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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


bioplasmic (bi-o-plas′mik)
Relating to bioplasm.

biopolymer (bi′o-pol′e-mer)
A naturally occurring compound that is a polymer containing identical or similar subunits. aperiodic b. a b. consisting of nonidentical subunits present in a nonperiodic sequence. periodic b. a b. in which there are identical, repeating subunits.

biopsy (bi′op-se)
1. Process of removing tissue from patients for diagnostic examination. 2. A specimen obtained by b.. [bio- + G. opsis, vision] aspiration b. SYN: needle b.. brush b. obtained by abrading the surface of a lesion with a brush to obtain cells and tissue for microscopic examination. chorionic villus b. transcervical or transabdominal sampling of the chorionic villi for genetic analysis. endoscopic b. b. obtained by instruments passed through an endoscope or obtained by a needle introduced under endoscopic guidance. excision b. excision of tissue for gross and microscopic examination in such a manner that the entire lesion is removed. fine needle b. the aspiration and removal of tissue or suspensions of cells through a small needle. incision b. removal of only a part of a lesion by incising into it. needle b. any method in which the specimen for b. is removed by aspirating it through an appropriate needle or trocar that pierces the skin, or the external surface of an organ, and into the underlying tissue to be examined. SYN: aspiration b.. open b. surgical incision or excision of the region from which the b. is taken. punch b. any method that removes a small cylindrical specimen for b. by means of a special instrument that pierces the organ directly or through the skin or a small incision in the skin. SYN: trephine b.. sentinal node b. b. preceded by injection of a dye or radioisotope proximal to a tumor to identify for excision the primary node draining the area; used to determine the extent of spread of a malignancy. shave b. a b. technique performed with a surgical blade or a razor blade; used for lesions that are elevated above the skin level or confined to the epidermis and upper dermis, or to protrusions of lesions from internal sites. sponge b. abrasion of a lesion with a suitable sponge. trephine b. SYN: punch b.. wedge b. excision of a cuneiform specimen.

biopsychology (bi′o-si-kol′o-je)
An interdisciplinary area of study involving psychology, biology, physiology, biochemistry, the neural sciences, and related fields.

biopsychosocial (bi-o-si′ko-so-shal)
Involving interplay of biologic, psychological, and social influences.

biopterin (bi-op′ter-in)
A pterin found in yeast, the fruit fly, and in normal human urine. The reduced form of b. serves as a coenzyme for a number of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.

bioptome (bi-op′tom)
A biopsy instrument passed through a catheter into the heart to obtain pieces of tissue for diagnosis. [biopsy + G. tome, a cutting]

biorbital (bi-or′bi-tal)
Relating to both orbits. [bi- + G. orbita, orbit]

biorheology (bi′o-re-ol′o-je)
The science concerned with deformation and flow in biological systems. [bio- + G. rheo, to flow, + logos, study]

biorhythm (bi′o-rith-m)
A biologically inherent cyclic variation or recurrence of an event or state, such as the sleep cycle, circadian rhythms, or periodic diseases. [bio- + G. rhythmos, rhythm]

biosafety (b-i′o-saf′te)
Safety measures applied to the handling of biologic materials or organisms with a known potential to cause disease in humans. Current recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are to follow universal precautions, that is to treat all human samples of blood and body fluid as though they were infectious.

biosis (bi-o′sis)
Life, in a general sense. [G. b., way of living]

biosocial (bi-o-so′shul)
Involving the interplay of biologic and social influences.

biospectrometry (bi′o-spek-trom′e-tre)
Spectroscopic determination of the types and amounts of various substances in living tissue or fluid from a living body. SYN: clinical spectrometry. [bio- + L. spectrum, an image, + G. metron, measure]

biospectroscopy (bi′o-spek-tros′ko-pe)
Spectroscopic examination of specimens of living tissue, including fluids removed therefrom. SYN: clinical spectroscopy. [bio- + L. spectrum, image, + G. skopeo, to examine]

biospeleology (bi′o-spe′le-ol′o-je)
The study of organisms whose natural habitat is wholly or partly subterranean. [bio- + G. speliaion, cave]

biosphere (bi′o-sfer)
All the regions in the world where living organisms are found. [bio- + G. sphaira, sphere]

biostatics (bi-o-stat′iks)
The science of the relation between structure and function in organisms. [bio- + G. statikos, causing to stand]

biostatistics (bi′o-sta-tis′tiks)
The science of statistics applied to biologic or medical data.

biosynthesis (bi-o-sin′the-sis)
Formation of a chemical compound by enzymes, either in the organism (in vivo) or by fragments or extracts of cells (in vitro). SYN: biogenesis (2) .

biosynthetic (bi′o-sin-thet′ik)
Relating to or produced by biosynthesis.

biosystem (bi′o-sis-tem)
A living organism or any complete system of living things that can, directly or indirectly, interact with others.

Camille, 19th century French physician. See B. breathing, B. respiration, B. breathing sign, B. sign.

biota (bi-o′ta)
The collective flora and fauna of a region. [Mod. L., fr. G. bios, life]

biotaxis (bi-o-tak′sis)
1. The classification of living beings according to their anatomic characteristics. 2. SYN: cytoclesis. [bio- + G. taxis, arrangement]

biotechnology (bi′o-tek-nol′o-je)
1. The field devoted to applying the techniques of biochemistry, cellular biology, biophysics, and molecular biology to addressing practical issues related to human beings, agriculture, and the environment. 2. The use of recombinant DNA or hybridoma technologies for production of useful molecules, or for the alteration of biologic processes to enhance some desired property.

biotelemetry (bi-o-tel-em′e-tre)
The technique of monitoring vital processes and transmitting data without wires to a point remote from the subject.

biotest (bi′o-test)
A method for assessing the effect of a compound, technique, or procedure on an organism. SYN: biologic assay.

biotic (bi-ot′ik)
Pertaining to life.

biotics (bi-ot′iks)
The science concerned with the functions of life, or vital activity and force. [G. biotikos, relating to life]

biotin (bi′o-tin)
The d-isomer component of the vitamin B2 complex occurring in or required by most organisms and inactivated by avidin; participates in biologic carboxylations. It is a small molecule with a high affinity for avidin that can be readily coupled to a previously labeled antibody in order to allow visualization by enzymatic or histochemical means. SEE ALSO: avidin. SYN: coenzyme R, vitamin H, W factor. b. carboxylase a subunit of a number of enzymes ( E.G., acetyl-CoA carboxylase). It catalyzes the formation of carboxybiotin (on a b. carrier protein), ADP, and Pi from ATP, CO2 and b.. b. oxidase an enzyme (probably nonspecific) catalyzing the beta-oxidation of the b. side chain.

biotinidase (bi-o-tin′i-das)
An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of biotin amide (forming biotin and ammonia), biocytin (forming biotin and lysine), and other biotinides. A deficiency of b. can lead to organic acidemia.

biotinides (bi-ot′i-nidz)
Compounds of biotin; e.g., biocytin.

biotinyllysine (bi′o-tin-il-li′sin)
SYN: biocytin.

biotope (bi′o-top)
The smallest geographic area providing uniform conditions for life; the physical part of an ecosystem. [G. bios, life, + topos, place]

biotoxicology (bi′o-tok-si-kol′o-je)
The study of poisons produced by living organisms.

biotoxin (bi-o-tok′sin)
Any toxic substance formed in an animal body, and demonstrable in its tissues or body fluids, or both.

biotransformation (bi′o-trans-for-ma′shun)
The conversion of molecules from one form to another within an organism, often associated with change (increase, decrease, or little change) in pharmacologic activity; refers especially to drugs and other xenobiotics. SYN: biodegradation.

biotype (bi′o-tip)
1. A population or group of individuals composed of the same genotype. 2. In bacteriology, former name for biovar, referring to a variant strain of bacteria. [bio- + G. typos, model]

biovar (bi′o-var)
A group (infrasubspecific) of bacterial strains distinguishable from other strains of the same species on the basis of physiologic characters. Formerly called biotype. [bio- + variant]

biovular (bi′ov-u-lar)
SYN: diovular.

bipalatinoid (bi-pal′a-ti-noyd)
A capsule with two compartments, used for making remedies in nascent form; the reaction between the two substances takes place as the capsule dissolves in the stomach, thus activating the remedy.

biparasitism (bi-par′a-sit-izm)
SYN: hyperparasitism.

biparental (bi-pa-ren′tal)
Having two parents, male and female.

biparietal (bi-pa-ri′e-tal)
Relating to both parietal bones of the skull. [bi- + L. paries, wall]

biparous (bip′a-rus)
Bearing two young. [bi- + L. pario, to give birth]

bipartite (bi-par′tit)
Consisting of two parts or divisions.

biped (bi′ped)
1. Two-footed. 2. Any animal with only two feet. [bi- + L. pes, foot]

bipedal (bi′ped-al)
1. Relating to a biped. 2. Capable of locomotion on two feet; e.g., an iguana and some other lizards have this capability.

bipennate, bipenniform (bi-pen′at, pen′i-form)
Pertaining to a muscle with a central tendon toward which the fibers converge on either side like the barbs of a feather. [bi- + L. penna, feather]

biperforate (bi-per′fo-rat)
Having two foramina or perforations.

biperiden (bi-per′i-den)
An anticholinergic agent with sedative and central effects on the basal ganglia; used in the symptomatic treatment of parkinsonism and drug-induced parkinsonism. Also available as b. hydrochloride.

biphenamine hydrochloride (bi-fen′a-men)
An antiseborrheic agent.

biphenotypic (bi′fe-no-tip′ik)
Pertaining to or characterized by biphenotypy.

biphenotypy (bi-fe′no-ti′pe)
The expression of markers of more than one cell type by the same cell, as in certain leukemias.

biphenyl (bi-fen′il)
SYN: diphenyl. polychlorinated b. (PCB) b. in which some or all of the hydrogen atoms attached to ring carbons are replaced by chlorine atoms; a probable human carcingogen and teratogen.

bipolar (bi-po′ler)
Having two poles, ends, or extremes.

Bipolaris (bi-po-la′ris)
Genus of dematiaceous fungi that are among the causes of phaeohyphomycosis; some Drechslera and Helminthosporium species are now classified as B. species. B. australiensis species of dematiaceous fungi that is among the causes of phaeohyphomycosis. B. hawaiiensis species of dematiaceous fungi that is among the causes of phaeohyphomycosis. B. spicifera species of dematiaceous fungi that is among the causes of phaeohyphomycosis.

bipotentiality (bi′po-ten-she-al′i-te)
Capability of differentiating along two developmental pathways. An example is the capacity of the gonad to develop into either an ovary or a testis.

biramous (bi-ra′mus)
Having two branches. [bi- + L. ramus, branch]

Michael S., contemporary British cancer researcher. See B. granule.

Felix V., German pathologist, 1842–1899. See Birch-Hirschfeld stain.

birch tar (berch)
SYN: b. oil.

birch tar oil
Pyroligneous oil obtained by the dry distillation of the wood of Betula alba and rectified by steam distillation; used externally in the treatment of skin diseases. SYN: birch tar.

Samuel D., Australian physician, 1833–1904. See B. sign.

birefringence (bi-re-frin′jens)
SYN: double refraction.

birefringent (bi-re-frin′-jent)
Refracting twice; splitting a ray of light in two.

Birnaviridae (bir′na-vi′ra-da)
A family of icosahedral nonenveloped viruses, 60 nm in diameter whose genome consists of two segments of linear double-stranded RNA.

Birnavirus (bir′na-vi-rus)
A virus in the family Birnaviridae that includes infectious bursal disease virus of chickens, ducks, and turkeys and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus of fish. [bi- + RNA + virus]

birotation (bi-ro-ta′shun)
SYN: mutarotation.


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