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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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baruria (bar-u′re-a)
Rarely used term for excretion of urine that has an unusually high specific gravity, e.g., greater than 1.025 to 1.030. [G. barys, heavy, + ouron, urine]

bary-
Heavy. [G. barys]

barye (ba′re)
The CGS unit of pressure, equal to 1 dyne/cm2 or 10−6 bar. See bar (1) . [G. barys, heavy]

baryta (ba-ri′ta)
SYN: barium oxide. [G. barytes, weight]

baryto-
Prefix indicating the presence of barium in a mineral.

basad (ba′sad)
In a direction toward the base of any object or structure.

basal (ba′sal) [TA]
1. Situated nearer the base of a pyramid-shaped organ in relation to a specific reference point; opposite of apical. SYN: basalis [TA] . 2. In dentistry, denoting the floor of a cavity in the grinding surface of a tooth. 3. Denoting a standard or reference state of a function, as a basis for comparison. More specifically, denoting the exact conditions for measurement of b. metabolic rate (q.v.); b. conditions do not always denote a minimum value, e.g., metabolic rate in sleep is usually less than the b. rate, but is inconvenient for standard measurement.

basalis (ba-sa′lis) [TA]
SYN: basal (1) . [L.]

basaloid (ba′sa-loyd)
Resembling that which is basal, but not necessarily basal in origin or position.

basal ration
Minimal diet containing only essential components.

base (bas) [TA]
1. The lower part or bottom; the part of a pyramidal or conical structure opposite the apex; the foundation. SYN: basis [TA] , basement (1) . 2. In pharmacy, the chief ingredient of a mixture. 3. In chemistry, an electropositive element (cation) that unites with an anion to form a salt; a compound ionizing to yield hydroxyl ion. SYN: alkali (2) . SEE ALSO: Br&slash;onsted b., Lewis b.. 4. Nitrogen-containing organic compounds ( e.g., purines, pyrimidines, amines, alkaloids, ptomaines) that act as Br&slash;onsted bases. 5. Cations, or substances forming cations. [L. and G. basis] acrylic resin b. a form made of acrylic resin molded to conform to the tissues of the alveolar process and used to support the teeth of a prosthesis. anterior cranial b. SYN: anterior cranial fossa. b. of arytenoid cartilage [TA] the part of the arytenoid cartilage that articulates with the cricoid cartilage and from which the muscular process extends laterally and the vocal process projects anteriorly. SYN: basis cartilaginis arytenoideae [TA] . b. of bladder SYN: fundus of bladder. b. of brain the inferior surface of the brain, primarily the brainstem, when seen from below; commonly extended to include the inferior surface of the adjacent parts of the cerebral hemisphere. SYN: basis cerebri, inferior cerebral surface. Br&slash;onsted b. any molecule or ion that combines with a proton; e.g., OH−, CN−, NH3; this definition replaces the older and more limited concepts of b. (3). cavity preparation b. SYN: cement b.. cement b. in dentistry, a layer of dental cement, sometimes medicated, that is placed in the deep portion of a cavity preparation to protect the pulp, reduce the bulk of a metallic restoration, or eliminate undercuts. SYN: cavity preparation b.. b. of cochlea [TA] the enlarged part of the cochlea that is directed posteriorly and medially and lies close to the internal acoustic meatus. SYN: basis cochleae [TA] . cranial b. [TA] the sloping floor of the cranial cavity. It comprises both the external b. of skull (external view) and the internal b. of skull (internal view). SYN: basis cranii [TA] , basicranium&star, b. of skull. denture b. 1. that part of a denture which rests on the oral mucosa and to which teeth are attached; 2. that part of a complete or partial denture which rests upon the basal seat and to which teeth are attached. SYN: saddle (2) . external b. of skull SYN: external surface of cranial b.. b. of heart [TA] that part of the heart that lies opposite the apex, formed mainly by the left atrium but to a small extent by the posterior part of the right atrium; it is directed backward and to the right and is separated from the vertebral column by the esophagus and aorta. SYN: basis cordis [TA] . hexone bases, histone bases the α-amino acids arginine, histidine, and lysine, which are basic by virtue of the presence in the side chains of a guanidine, imidazole, and amine group, respectively; the term “hexone” is a misnomer since histidine does not have six carbons. b. of hyoid bone SYN: body of hyoid bone. internal b. of skull SYN: internal surface of cranial b.. SEE ALSO: cranial b.. Lewis b. a b. that is an electron-pair donor. b. of lung [TA] the lower concave part of the lung that rests upon the convexity of the diaphragm. SYN: basis pulmonis [TA] . b. of mandible [TA] the rounded inferior border of the body of the mandible. SYN: basis mandibulae [TA] . b. of metacarpal [TA] the expanded proximal extremity of each metacarpal that articulates with one or more of the distal row of carpal bones. SYN: basis ossis metacarpalis [TA] . metal b. a metallic portion of a denture b. forming a part of the wall of the basal surface of the denture; it serves as a b. for the attachment of the plastic (resin) part of the denture and the teeth. b. of metatarsal [TA] the expanded proximal extremity of each metatarsal bone; it articulates with one or more of the distal row of tarsal bones. SYN: basis ossis metatarsalis [TA] . methamphetamine b. a form of methamphetamine that can be readily volatilized. b. of modiolus of cochlea [TA] the part of the modiolus enclosed by the basal turn of the cochlea; it faces the lateral end of the internal acoustic meatus. See cochlear area. SYN: basis modioli cochleae [TA] . nucleic acid b. a purine or pyrimidine; found in naturally occurring nucleic acids such as DNA. ointment b. the vehicle into which active ingredients may be incorporated. Petrolatum (which may be stiffened with wax) is the most widely used greasy ointment b. and is suitable for the incorporation of oleaginous materials. Lanolin-containing bases will absorb water (and dissolved materials) and form water-in-oil type emulsions. Water soluble (washable) bases are often derived from polymers of ethylene glycol (PEGS); these will absorb water and ingredients dissolved in the water. Ointment bases are usually pharmacologically inert but may entrap water and serve to keep the skin from dying or to provide an emollient protective film. b. of patella [TA] the superior border of the patella to which the tendon of the rectus femoris attaches. SYN: basis patellae [TA] . b. of phalanx the expanded proximal end of each phalanx in the hand or foot that articulates with the head of the next proximal bone in the digit. SYN: basis phalangis. b. of phalanx of foot [TA] proximal, concave, articulating end of the bones of the toes. SYN: basis phalangis pedis [TA] . b. of phalanx of hand [TA] proximal, concave, articulating end of the bones of the fingers. SYN: basis phalangis manus [TA] . pressor b. 1. one of several products of intestinal putrefaction believed to cause functional hypertension when absorbed; 2. any alkaline substance that raises blood pressure. SYN: pressor amine, pressor substance. b. of prostate [TA] the broad upper surface of the prostate contiguous with the bladder wall. SYN: basis prostatae [TA] . purine b. a purine. pyrimidine b. a pyrimidine. record b. SYN: baseplate. b. of renal pyramid the outer broad part of a renal pyramid that lies next to the cortex. SYN: basis pyramidis renis. b. of sacrum [TA] the upper end of the sacrum that articulates with the body of the fifth lumbar vertebra in the midline and the alae on either side. SYN: basis ossis sacri [TA] . Schiff b. condensation products of aldehydes and ketones with primary amine; the compounds are stable if there is at least one aryl group on the nitrogen or carbon. Cf.:ketimine. SYN: aldimine. shellac b. a resinous wafer adapted to maxillary or mandibular casts to form baseplates. b. of skull SYN: cranial b.. SEE ALSO: internal surface of cranial b.. b. of stapes [TA] the flat portion of the stapes that fits in the oval window. SYN: basis stapedis [TA] , footplate (1) , foot-plate&star. temporary b. SYN: baseplate. tinted denture b. a denture b. that simulates the coloring and shading of natural oral tissues. b. of tongue SYN: root of tongue. tooth-borne b. the denture b. restoring an edentulous area which has abutment teeth at each end for support; the tissue which it covers is not used for support. trial b. SYN: baseplate. vegetable b. SYN: alkaloid. wobble b. the 3′ codon b. that is less strictly specified in the genetic code. SEE ALSO: wobble, wobble hypothesis.

basedoid (bahz′e-doyd)
Rarely used term denoting a condition resembling Graves disease (Basedow disease), but without toxic symptoms.

Basedow
Karl A. von, German physician, 1799–1854. See B. disease, B. pseudoparaplegia, Jod-B. phenomenon, B. goiter.

basedowian (bahz-e-do′e-an)
Rarely used to denote terms described by or attributed to K. Basedow.

basement (bas′ment)
1. SYN: base (1) . 2. A cavity or space partly or completely separated from a larger space above it.

baseplate (bas′plat)
A temporary form representing the base of a denture; used for making maxillomandibular (jaw) relation records and for the arrangement of teeth. SYN: record base, temporary base, trial base. stabilized b. a b. lined with plastic material to improve its fit and stability.

base-stacking
An arrangement of DNA or RNA bases in which the bases lie on top of each other.

bas-fond (bah-fawn′)
SYN: fundus of bladder.

Basham mixture
SYN: ferric and ammonium acetate solution.

basi-, basio-, baso-
Base; basis. [G. and L. basis]

basialis (ba-se-a′lis)
Relating to a basis or the basion.

basialveolar (ba′se-al-ve′o-lar)
Relating to both basion and alveolar points; denoting especially the b. length, or the shortest distance between these two points.

basic (ba′sik)
Relating to a base.

basicity (ba-sis′i-te)
1. The valence or combining power of an acid, or the number of replaceable atoms of hydrogen in its molecule. 2. The characteristic(s) of being a chemical base.

basic life support
Emergency cardiopulmonary resuscitation, control of bleeding, treatment of shock, acidosis, and poisoning, stabilization of injuries and wounds, and basic first aid.

basicranial (ba′si-kra′ne-al)
Relating to the base of the skull.

basicranium
cranial base.

Basidiobolus (ba-sid′e-ob′o-lus)
A genus of fungi belonging to the class Zygomycetes. B. haptosporus has been isolated from cases of zygomycosis (entomophthoramycosis basidiobolae) in humans, especially in Indonesia, tropical Africa, and Southeast Asia. [Mod. L. basidium, dim. of G. basis, base, + L. bolus, fr. G. bolos, lump or clod]

Basidiomycetes (ba-sid′e-o-mi-set′ez)
One of the four major classes of fungi, characterized by a spore-bearing organ (basidium), usually a single clavate cell, which bears basidiospores after karyogamy and meiosis. The class comprises the smuts, rusts, mushrooms, and puffballs. Excluding mycotoxins, there is only one human pathogen, the basidiomycetous stage of Cryptococcus neoformans. [Mod. L. basidium, dim. of G. basis, base, + mykes (myket), fungus]

Basidiomycota (ba-sid′e-o-mi-ko-ta)
A phylum of fungi characterized by a spore-bearing organ, the basidium, that is usually a clavate cell that bears basidiospores after karyogamy and meiosis. Some mycologists have raised the class Basidiomycetes to the phylum or division level.

basidiospore (ba-sid′e-o-spor)
A fungal spore borne on a basidium, characteristic of the class Basidiomycetes. [G. basidon, small base, + sporos, seed]

basidium, pl .basidia (ba-sid′e-um, -a)
A cell or spore-bearing organ usually club-shaped that is characteristic of the Basidiomycota. It bears basidiospores externally after karyogamy and meiosis. It is composed of a swollen terminal cell situated on a slender stalk, and gives rise to slender filaments (sterigmata), usually four in number, from the ends of which the basidiospores are developed. [L., fr G. basis, base]

basifacial (ba′si-fa′shal)
Relating to the lower portion of the face.

basihyal (ba′si-hi′al)
SYN: body of hyoid bone.

basihyoid (ba-ze-hi′oyd)
SYN: body of hyoid bone.

basilar, basilaris (bas′i-lar, bas-i-la′ris) [TA]
Relating to the base of a pyramidal or broad structure.

basilateral (ba′si-lat′er-al)
Relating to the base and one or more sides of any part.

basilemma (ba-si-lem′a)
SYN: basement membrane. [basi- + G. lemma, rind]

basilicus (ba-sil′i-kus)
Denoting a prominent or important part or structure. [L. fr. G. basilikos, royal]

basin (ba′sin)
A receptacle for fluids. emesis b., kidney b. a shallow b. of curved, kidney-shaped design, used to collect body fluids or as a container for various other liquids. pus b. a receptacle curved so as to fit closely the surface to which it is applied, used to receive the pus from a wound during drainage, cleansing, and/or redressing.

basinasal (ba′si-na′sal)
Relating to the basion and the nasion; denoting especially the b. length, or the shortest distance between the two points.

basio-
See basi-.

basioccipital (ba′se-ok-sip′i-tal)
Relating to the basilar process of the occipital bone.

basiocciput (ba-ze-ok′se-put)
SYN: basilar part of occipital bone.

basioglossus (ba-se-o-glos′us)
The portion of the hyoglossus muscle that originates from the body of the hyoid bone.

basion (ba′se-on) [TA]
The middle point on the anterior margin of the foramen magnum, opposite the opisthion. [G. basis, a base]

basipetal (ba-sip′e-tal)
1. In a direction toward the base. 2. Pertaining to asexual conidial production in fungi, in which successive budding of the basal conidium forms in an unbranched chain with the youngest at the base. [basi- + L. peto, to seek]

basiphobia (bas-i-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of walking. [G. basis, a stepping, + phobos, fear]

basis (ba′sis) [TA]
SYN: base (1) . [L. and G.] b. cartilaginis arytenoideae [TA] SYN: base of arytenoid cartilage. b. cerebri SYN: base of brain. b. cochleae [TA] SYN: base of cochlea. b. cordis [TA] SYN: base of heart. b. cranii [TA] SYN: cranial base. b. cranii externa [TA] SYN: external surface of cranial base. b. cranii interna [TA] SYN: internal surface of cranial base. b. mandibulae [TA] SYN: base of mandible. b. modioli cochleae [TA] SYN: base of modiolus of cochlea. b. ossis metacarpalis [TA] SYN: base of metacarpal. b. ossis metatarsalis [TA] SYN: base of metatarsal. b. ossis sacri [TA] SYN: base of sacrum. b. patellae [TA] SYN: base of patella. b. pedunculi [TA] the base of the midbrain consisting of the crus cerebri and substantia nigra. SEE ALSO: cerebral peduncle. b. phalangis SYN: base of phalanx. b. phalangis manus [TA] SYN: base of phalanx of hand. b. phalangis pedis [TA] SYN: base of phalanx of foot. b. pontis See basilar part of pons. b. prostatae [TA] SYN: base of prostate. b. pulmonis [TA] SYN: base of lung. b. pyramidis renis SYN: base of renal pyramid. b. stapedis [TA] SYN: base of stapes.

basisphenoid (ba′si-sfe′noyd)
Relating to the base or body of the sphenoid bone; denoting the independent center of ossification in the embryo that forms the posterior portion of the body of the sphenoid bone.

basitemporal (ba′si-tem′po-ral)
Relating to the lower part of the temporal region.

basivertebral (ba′si-ver′te-bral)
Relating to the body of a vertebra.

basket
1. A basketlike arborization of the axon of cells in the cerebellar cortex, surrounding the cell body of Purkinje cells. 2. Any basketlike device or structure. [M.E., from Celtic] fibrillar baskets the scleral end of neuroglia fibers of Müller that as fine, tapering, needlelike fibrillae ascend the proximal parts of rods and cones, giving them a fibrillar appearance. Stokes b. a metal-mesh rescue stretcher. stone b. an instrument passed through an endoscope to capture and extract urinary calculi.

Basle Nomina Anatomica (BNA)
The name adopted in 1895 in Basel, Switzerland (French spelling, Basle) by members of the German Anatomical Society that met to compile a Latin nomenclature of anatomic terms. Revisions of the resulting nomenclature were published at intervals until, in 1955 in Paris, France, the international membership of the Congress of Anatomists adopted a modification of the B. terminology. That modification dropped the reference to the original meeting place. See Nomina Anatomica, Terminologia Anatomica.

baso-
See basi-.

basocyte (ba′so-sit)
SYN: basophilic leukocyte. [G. basis, base, + kytos, cell]

basocytopenia (ba′so-si-to-pe′ne-a)
SYN: basophilic leukopenia.

basocytosis (ba′so-si-to′sis)
SYN: basophilic leukocytosis.

basoerythrocyte (ba′so-e-rith′ro-sit)
A red blood cell that manifests changes of basophilic degeneration, such as basophilic stippling, punctate basophilia, or basophilic granules.

basoerythrocytosis (ba′so-e-rith′ro-si-to′sis)
An increase of red blood cells with basophilic degenerative changes, frequently observed in diseases characterized by prolonged hypochromic anemia.

basolateral (ba-so-lat′er-al)
Basal and lateral; specifically used to refer to one of the two major cytological divisions of the amygdaloid complex. See amygdaloid body.




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