|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
bifurcatio (bi′fer-ka′she-o) [TA]
SYN: bifurcation. b. aortae [TA] SYN: aortic bifurcation. b. tracheae [TA] SYN: tracheal bifurcation. b. trunci pulmonalis [TA] SYN: bifurcation of pulmonary trunk.
bifurcation (bi-fer-ka′shun) [TA]
A forking; a division into two branches. SYN: bifurcatio [TA] . b. of aorta SYN: aortic b.. aortic b. [TA] the division of the aorta into right and left common iliac arteries; it occurs at the level of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebral body. SYN: bifurcatio aortae [TA] , b. of aorta. b. of pulmonary trunk [TA] the division of the pulmonary trunk into right and left pulmonary arteries. SYN: bifurcatio trunci pulmonalis [TA] . b. of trachea SYN: tracheal b.. tracheal b. [TA] the division of the trachea into the right and left main bronchi; it occurs at the level of the fifth or sixth thoracic vertebral body and is marked internally by the presence of a carina or keellike ridge between the diverging bronchi. SYN: bifurcatio tracheae [TA] , b. of trachea.
Henry J., U.S. surgeon, 1818–1890. See B. ligament, B. septum.
SYN: bigeminal pulse.
Paired; double; twin.
One of the corpora bigemina. [L. ntr. of bigeminus, doubled]
Pairing; especially, the occurrence of heart beats in pairs. SYN: bigemini. [bi- + L. geminus, twin] atrial b. pairing of atrial beats, as when an atrial extrasystole is coupled to each sinus beat. atrioventricular junctional b. paired beats, each pair consisting of an AV nodal extrasystole coupled to a beat of the dominant, usually sinus, rhythm. SYN: nodal b.. escape-capture b. paired beats, each couplet consisting of an escape beat followed by a conducted sinus beat or an escape beat followed by a conducted ectopic beat (usually atrial with retrograde P wave). nodal b. SYN: atrioventricular junctional b.. reciprocal b. paired beats, each pair consisting of an AV nodal beat followed by a reciprocal beat. ventricular b. paired ventricular beats, the common form consisting of ventricular extrasystoles coupled to sinus beats.
Relating to two germs or ova.
A small interstitial proteoglycan that contains two glycosaminoglycan chains. SYN: proteoglycan I.
Amico, Italian physician, 1862–1929. See Marchiafava-B. disease.
A plasma glycoprotein that is found in both the free state and covalently bound to the heavy chains of certain protease inhibitors. It may participate in cell growth, oocyte cumulus expansion and stabilization.
A forceps for seizing and removing urethral or small vesical calculi. [bi- + L. labium, lip]
Relating to, or having, two sides. [bi- + L. latus, side]
A condition in which the two sides are symmetrical.
The yellowish brown or green fluid secreted by the liver and discharged into the duodenum where it aids in the emulsification of fats, increases peristalsis, and retards putrefaction; contains sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate, cholesterol, biliverdin and bilirubin, mucus, fat, lecithin, and cells and cellular debris. SYN: gall (1) . [L. bilis] A b. b. from the common duct. B b. b. from the gallbladder. C b. b. from the hepatic duct. white b. designating the relatively clear, almost colorless, clear viscid fluid that occurs in the gallbladder, intestines, or both as a result of obstruction of the b. ducts in various sites; actually the secretion of the mucous membrane, without the usual color resulting from b. pigments. SYN: leukobilin.
Theodor M., German tropical disease specialist, 1829–1862. See Bilharzia, bilharzial appendicitis, bilharzial dysentery, bilharzial granuloma.
An early name for Schistosoma. [T. Bilharz]
A tumor-like inflammatory and fibrous swelling of the intestinal serosa, mesentery, or skin, caused by schistosomiasis.
Bile. [L. bilis, bile]
Relating to bile or the b. tract. SYN: bilious (1) .
bilifaction, bilification (bil-i-fak′shun, -fi-ka′shun)
Rarely used terms for bile formation. [bili- + L. facio, pp. factus, to make]
Rarely used term for containing or carrying bile.
Bile production. [bili- + G. genesis, production]
bilin, biline (bi′lin)
The chain of four pyrrole residues resulting from the cleavage of one bond of one of the four methylidene residues of the porphin part of a porphyrin; specifically, the unsubstituted tetrapyrrole; bilirubin and biliverdin are bilins.
1. SYN: biliary. 2. Relating to or characteristic of biliousness. 3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by a quick, irritable temper. SYN: choleric.
An imprecisely delineated congestive disturbance with anorexia, coated tongue, constipation, headache, dizziness, pasty complexion, and, rarely, slight jaundice; assumed to result from hepatic dysfunction.
Occurrence of bile pigments in the spinal fluid. [bili- + G. rhachis, spine]
A yellow bile pigment found as sodium bilirubinate (soluble), or as an insoluble calcium salt in gallstones; formed from hemoglobin during normal and abnormal destruction of erythrocytes by the reticuloendothelial system; a bilin with substituents on the 2, 3, 7, 8, 12, 13, 17, and 18 carbon atoms and with oxygens on carbons 1 and 19. Excess b. is associated with jaundice. [bili- + L. ruber, red] conjugated b. SYN: direct reacting b.. delta b. the fraction of b. covalently bound to albumin; in conventional methods it is measured as part of conjugated b.. Because of its covalent bond during the recovery phase of hepatocellular jaundice it may persist in the blood for a week or more after urine clears. direct reacting b. the fraction of serum b. which has been conjugated with glucuronic acid in the liver cell to form b. diglucuronide; so called because it reacts directly with the Ehrlich diazo reagent; increased levels are found in hepatobiliary diseases, especially of the obstructive variety. SYN: conjugated b.. indirect reacting b. the fraction of serum b. which has not been conjugated with glucuronic acid in the liver cell; so called because it reacts with the Ehrlich diazo reagent only when alcohol is added; increased levels are found in hepatic disease and hemolytic conditions. SYN: unconjugated b.. b. UDPglucuronyltransferase (gloo-koo′ron-il-trans′fer-as) an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of UDPglucuronate and b. forming UDP and b.-glucuronoside; a deficiency of this enzyme is associated with Crigler-Najjar syndrome. unconjugated b. SYN: indirect reacting b..
The presence of bilirubin in the blood, where it is normally present in relatively small amounts; the term is usually used in relation to increased concentrations observed in various pathologic conditions where there is excessive destruction of erythrocytes or interference with the mechanism of excretion in the bile. Determination of the quantity of bilirubin in the blood serum reveals two fractions, namely direct reacting (conjugated) and indirect reacting (nonconjugated) bilirubin; determination of conjugated and total bilirubin in serum is an important and frequently used clinical laboratory test. [bilirubin + G. haima, blood]
A bilirubin-globulin complex; a transport form of bilirubin to the liver where bilirubin is converted to a diglucuronic acid derivative and passes into the bile.
Bilirubin monoglucuronide transglucuronidase;a transferase that transfers a glucuronoside from one molecule of bilirubin glucuronoside to another, forming bilirubin bisglucuronoside and unconjugated bilirubin (a step in heme catabolism).
Generic term denoting intermediates in the conversion of bilirubin to stercobilin by reductive enzymes in intestinal bacteria. Included are mesobilirubin, mesobilane, mesobilene-b, urobilinogen, urobilin, reduction products of mesobilane (stercobilinogen) and mesobilene (stercobilin), and mesobiliviolin; most are found in normal urine and feces. Products related to these intermediates and found in pathological conditions ( e.g., jaundice, liver disease) are the structurally indefinite probilifuscins and propentdyopents found in gallstones.
The presence of bilirubin in the urine. [bilirubin + G. ouron, urine]
Treatment with bile or bile salts.
The presence of various bile salts, or bile, in the urine. SYN: choleuria, choluria. [bili- + G. ouron, urine]
biliverdin, biliverdine (bil-i-ver′din)
A green bile pigment formed from the oxidation of heme; a bilin with a structure almost identical to that of bilirubin. SYN: dehydrobilirubin, verdine.
Arthur H., U.S. obstetrician, 1877–1961. See B. maneuver.
J.J., 20th century Australian gynecologist. See B. method.
Christian A.T., Austrian surgeon, 1829–1894. See B. cords, under cord, B. operation I, B. operation II, B. venae cavernosae, under vena, B. I anastomosis, B. II anastomosis.
bilobate, bilobed (bi-lo′bat, bi′lobd)
Having two lobes.
Surgical excision of two lobes of the right lung, either right upper and middle or right lower and middle.
Having two lobules.
bilocular, biloculate (bi-lok′u-lar, -u-lat)
Having two compartments or spaces. [bi- + L. loculus, dim. of locus, a place]
Relating to, or performed by, both hands. [bi- + L. manus, hand]
Relating to both mastoid processes.
Relating to both the right and left maxillae; sometimes used when describing something affecting both halves of the upper jaw.
Denoting a frequency curve characterized by two peaks.
Involving two molecules, as in a b. reaction.
1. The second angle given the shank of an angled instrument to bring its working end close to the axis of the handle in order to prevent it from turning about the axis. 2. A dental instrument possessing the above characteristics. [L. bini, pair, + angulus, angle]
1. Comprising two components, elements, molecules, etc. 2. Denoting a choice of two mutually exclusive outcomes for one event ( e.g., male or female, heads or tails, affected or unaffected). [L. binarius, consisting of two, fr. bini, two at a time]
Relating to both ears. SYN: binotic. [L. bini, a pair, + auris, ear]
1. To confine or encircle with a band or bandage. 2. To join together with a band or ligature. 3. To combine or unite molecules by means of reactive groups, either in the molecules per se or in a chemical added for that purpose; frequently used in relation to chemical bonds that may be fairly easily broken ( i.e., noncovalent), as in the binding of a toxin with antitoxin, or a heavy metal with a chelating agent, etc. 4. A close interpersonal relationship in which one person feels compelled to act in a certain way to obtain the approval of the other person. [A.S. bindan] double b. a type of personal interaction in which one receives two mutually conflicting verbal or nonverbal instructions or demands from the same person or different individuals, resulting in a situation in which either compliance or noncompliance with either alternative threatens one of the needed relationships.
1. A broad bandage, especially one encircling the abdomen. 2. Anything that binds. See bind (3) . obstetrical b. a supporting garment covering the abdomen from the ribs to the trochanters, tightly pinned at the back, affording support after childbirth or, rarely, during childbirth. T-b. two strips of cloth at right angles; used for retaining a dressing, as on the perineum. SYN: T-bandage.
Alfred, French psychologist, 1857–1911. See B. age, B. scale, B. test, B.-Simon scale, Stanford-B. intelligence scale.
Paul Robert, German neurologist, 1878–1956. See B. reflex.
Richard J., U.S. physician, *1909. See Taussig-B. disease, Taussig-B. syndrome.
Eugene C., U.S. chemist, 1878–1945. See B. flow, B. model, B. plastic.
Adapted to the use of both eyes; said of an optical instrument. [L. bini, paired, + oculus, eye]
A set of two terms or names; in the probabilistic or statistical sense it corresponds to a Bernoulli trial. SEE ALSO: binary combination. [bi- + G. nomos, name]
SYN: binaural. [L. bini, a pair, + G. ous (ot-), ear]
Otto Ludwig, German neurologist, 1852–1929. See B. disease, B. encephalopathy.
binuclear, binucleate (bi-noo′kle-ar, -kle-at)
Having two nuclei.
Having two nucleoli.
Combining form denoting life. [G. bios, life]
The science dealing with the effects of sound fields or mechanical vibrations on living organisms.
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