hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma.

ancylostomiasis (an′si-lo-sto-mi′a-sis, an′ki-)
Hookworm disease caused by Ancylostoma duodenale and characterized by eosinophilia, anemia, emaciation, dyspepsia, and, in children with severe chronic infections, swelling of the abdomen with mental and physical maldevelopment. SYN: ankylostomiasis, intertropical hyphemia, tropical hyphemia, miner's disease (1) , tunnel disease, uncinariasis. cutaneous a. SYN: cutaneous larva migrans.

ancyroid (an′si-royd)
Shaped like the fluke of an anchor; denoting the cornua of the lateral ventricles of the brain and the coracoid process of the scapula. SYN: ankyroid. [G. ankyra, anchor, + eidos, resemblance]

Johann W. (Guenther von A.), German physician, 1505–1574. See A. ossicles, under ossicle.

James Meschter, U.S. physician, 1854–1936. See A. disease.

Carolus Samuel, German anatomist, 1732–1777. See A. ganglion, A. nerve.

Dorothy Hansine, U.S. pediatrician, 1901–1963. See A. disease.

Roger, U.S. surgeon, 1891–1971. See A. splint, Roger A. pin fixation appliance.

Evelyn, U.S. physician, *1899. See A.-Collip test.

James C., British urologist, *1899.

andira (an-di′ra)
The bark of A. inermis, a leguminous tree of tropical America, used as an emetic, purgative, and anthelmintic. SYN: cabbage tree, worm bark. [West Indian native name]

Gabriel, French physician, 1797–1876. See A. decubitus.

andrenosterone (an-dre-nos′ter-on)
SYN: adrenosterone.

andriatrics, andriatry (an-dri-at′riks, -dri′a-tre)
Medical science relating to diseases of male genital organs and of men in general. [G. aner, a man, + iatreia, medical treatment]

Masculine. [G. aner, andros, a male human being]

androgen (an′dro-jen)
Generic term for an agent, usually a hormone ( e.g., androsterone, testosterone), that stimulates activity of the accessory male sex organs, encourages development of male sex characteristics, or prevents changes in the latter that follow castration; natural androgens are steroids, derivatives of androstane. SYN: testoid (2) . adrenal a. any androgenic hormone of adrenocortical origin; e.g., dehydroepiandrosterone (and its sulfate), androstenedione, 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione.

androgenesis (an-dro-jen′e-sis)
Development in the presence of paternal chromosomes only. [andro- + G. genesis, production]

androgenic (an-dro-jen′ik)
Relating to an androgen; having a masculinizing effect. SYN: testoid (1) .

androgenous (an-droj′e-nus)
Giving birth to males.

androgynism (an-droj′i-nizm)
SYN: female pseudohermaphroditism.

androgynoid (an-droj′i-noyd)
A male resembling a female, or possessing female features. [andro- + G. gyne, woman, + eidos, resemblance]

androgynous (an-droj′i-nus)
Pertaining to androgyny.

androgyny (an-droj′i-ne)
1. SYN: female pseudohermaphroditism. 2. Having both masculine and feminine characteristics, as in attitudes and behaviors that contain features of stereotyped, culturally sanctioned sexual roles of both male and female. [andro- + G. gyne, woman]

android (an′droyd)
SYN: andromorphous. [andro- + G. eidos, resemblance]

andrology (an-drol′o-je)
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases peculiar to the male sex, particularly infertility and sexual dysfunction. [andro- + G. logos, treatise]

andromedotoxin (an-drom′e-do-tok′sin)
A strongly emetic active principle obtained from several species of Andromeda and Rhododendron (family Ericaceae); it is a cardiac poison, first stimulating and then paralyzing the vagus; it also paralyzes the motor nerve ends in striated muscle.

andromorphous (an-dro-mor′fus)
Having a male form or habitus. SYN: android. [andro- + G. morphe, form]

andropathy (an-drop′a-the)
Any disease, such as prostatitis, peculiar to the male sex. [andro- + G. pathos, suffering]

A postulated decrease in function of male gonads with increasing age, analogous to menopause.

androphobia (an-dro-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of men, or of the male sex. [andro- + G. phobos, fear]

androstane (an′dro-stan)
The parent hydrocarbon of the androgenic steroids. For structure, see steroids.

androstanediol (an-dro-stan′di-ol)
5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol;a steroid metabolite, of which 5β isomers are also known.


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