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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


bellyache (bel′e-ak)
Colloquialism for abdominal pain, usually colicky.

belly button (bel′e but′on)
SYN: umbilicus.

belonephobia (bel′o-ne-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of needles, pins, and other sharp-pointed objects. [G. belone, needle, + phobos, fear]

Belsey
Ronald, 20th century British surgeon. See B. fundoplication, B. Mark operation, B. procedure, Collis-B. fundoplication, Collis-B. procedure.

bemegride (bem′e-grid)
A central nervous system stimulant formerly used as an analeptic in intoxications due to barbiturates and other central nervous system depressant drugs.

ben
Abbreviation for L. bene, well.

benactyzine hydrochloride (ben-ak′ti-zen)
An anticholinergic drug with the same actions but with approximately only one-fifth the activity of atropine; it is thought to raise the threshold of emotional reaction to external stimuli; now rarely used as a psychotherapeutic and tranquilizing agent.

Bence Jones
Henry, British physician, 1814–1873. See B. albumin, B. cylinders, under cylinder, B. myeloma, B. proteins, under protein, B. reaction.

bendazac (ben′da-zak)
A topical anti-inflammatory agent.

Bender
Lauretta, U.S. psychiatrist, 1897–1987. See B. gestalt test, B. Visual Motor Gestalt test.

bendrofluazide (ben-dro-floo′a-zid)
SYN: bendroflumethiazide.

bendroflumethiazide (ben′dro-floo′me-thi′a-zid)
A thiazide diuretic and antihypertensive agent. SYN: bendrofluazide.

bends (bendz)
Colloquialism for caisson sickness; decompression sickness. [fr. convulsive posture of those so afflicted]

beneceptor (ben′e-sep′ter, tor)
A nerve organ or mechanism (ceptor) for the appreciation and transmission of stimuli of a beneficial character. Cf.:nociceptor. [L. bene, well, + capio, to take]

Benedek
Ladislaus (László), Austrian neurologist, 1887–1945. See B. reflex.

Benedict
Stanley R., U.S. chemist, 1884–1936. See B. solution, B. test for glucose, B.-Hopkins-Cole reagent.

Benedict
Francis G., U.S. metabolist, 1870–1957. See B.-Roth apparatus, B.-Roth calorimeter.

Benedikt
Moritz, Austrian physician, 1835–1920. See B. syndrome.

beneficence (be-nef′i-sens)
The ethical principle of doing good. [L. beneficentia, fr. bene, well, + facio, to do]

benign (be-nin′)
Denoting the mild character of an illness or the nonmalignant character of a neoplasm. [through O.Fr., fr. L. benignus, kind]

benne oil (ben′ne)
SYN: sesame oil.

Bennett
Edward H., Irish surgeon, 1837–1907. See B. fracture.

Bennett
Norman G., British dentist, 1870–1947. See B. angle, B. movement.

Bennhold
H., German physician, *1893. See B. Congo red stain.

benoxaprofen (ben-oks-a-pro′fen)
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent, no longer clinically used.

benperidol (ben-per′i-dol)
A tranquilizer. SYN: benzperidol.

benserazide (ben-ser′a-zid)
An l-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (dopa decarboxylase) inhibitor resembling carbidopa in action; given in combination with levodopa as an antiparkinsonian regimen. The b. prevents peripheral destruction of levodopa and thus reduces cardiovascular side effects of treatment.

Bensley
Robert R., U.S.-Canadian anatomist, 1867–1956. See B. specific granules, under granule.

bentiromide (ben-tir′o-mid)
A peptide used in a screening test for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and to monitor the adequacy of supplemental pancreatic therapy.

bentonite (ben′ton-it)
Native colloidal hydrated aluminum silicate; an absorbent clay found in the western U.S.; it is sometimes used in the treatment of diarrhea and skin disorders and was used as a suspending agent in lotions. [Fort Benton, Montana, + -ite]

benz-
Combining form denoting association with benzene.

benzalacetophenone (ben′zal-as-e-to-fe′non)
SYN: chalcone.

benzalcoumaran-3-one (ben-zal-koo′mar-an-thre′on)
SYN: aurone.

benzaldehyde (ben-zal′de-hid)
An aldehyde produced artificially or obtained from oil of bitter almond, containing not less than 80% of b.; a flavoring agent used in orally administered medicines. SYN: benzoic aldehyde.

benzalkonium chloride (ben-zal-ko′ne-um)
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides in which the alkyls are long-chain compounds (C8 to C18); a surface-active germicide for many pathogenic nonsporulating bacteria and fungi. Aqueous solutions of this agent have a low surface tension, and possess detergent, keratolytic, and emulsifying properties that aid the penetration and wetting of tissue surfaces.

benz[a]anthracene (ben-zan′thra-sen)
1,2-Benzanthracene;a carcinogenic hydrocarbon. SYN: benzanthrene.

benzanthrene (ben-zan′thren)
SYN: benz[a]anthracene.

benzene (ben′zen)
The basic structure in most aromatic compounds; a highly toxic hydrocarbon from light coal tar oil; used as a solvent. SYN: benzol, coal tar naphtha. [benzoin, + -ene] b. bromide a lacrimator or tear gas.

benzeneamine (ben-zen′a-men)
SYN: aniline.

benzestrol (ben-zes′trol)
A synthetic estrogenic substance.

benzethonium chloride (benz-e-tho′ne-um)
A synthetic quaternary ammonium compound, one of the cationic class of detergents; germicidal and bacteriostatic.

benzidine (ben′zi-den)
A colorless, crystalline compound used to detect sulfates in water analysis, for the identification of blood, and as a reagent in special stains; because it has been identified as a carcinogen, its current use is limited.

benzimidazole (benz-im-id-a′z-ol)
1. A ring system comprised of a benzene ring fused with an imidazole ring; occurs in nature as part of the vitamin B12 molecule. 2. A class of antihelmintic, often used to treat nematodes and cestodes.

benzin, benzine (ben′zin, ben-zen)
SYN: petroleum b..

benzindamine hydrochloride (ben-zin′da-men)
SYN: benzydamine hydrochloride.

benziodarone (ben-ze′o-da-ron)
A coronary vasodilator.

benzoate (ben′zo-at)
A salt or ester of benzoic acid. The salts are often used as pharmaceutical or food preservatives.

benzoated (ben′zo-at-ed)
Containing benzoic acid or a benzoate, usually sodium benzoate.

benzocaine (ben′zo-kan)
The ethyl ester of p-aminobenzoic acid; a topical anesthetic agent. SYN: ethyl aminobenzoate.

benzodiazepine (ben′zo-di-az′e-pen)
1. Parent compound for the synthesis of a number of psychoactive compounds ( e.g., diazepam, chlordiazepoxide). 2. A class of compounds with antianxiety, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties.

benzoic (ben-zo′ik)
Relating to or derived from benzoin.

benzoic acid
Occurs naturally in gum benzoin; it is used as a food preservative, locally as a fungistatic, and orally as an antiseptic. It is excreted rapidly as hippuric acid. SYN: benzoyl hydrate, flowers of benzoin.

benzoic aldehyde
SYN: benzaldehyde.

benzoin (ben′zo-in, ben′zoyn)
A balsamic resin obtained from Styrax b. (family Styracaceae), used as a stimulant expectorant, but usually by inhalation in laryngitis and bronchitis; it retards rancidification of fats and is used for this purpose in the official benzoinated lard. SYN: gum benjamin, gum b.. [It. benzoino, fr. Ar. luban jawiy, Javan incense]

benzol (ben′zol)
SYN: benzene.

benzomorphan (ben-zo-mor′fan)
The parent compound of a series of analgesics including pentazocine and phenazocine; it does not possess analgesic properties itself.

benzonatate (ben-zo′na-tat)
An antitussive agent related chemically to tetracaine; thought to act by depressing mechanoreceptors in the lungs.

benzopurpurin 4B (ben-zo-per′pu-rin) [C.I. 23500]
A red acid dye, formerly used as a stain and as an indicator (changes from violet to red in the pH range 1.2 to 4.0).

1,4-benzoquinone (ben-zo-kwin′on)
1. An essential part of coenzyme Q and vitamin E, reducible to hydroquinone. SYN: quinone (2) . 2. One of a class of benzoquinone derivatives.

benzoquinonium chloride (ben′zo-kwi-no′ne-um)
A skeletal muscle relaxant.

benzoresinol (ben-zo-res′i-nol)
A resinous constituent of benzoin.

benzosulfimide (ben-zo-sul′fi-mid)
SYN: saccharin.

benzothiadiazides (ben′zo-thi-a-di′a-zidz)
A class of diuretics that increase the excretion of sodium and chloride and an accompanying volume of water, independent of alterations in acid-base balance; most of the compounds in this group are analogues of 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide. SEE ALSO: benzthiazide.

benzoxiquine (ben-zoks′i-kwin)
A disinfectant. SYN: benzoxyline.

benzoxyline (ben-zoks′i-len)
SYN: benzoxiquine.

benzoyl (ben′zo-il)
The benzoic acid radical, C6H5CO&cbond;, forming b. compounds. b. chloride a colorless liquid of pungent odor; a reagent for acylation reactions. b. hydrate SYN: benzoic acid. b. peroxide made by the interaction of sodium peroxide and b. chloride; used in oil as an application to ulcers and to burns and scalds, in promoting the polymerization of dental resins, and as a keratolytic in the treatment of acne.

benzoylecgonine (ben′zo-il-ek′go-nen)
A metabolite of cocaine produced by hydrolysis; it can be found in the urine. SYN: ecgonine benzoate.

benzoylpas calcium (ben-zo′il-pas)
An antituberculous agent.

benzperidol (benz-per′i-dol)
SYN: benperidol.

benzphetamine hydrochloride (benz-fet′a-men)
A sympathomimetic agent used as an anorexiant.

benzpyrene (benz-pi′ren)
An environmental carcinogen found in jet fuel exhaust, cigarette smoke, and charcoal broiled meats; a powerful enzyme inducer.

benzpyrinium bromide (benz-pi-rin′e-um)
A cholinergic drug with action and uses similar to those of neostigmine. SYN: benzstigminum bromidum.

benzquinamide (benz-kwin′a-mid)
A benzoquinoline amide used as an antiemetic agent.

benzstigminum bromidum (benz-stig′mi-num)
SYN: benzpyrinium bromide.

benzthiazide (benz-thi′a-zid)
A diuretic and antihypertensive agent.

benztropine mesylate (benz-tro′pen)
A parasympatholytic agent with atropinelike and antihistaminic actions.

benzydamine hydrochloride (ben-zid′a-men)
An analgesic and antipyretic. SYN: benzindamine hydrochloride.

benzyl (ben′zil)
The hydrocarbon radical, C6H5CH2&cbond;. b. alcohol C6H5CH2OH;possesses local anesthetic and bacteriostatic properties. SYN: phenmethylol, phenylcarbinol. b. benzoate an agent that reduces the contractility of smooth muscular tissue, possessing marked antispasmodic properties; used now as a pediculicide and scabicide. b. benzoate-chlorophenothane-ethyl aminobenzoate a mixture of three components used in emulsions or ointments. b. carbinol SYN: phenylethyl alcohol. b. cinnamate a constituent of balsams of Peru, Tolu, and styrax. SYN: cinnamein. b. fumarate used for the same purposes as b. benzoate. b. mandelate the b. ester of mandelic acid, having an antispasmodic action similar to that of b. benzoate. b. succinate action and dosage are the same as those of b. benzoate.




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