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balanic (ba-lan′ik)
Relating to the glans penis or glans clitoridis. [G. balanos, acorn, glans]

Balanites aegyptiaca (bal-a-ni′tez e-jip-ti′a-ka)
A genus of trees growing in the Near East, whose berries contain an active principle that is deadly to mollusks, miracidia, cercariae, tadpoles, and fish and that is used as a prophylactic against schistosomiasis by adding it to drinking water. [L. balanos, acorn]

balanitis (bal-a-ni′tis)
Inflammation of the glans penis or clitoris. [G. balanos, acorn, glans, + -itis, inflammation] b. circumscripta plasmacellularis SYN: plasma cell b.. b. diabetica glanular inflammation in diabetics related to urinary infection or concomitant posthitis. plasma cell b. benign circumscribed b. characterized microscopically by subepithelial plasma cell infiltration and clinically by small erythematous papular lesions. SYN: b. circumscripta plasmacellularis. b. xerotica obliterans lichen sclerosus et atrophicus of the glans penis, which may result in meatal stenosis.

balano-, balan-
Glans penis. [G. balanos, acorn, glans]

balanoplasty (bal′an-o-plas-te)
Surgical reconstruction of the glans penis. [balano- + G. plastos, formed]

balanoposthitis (bal′an-o-pos-thi′tis)
Inflammation of the glans penis and overlying prepuce. [balano- + G. posthe, prepuce, + -itis, inflammation]

balantidiasis (bal′an-ti-di′a-sis)
A disease caused by the presence of Balantidium coli in the large intestine; characterized by diarrhea, dysentery, and occasionally ulceration. SYN: balantidosis.

Balantidium (bal-an-tid′e-um)
A genus of ciliates (family Balantidiidae) found in the digestive tract of vertebrates and invertebrates. [G. balantidion, dim of ballantion, a bag] B. coli a very large parasitic ciliate species, usually 50–80 μm in length, reaching up to 200 μm in pigs, found in the cecum or large intestine, swimming actively in the lumen; usually harmless in humans but may invade and ulcerate the intestinal wall, producing a colitis resembling amebic dysentery. B. suis a species originally considered distinct from the ciliate parasite of man, B. coli, but now considered synonymous with it; nonpathogenic in swine.

balantidosis (bal′an-ti-do′sis)
SYN: balantidiasis.

balanus (bal′a-nus)
SYN: glans penis. [G. balanos, acorn, glans penis]

bald (bawld)
Having no hair, or a decrease in the amount of hair of the scalp. [M.E. balled]

baldness (bawld′nes)
SYN: alopecia. common b. SYN: androgenic alopecia. congenital b. SYN: alopecia congenitalis. male pattern b. SYN: male pattern alopecia.

Balint
Rudolph, Hungarian neurologist and psychiatrist, 1874–1930. See B. syndrome.

Ball
Sir Charles B., Irish surgeon, 1851–1916. See B. operation.

ball
1. A round mass. See bezoar. 2. In veterinary medicine, a large pill or bolus. chondrin b. one of the globular masses formed by a group of cells enclosed in a capsule, in hyaline cartilage. food b. SYN: phytobezoar. b. of the foot the padded portion of the sole, at the anterior extremity of the heads of the metatarsals, upon which the weight rests when the heel is raised. fungus b. a compact mass of fungal mycelium and cellular debris, 1 to 5 cm in diameter, residing within a lung cavity, paranasal sinus, or urinary tract; aspergilloma is a type of fungus b. of the lung.

Ballance
Sir Charles A., English surgeon, 1856–1936. See B. sign, Koerte-B. operation.

ballism (bal′izm)
SYN: ballismus.

ballismus (bal-iz′mus)
A type of involuntary movement affecting the proximal limb musculature, manifested as jerking, flinging movements of the extremity; caused by a lesion of or near the contralateral subthalamic nucleus. Usually only one side of the body is involved, resulting in hemiballismus. SYN: ballism. [G. ballismos, a jumping about]

ballistocardiogram (bal-is-to-kar′de-o-gram)
A record of the body's recoil caused by cardiac contraction, the ejection of blood into the aorta, and ventricular filling forces; has been used as a basis for calculating the cardiac output in man, but its lack of accuracy and reproducibility has caused it to be discarded. [G. ballo, to throw, + kardia, heart, + gramma, something written]

ballistocardiograph (BCG) (bal-is-to-kar′de-o-graf)
Instrument for taking a ballistocardiogram, consisting either of a moving table suspended from the ceiling, or of an apparatus that rests upon the patient's body, usually on the shins, together with a graphic recording system.

ballistocardiography (bal-is-to-kar-de-og′ra-fe)
1. The graphic recording of movements of the body imparted by ballistic forces (cardiac contraction and ejection of blood, ventricular filling, acceleration, and deceleration of blood flow through the great vessels); these minute movements are amplified and recorded on moving chart paper after being translated into an electrical potential by a pickup device. 2. The study and interpretation of ballistocardiograms.

ballistophobia (bal-is-to-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of a projectile or missile. [G. ballista, catapult, fr. G. ballistes fr. ballo, + phobos, fear]

balloon (ba-loon)
1. An inflatable spherical or ovoid device used to retain tubes or catheters in, or provide support to, various body structures. 2. A distensible device used to stretch or occlude a viscus or blood vessel. 3. To distend a body cavity with a gas or fluid to facilitate its examination, dilate a structure, or occlude its lumen. [Fr. ballon, fr. It. ballone, fr. balla, ball, fr. Germanic] angioplasty b. a b. near the tip of an angiographic catheter, designed to distend narrowed vessels. See b.-tip catheter. detachable b. a small b., attached to the tip of a catheter, which can be released to occlude a vessel. intraaortic b. See intraaortic b. pump.

ballottable (bal-ot′a-bl)
Capable of exhibiting the phenomenon of ballottement.

ballottement (bal-ot-maw′)
1. Maneuver used in physical examination to estimate the size of an organ not near the surface, particularly when there is ascites, by a flicking motion of the hand or fingers similar to that involved in dribbling a basketball. 2. An obsolete method of diagnosis of pregnancy: with the tip of the forefinger in the vagina, a sharp tap is made against the lower segment of the uterus; the fetus, if present, is tossed upward and (if the finger is retained in place) will be felt to strike against the wall of the uterus as it falls back. [Fr. balloter, to toss up] abdominal b. examination of the abdomen by palpation to detect excessive amounts of fluid (ascites) by causing organs to bob up and down in the fluid milieu. renal b. a maneuver in which the kidney is moved by pressure from behind, allowing it to be felt between the hands and its size, shape, and mobility determined.

balm (bawlm)
1. SYN: balsam. 2. An ointment, especially a fragrant one. 3. A soothing application. [L. balsamum, fr. G. balsamon, the balsam tree] b. of Gilead an oleoresin from Commiphora opobalsamum (family Burseraceae), probably the myrrh of the Bible; used in perfumery. SYN: Mecca balsam, opobalsamum. mountain b. SYN: eriodictyon. sweet b. SYN: melissa.

balneotherapeutics, balneotherapy (bal′ne-o-thar-a-pu′tiks, -thar′a-pe)
Immersion of part or all of the body in a mineral water bath as a form of therapy. [L. balneum, bath]

Baló
Jozsef, Hungarian physician, *1896. See Baló disease.

balsam (bawl′sam)
A fragrant, resinous or thick, oily exudate from various trees and plants. SYN: balm (1) , oleoresin (3) . [G. balsamon; L. balsamum] Canada b. a yellowish liquid resin from the b. fir, Abies balsamea (family Pinaceae); contains kinene and bornyl acetate; used for mounting histologic specimens and as a cement for lenses. SYN: Canada turpentine. b. of copaiba SYN: copaiba. Mecca b. SYN: balm of Gilead. b. of Peru a thick, dark brown liquid b. obtained from Toluifera pereirae (family Leguminosae), containing 60% cinnamein; used as a healing application to wounds. Tolu b. a yellowish brown soft mass obtained from Toluifera balsamum (family Leguminosae), containing cinnamic and benzoic acids and esters; used as a stimulant expectorant.

balsamic (bawl-sam′ik)
1. Relating to balsam. 2. Fragrant.

BALT
Abbreviation for bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue.

Bamberger
Heinrich von, Austrian physician, 1822–1888. See B. albuminuria, B. disease, B. sign.

Bamberger
Eugen, Austrian physician, 1858–1921. See B.-Marie disease, B.-Marie syndrome.

bamifylline hydrochloride (ba-mif′i-lin)
A vasodilator and smooth muscle relaxant.

bamipine (bam-i-pen)
An antihistaminic.

bancroftiasis, bancroftosis (ban-krof-ti′a-sis, -to′sis)
Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti.

band
1. Any appliance or part of an apparatus that encircles or binds a part of the body. SEE ALSO: zone. 2. Any ribbon-shaped or cordlike anatomic structure that encircles or binds another structure or that connects two or more parts. See fascia, line, linea, stripe, stria, tenia. 3. A narrow strip containing one or more macromolecules (on occasions, small molecules) detected in electrophoresis or certain types of chromatography. A bands the dark-staining anisotropic cross striations in the myofibrils of muscle fibers, comprising regions of overlapping thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments. SYN: A disks, anisotropic disks, Q bands (1) , Q disks. absorption b. the range of wavelengths or frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum where radiant energy is absorbed by passage through a gaseous, liquid, or dissolved substance; it is exploited for analytical purposes in colorimetry or spectrophotometry, and is usually described in terms of the wavelength where maximum absorbance occurs ( i.e., λmax). amnionic b. [MIM*217100] strands of amnion following its rupture, which can wrap around limbs, digits, face, and internal organs, causing constriction and amputation; the genetics of which is unclear. SEE ALSO: congenital amputation. SYN: amnionic adhesions, amnionic b. syndrome, anular b., constriction ring (2) , Simonart bands (1) , Simonart ligaments. anogenital b. the first indication of the perineum in the embryo. anular b. SYN: amnionic b.. atrioventricular b. SYN: atrioventricular bundle. Baillarger bands SYN: Baillarger lines, under line. Bechterew b. SYN: b. of Kaes-Bechterew. Broca diagonal b. a white fiber bundle descending in the precommissural septum toward the base of the forebrain, immediately rostral to the lamina terminalis; this b. consists of a horizontal limb [TA] (crus horizontale [TA]), a vertical limb [TA] (crus verticale [TA]) and the cells associated with the b. form the nucleus of diagonal b. [TA] (nucleus striae diagonalis [TA]); at the base, the bundle turns in the caudolateral direction; traveling through a ventral stratum of the innominate substance alongside the optic tract, it fades before reaching the amygdala. SYN: diagonal b. [TA] , stria diagonalis [TA] . chromosome b. a region of darker or contrasting staining across the width of a chromosome; the pattern of bands is characteristic for most chromosomes. See banding. Clado b. SYN: suspensory ligament of ovary. bands of colon SYN: teniae coli, under tenia. contraction b. a microscopic change in myocardial cells in which excessive contraction, associated with elevated intracellular calcium and serum norepinephrine, causes the formation of transverse amorphous b.'s in the fibers which are then incapable of contracting again. SYN: contraction b. necrosis. diagonal b. [TA] SYN: Broca diagonal b.. Essick cell bands groups of cells in the developing rhombencephalon which migrate in two bands, one of which eventually forms the inferior olivary nucleus and the arcuate nucleus, and the other the pontine nuclei. Gennari b. SYN: line of Gennari. b. of Giacomini SYN: uncus b. of Giacomini. H b. the paler area in the center of the A b. of a striated muscle fiber, comprising the central portion of thick (myosin) filaments that are not overlapped by thin (actin) filaments. SYN: H disk, Hensen disk, Hensen line. His b. SYN: atrioventricular bundle. Hunter-Schreger bands alternating light and dark lines seen in dental enamel that begin at the dentoenamel junction and end before they reach the enamel surface; they represent areas of enamel rods cut in cross-sections dispersed between areas of rods cut longitudinally. SYN: Hunter-Schreger lines, Schreger lines. I b. a light b. on each side of the Z line of striated muscle fibers, comprising a region of the sarcomere where thin (actin) filaments are not overlapped by thick (myosin) filaments. SYN: I disk, isotropic disk. iliotibial b. SYN: iliotibial tract. b. of Kaes-Bechterew b. of horizontal myelinated fibers in the most superficial part of the third layer of the isocortex. SYN: stria laminae molecularis [TA] , stria of molecular layer [TA] , Bechterew b., layer of Bechterew, line of Bechterew, line of Kaes. Ladd b. a peritoneal attachment of an incompletely rotated cecum, found in malrotation of the intestine; may cause obstruction of the duodenum. Lane b. a congenital b. on the distal ileum that may extend into the right iliac fossa causing stasis. SYN: Lane kink. longitudinal bands of cruciform ligament of atlas [TA] ligamentous slips forming the “upright” or vertical beam of the cruciform ligament of the atlas. SYN: fasciculi longitudinales ligamenti cruciformis atlantis [TA] . M b. SYN: M line. Mach b. a relatively bright or dark b. perceived in a zone where the luminance increases or decreases rapidly. Maissiat b. SYN: iliotibial tract. matrix b. a metal or plastic b. secured around the crown of a tooth to confine restorative material to be adapted into a prepared cavity. Meckel b. the portion of the anterior ligament of the malleus that extends from the base of the anterior process through the petrotympanic fissure, to attach to the spine of the sphenoid. See anterior ligament of malleus. SYN: Meckel ligament. moderator b. SYN: septomarginal trabecula. Muehrcke bands apparent leukonychia with white bands parallel to lanula of the nails, seen in hypoalbuminemia. SYN: Muehrcke sign. oligoclonal b. small discrete bands in the gamma globulin region of the spinal fluid electrophoresis, indicating local central nervous system production of IgG; bands are frequently seen in patients with multiple sclerosis but can also be found in other diseases of the central nervous system including syphilis, sarcoidosis, and chronic infection or inflammation. orthodontic b. a thin strip of metal closely adapted to the crown of a tooth to which wires may be attached for tooth movement. pecten b. a fibrous induration of the anal pecten resulting from passive congestion or a chronic form of inflammation in this region. Q bands 1. SYN: A bands. 2. See Q-banding stain. Reil b. 1. SYN: septomarginal trabecula. 2. SYN: medial lemniscus. silastic b. (si′las-tik) a small silastic ring placed around each fallopian tube to achieve permanent sterilization. Simonart bands 1. SYN: amnionic b.. 2. weblike b. of tissue partially filling the gap between the medial and lateral portions of a cleft lip. Soret b. the absorption b. of all porphyrins at about 400 nm. uncus b. of Giacomini a slender whitish b., the attenuated anterior continuation of the dentate gyrus (fascia dentata), crossing transversally the surface of the recurved part of the uncus gyri parahippocampalis. SYN: b. of Giacomini, cauda fasciae dentatae, frenulum of Giacomini, tail of dentate gyrus. ventricular b. of larynx SYN: vestibular fold. Z b. SYN: Z line. zonular b. SYN: zona orbicularis (articulationis coxae).

bandage (ban′dij)
1. A piece of cloth or other material, of varying shape and size, applied to a body part to provide compression, protect from external contamination, prevent drying, absorb drainage, prevent motion, and retain surgical dressings. 2. To cover a body part by application of a b.. adhesive b. a dressing of plain absorbent gauze affixed to plastic or fabric coated with a pressure-sensitive adhesive. Barton b. a figure-of-8 b. supporting the mandible below and anteriorly; used in mandibular fracture. capeline b. a b. covering the head or an amputation stump like a cap. [L. capella, a cap] circular b. one encircling an extremity, or a portion of it, or the trunk. cravat b. a b. made by bringing the point of a triangular b. to the middle of the base and then folding lengthwise to the desired width. crucial b. a b. in the shape of a cross; e.g., a T-b.. demigauntlet b. a gauntlet b. that covers only the hand, leaving the fingers exposed. Desault b. a b. for fracture of the clavicle; the elbow is bound to the side, with a pad placed in the axilla. elastic b. a b. containing stretchable material; used to provide local compression. Esmarch b. SYN: Esmarch tourniquet. figure-of-8 b. a b. applied alternately to two parts, usually two segments of a limb above and below the joint, in such a way that the turns describe the figure 8; a specific b. used for treatment of fractures of the clavicle. four-tailed b. a strip of cloth split in two except for a central portion placed under the chin, with four tails tied over the head; used to limit motion of the mandible. gauntlet b. a figure-of-8 b. covering the hand and fingers. gauze b. gauze. Gibney fixation b. herring-bone strapping of the foot and leg for sprain of the ankle. Gibson b. a b., resembling Barton b., for stabilizing a fracture of the mandible. hammock b. a b. for retaining dressings on the head: the dressings are covered by a wide gauze strip, the ends of which are brought down over the ears and held while a narrow circular b. is passed around the head; the ends of the gauze strip are then turned up over the circular b. and other turns are made securing them firmly. immovable b. a b. of cloth impregnated with plaster of Paris, liquid glass, or the like, which hardens soon after its application. Martin b. a roller b. of soft rubber used to provide compression to a limb in the treatment of varicose veins or ulcers. oblique b. a b. in which the successive turns proceed obliquely up or down the limb. plaster b. a roller b. impregnated with plaster of Paris and applied moist; used to make a rigid dressing for a fracture or diseased joint. roller b. a strip of material, of variable width, rolled into a compact cylinder to facilitate its application. scarf b. SYN: triangular b.. Scultetus b. a large oblong cloth, the ends of which are cut into narrow strips, which is applied to the thorax or abdomen, the strips being tied or overlapped and pinned. spica b. successive strips of material applied to the body and the first part of a limb, or to the hand and a finger, which overlap slightly in a V to resemble an ear of grain. [L. spica, ear of grain] spiral b. an oblique b. encircling a limb, the successive turns overlapping those preceding. suspensory b. a bag of expansile fabric for supporting the scrotum and its contents. T-b. SYN: T-binder. triangular b. a piece of cloth cut in the shape of a right-angled triangle, used as a sling. SYN: scarf b.. Velpeau b. a b. that serves to immobilize arm to chest wall, with the forearm positioned obliquely across and upward on front of chest.

banding
The process of differential staining of (usually) metaphase chromosomes of cells to reveal the characteristic patterns of bands that permit identification of individual chromosomes and recognition of missing segments; each of the 22 pairs of human chromosomes and the X and Y chromosomes has an identifying b. pattern. BrDu-b. labeling of chromosomes in proliferating tissue by adding an excess of bromodeoxyuridine, which replaces the uridine incorporated in RNA and fluoresces in ultraviolet light; the bands result from sister chromatid exchanges. high-resolution b. b., especially in prophase, which increases the clarity and number of discernible chromosome bands. NOR-b. a procedure which utilizes a silver stain that preferentially accumulates in the nucleoli-organizing regions, i.e., the satellite regions of the acrocentric chromosomes. prometaphase b. b. done in the stage of mitosis intermediate between prophase and metaphase. pulmonary artery b. a surgical method of decreasing pulmonary blood flow and thereby volume overload of the left ventricle, alleviating CHF in certain congenital heart defects. reverse b. See R-b. stain.

bandwidth
The range of frequency or wavelengths over which a device is intended to operate.

bandy-leg (ban′de-leg)
SYN: genu varum.

bane (ban)
A poison or blight. [O.E. bana]

Bang
Bernhard L.F., Danish veterinarian and physician, 1848–1932. See B. disease.

banisterine (ba-nis′te-ren)
SYN: harmine.

Banti
Guido, Italian physician, 1852–1925. See B. disease, B. syndrome.

Banting
Sir Frederick G., Canadian physician, 1891–1941, co-winner of the 1923 Nobel Prize for isolating insulin from the pancreas.

baptitoxine
SYN: cytisine.

bar
1. A unit of pressure equal to 1 megadyne (106 dyne) per cm2 in the CGS system, 0.9869233 atmosphere, or 105 Pa (N/m2) in the SI system. 2. A metal segment of greater length than width that serves to connect two or more parts of a removable partial denture. SEE ALSO: major connector. 3. A segment of tissue or bone that unites two or more similar structures. arch b. any one of several types of wires, b.'s, or splints conforming to the arch of the teeth, extending from one side of the arch to the other and located labially, or lingually; used for the treatment of jaw fractures and/or stabilization of injured teeth. b. of bladder SYN: interureteric crest. clasp b. clasp. connector b. See major connector, minor connector. labial b. a major connector located labial to the dental arch joining two or more bilateral parts of a mandibular removable partial denture. lingual b. a major connector located lingual to the dental arch joining two or more bilateral parts of a mandibular removable partial denture. median b. of Mercier a prominent band of fibromuscular tissue involving the interureteric ridge or neck of the urinary bladder, occasionally resulting in urinary obstruction. Mercier b. SYN: interureteric crest. occlusal rest b. a minor connector used to attach an occlusal rest to a major part of a removable partial denture. palatal b. a major connector which crosses the palate and unites two or more parts of a maxillary removable partial denture. Passavant b. SYN: Passavant ridge. sternal b. one of the transverse units of the developing sternum formed by the union of paired primordia. terminal b. dark spots or b.'s (depending on the plane of section) in the lateral boundary between the apical ends of columnar epithelial cells; this region corresponds with the area of the junctional complex and the thin filaments that anchor on the zonula adherens.

baragnosis (bar-ag-no′sis)
Loss of ability to appreciate the weight of objects held in the hand, or to differentiate objects of different weights. When the primary senses are intact, caused by a lesion of the contralateral parietal lobe. [G. baros, weight + a- priv., + gnosis, a knowing]

Bárány
Robert, Austrian-Hungarian otologist and Nobel laureate, 1876–1936. See B. sign, B. caloric test, positional vertigo of B..

barba (bar′ba) [TA]
1. [NA] The beard. 2. A hair of the beard. SYN: beard [TA] . [L.]

barbaloin (bar-bal′o-in)
SYN: aloin.

Barber
Glenn, 20th century U.S. orthopedic surgeon. See Blount-B. disease.

barbiero (bar-be-a′ro)
Brazilian term for the bloodsucking hemipteran triatomid bug, Panstrongylus megistus, an important vector of Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. [Pg. the barber]




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