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Medical Dictionary


birth (berth)
1. Passage of the offspring from the uterus to the outside world; the act of being born. 2. Specifically, in the human, complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a fetus, irrespective of gestational age, and regardless of whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or whether or not the placenta is attached. b. certificate official, legal document recording details of a live b., usually comprising name, date, place, identity of parents, and sometimes additional information such as b. weight. premature b. b. of an infant that has achieved a gestation of at least 20 weeks or b. weight of at least 500 g, but before 37 weeks.

birthing (bir′thing)
Parturition; the act of giving birth.

birthmark (berth′mark)
A persistent visible lesion, usually on the skin, identified at or near birth; commonly a nevus or hemangioma. See nevus (1) . strawberry b. SYN: strawberry nevus.

1. Prefix signifying two or twice. 2. In chemistry, used to denote the presence of two identical but separated complex groups in one molecule. Cf.:bi-, di-. [L.]

bisacodyl (bis-ak′o-dil)
A laxative used orally or rectally for constipation. Same class as phenolphthalein.

bisacromial (bis′a-kro′me-al)
Relating to both acromion processes.

bisalbuminemia (bis′al-bu′mi-ne′me-a)
The concurrence of having two kinds of serum albumin that differ in mobility on electrophoresis: normal albumin (albumin A) and any one of several variant types that migrate at other speeds; individuals are heterozygous for the gene for albumin A and the gene for the variant albumin type. SEE ALSO: inherited albumin variants, under variant.

bisaxillary (bis-ak′si-lar-e)
Relating to both axillae.

bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids (bis-ben′zil-i-so-kwin′o-lin al-ka-loids)
A group of alkaloids whose base structure is two fused isoquinoline rings, e.g., curare alkaloids.

2,5-bis(5-t-butylbenzoxazol-2-yl)thiophene (BBOT)
A scintillator used in radioactivity measurements by scintillation counting.

W., 20th century German neurosurgeon. See B. myelotomy.

biscuit (bis′kit)
A term associated with the firing of porcelain, and applied to the fired article before glazing. May be any stage after the fluxes have flowed enough to provide rigidity to the structure up to the stage where shrinkage is complete. Referred to as low, medium or high b., depending on the completeness of vitrification, also as hard or soft b..

The initial bake(s) given fusing porcelain at lower than glazing temperature to control shrinkage during the process of building up the dental restoration. SYN: biscuit-firing.

SYN: biscuit-bake.

bisdequalinium chloride (bis′de-kwa-lin′e-um)
An antiseptic.

bis in die (b.i.d.) (bis in de′a)
Twice a day. [L.]

bisexual (bi-seks′u-al)
1. Having gonads of both sexes. SEE ALSO: hermaphroditism. 2. Denoting an individual who engages in both heterosexual and homosexual relations.

bisferient (bis-fer′e-ent)
SYN: bisferious.

bisferious (bis-fer′e-us)
Striking twice; said of the pulse. SYN: bisferient. [L. bis, twice, + ferio, to strike]

Louis F., U.S. physician, 1864–1941. See B. sphygmoscope.

bishydroxycoumarin (bis-hi-drox′e-koo′ma-rin)
SYN: dicumarol.

bisiliac (bis-il′e-ak)
Relating to any two corresponding iliac parts or structures, as the iliac bones or iliac fossae.

Bismarck brown R [C.I. 21010]
A diazo dye similar to Bismarck brown Y.

Bismarck brown Y [C.I. 21000]
A diazo dye used for staining mucin and cartilage in histologic sections, in the Papanicolaou technique for vaginal smears, and as one of Kasten Schiff-type reagents in the PAS and Feulgen stains. SYN: vesuvin. [Ger. bismarckbraun, after Otto von Bismarck, Ger. chancellor]

bismuth (Bi) (biz′muth)
A trivalent metallic element; atomic no. 83, atomic wt. 20.98037. Several of its salts are used in medicine; some contain BiO+, rather than Bi3+, and are called subsalts. [Ger. Wismut, weisse Masse, white mass] b. aluminate a gastric antacid. SYN: aluminum b. oxide. b. ammonium citrate ammoniocitrate of b.; an intestinal astringent. b. carbonate SYN: b. subcarbonate. b. chloride oxide SYN: b. oxychloride. b. citrate used in the making of b. and ammonium citrate. b. hydroxide used in detecting reducing sugars. b. iodide BiI3;used in electron microscopy to reveal synapses. SYN: b. triiodide. b. oxide used for the same purposes as the subnitrate. b. oxycarbonate SYN: b. subcarbonate. b. oxychloride basic b. chloride, used for the same purposes as the subnitrate. SYN: b. chloride oxide, bismuthyl chloride. b. oxynitrate SYN: b. subnitrate. b. salicylate b. subsalicylate. b. sodium tartrate a basic sodium b. tartrate; an antisyphilitic agent. b. sodium triglycollamate sodium b. complex of nitrilotriacetic acid. b. subcarbonate used for the same purposes as b. subnitrate, but has lower toxicity. SYN: b. carbonate, b. oxycarbonate, bismuthyl carbonate. b. subgallate used internally in diarrhea and externally as an astringent and protective dusting powder. b. subnitrate a basic salt, the composition of which varies with the conditions of preparation; used internally as an intestinal astringent and externally as a mild astringent and antiseptic; the metal is used as an electron microscope stain for nucleic acids. SYN: b. oxynitrate. b. subsalicylate used as an intestinal antiseptic. b. tribromophenate, b. tribromophenol used externally as an antiseptic. b. trichloride BiCl3;addition of water results in formation of b. oxychloride. SYN: butter of b.. b. triiodide SYN: b. iodide.

bismuthosis (bis-mu-tho′sis)
Chronic bismuth poisoning.

bismuthyl (biz′mu-thil)
The group, BiO+, that behaves chemically as the ion of a univalent metal; its salts are subsalts of bismuth. b. carbonate SYN: bismuth subcarbonate. b. chloride SYN: bismuth oxychloride.

bisoxatin acetate (bis-ok′sa-tin)
A laxative.

A liquid scintillation agent used in radioisotope measurement.

1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-P2Gri) (di-fos′fo-glis′er-at)
An intermediate in glycolysis which enzymatically reacts with ADP to generate ATP and 3-phosphoglycerate.

2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-P2Gri)
An intermediate in the Rapoport-Luebering shunt, formed between 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate and 3-phosphoglycerate; an important regulator of the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen; an intermediate of phosphoglycerate mutase. b. mutase an enzyme of the Rapoport-Luebering shunt; it catalyzes the reversible interconversion of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to b.; it also has a phosphatase activity, converting b. to orthophosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate; a deficiency of b. mutase can result in mild erythrocytosis.

bisphosphonates (bis-fos′fo-nats)
Synthetic pyrophosphate analogs that inhibit osteoclast resorption of bone.

bistephanic (bi′ste-fan′ik)
Relating to both stephanions; denoting particularly the b. width of the cranium, or b. diameter, the shortest distance from one stephanion to the other.

bisteroid (bi-ster′oyd)
A molecule composed of two molecules of a given steroid joined together by a carbon-to-carbon bond.

bistoury (bis′too-re)
A long, narrow-bladed knife, with a straight or curved edge and sharp or blunt point (probe-point); used for opening or slitting cavities or hollow structures. [Fr. bistouri, fr. It. dialect bistori, perh. fr. Pistoia, Italy]

bistratal (bi-stra′tal)
Having two strata or layers.

bisulfate (bi-sul′fat)
A salt containing HSO4−. SYN: acid sulfate.

bisulfide (bi-sul′fid)
A compound of the anion HS−; an acid sulfide.

bisulfite (bi-sul′fit)
A salt or ion of HSO3−.

1. The smallest unit of digital information expressed in the binary system of notation (either 0 or 1). 2. The electrical signal used in electronic computers. SYN: binary digit.

bitartrate (bi-tar′trat)
A salt or anion resulting from the neutralization of one of tartaric acid's two acid groups.

A female dog of breeding age. [O.E. bicche]

bite (bit)
1. To incise or seize with the teeth. 2. The act of incision or seizure with the teeth. 3. A morsel of food held between the teeth. 4. Term used to denote the amount of pressure developed in closing the jaws. 5. Undesirable jargon for terms such as interocclusal record, maxillomandibular registration, denture space, and interarch distance. 6. A wound or puncture of the skin made by animal or insect. [A.S. bitan] balanced b. SYN: balanced occlusion. biscuit b. SYN: maxillomandibular record. close b. SYN: small interarch distance. closed b. reduced vertical interarch distance with excessive vertical overlap of the anterior teeth. deep b. an abnormally large vertical overlap of anterior teeth in centric occlusion. edge-to-edge b. SYN: edge-to-edge occlusion. end-to-end b. SYN: edge-to-edge occlusion. jumping the b. an orthodontic technique for correcting a crossbite, usually anterior. locked b. an occlusion in which the cusp arrangement restricts lateral excursions. normal b. SYN: normal occlusion (1) . open b. 1. SYN: large interarch distance. 2. SYN: apertognathia. rest b. a misnomer for physiologic rest position of the mandible. working b. SYN: working contacts, under contact.

bitemporal (bi-tem′po-ral)
Relating to both temples or temporal bones.

biteplate, biteplane (bit′plat, bit′plan)
A removable appliance that incorporates a plane of acrylic designed to occlude with the opposing teeth.

bitewing (bit′wing)
See b. radiograph.

bithionol (bi-thi′o-nol)
An antiparasitic agent used for treatment of the human lungworm, Paragonimus westermani, and the Oriental liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis; also used as a bacteriostat in soaps and detergents; sodium bithionate is used as a topical bactericide and fungicide.

bitolterol mesylate (bi-tol′ter-ol)
A sympathomimetic bronchodilator used in the prophylaxis and treatment of bronchial asthma and reversible bronchospasm.

Pierre A., French physician, 1822–1888. See B. spots, under spot.

bitrochanteric (bi-tro-kan-ter′ik)
Relating to two trochanters, either to the two trochanters of one femur or to both greater trochanters.

bitropic (bi-trop′ik)
Having a dual affinity, as in tissues or organisms. [bi- + G. trope, a turning]

bitter apple
SYN: colocynth.

1. An alcoholic liquor in which bitter vegetable substances ( e.g., quinine, gentian) have been steeped. 2. Bitter vegetable drugs ( e.g., quassia, gentian, cinchona), usually used as tonics. SYN: amara. aromatic b. b. with a pleasant aromatic flavor.

John J., U.S. oncologist, 1904–1961. See B. agent, B. milk factor.

Alexander, German physician, 1876–1949. See B. reaction.

biuret (bi-oo-ret′)
A derivative of urea obtained by heating, eliminating one NH3 between two ureas. Used in protein determinations. SYN: carbamoylurea.

bivalence, bivalency (bi-va′lens, bi-va′len-se)
A combining power (valence) of 2. SYN: divalence, divalency.

bivalent (bi-va′lent, biv′a-lent)
1. Having a combining power (valence) of 2. SYN: divalent. 2. In cytology, a structure consisting of two paired homologous chromosomes, each split into two sister chromatids, as seen during the pachytene stage of prophase in meiosis. SEE ALSO: tetrad.

biventer (bi-ven′ter)
Two-bellied; denoting two-bellied muscles. [bi- + L. venter, belly] b. cervicis SYN: spinalis capitis (muscle). b. mandibulae SYN: digastric (muscle) (1) .

biventral (bi-ven′tral)
SYN: digastric (1) .

biventricular (bi′ven-trik′oo-lar)
Pertaining to both right and left ventricles.

bixin (bik′sin)
A monomethyl ester of a 24-carbon branched unsaturated dicarboxylic acid; a carotenoid (a carotene-dioic acid); the orange-red coloring matter from seeds of Bixa orellana; the ethyl ester is used as a food and drug colorant. SEE ALSO: annotto.

bizygomatic (bi′zi-go-mat′ik)
Relating to both zygomatic bones or arches.

Giulio, Italian physician, 1846–1901. See B. corpuscle.

Jannik P., Danish ophthalmologist, 1851–1920. See B. scotoma, B. screen, B. sign.

V. O., 20th century Swedish cardiothoracic surgeon. See B.-Shiley valve.

R., 20th century Scandinavian dermatologist. See B. syndrome.

Symbol for berkelium.

Douglas A.K., Scottish physician, *1909. See B. formula.

Greene V., U.S. dentist, 1836–1915. See B. classification.

Kenneth D., U.S. physician, 1883–1941. See Diamond-B. anemia, Diamond-B. syndrome.

blackout (blak′owt)
1. Temporary loss of consciousness due to decreased blood flow to the brain. 2. Momentary loss of consciousness, as in absence. 3. Temporary loss of vision, without alteration of consciousness, due to positive g (gravity) forces; caused by temporary decreased blood flow in the central retinal artery, and seen mostly in aviators. 4. A transient episode that occurs during a state of intense intoxication (alcoholic b.) for which the person has no recall, although not unconscious (as observed by others). visual b. amaurosis fugax.

black root
SYN: leptandra.

bladder (blad′er) [TA]
1. A distensible musculomembranous organ serving as a receptacle for fluid, as the urinary or gallbladder or urinary b.. See detrusor. 2. SYN: urinary b.. [A.S. blaedre] air b. a two-chambered gas-filled sac that is present in most fish and functions as a hydrostatic organ; it is located beneath the vertebral column, and is connected with the esophagus in some fish. SYN: swim b.. allantoic b. a type of b. formed as an outgrowth of the cloaca. atonic b. a large, dilated, and nonemptying urinary b.; usually due to disturbance of innervation or to chronic obstruction. autonomic neurogenic b. malfunctioning urinary b., secondary to low spinal cord lesions. gall b. SYN: gallbladder. hyperreflexic b. a b. exhibiting detrusor instability. hypertonic b. a b. with poor compliance. ileal b. SYN: ileal conduit. neurogenic b. SYN: neuropathic b.. neuropathic b. any defective functioning of b. due to impaired innervation, e.g., cord b., neuropathic b.. SYN: neurogenic b.. nonneurogenic neurogenic b. detrusor-sphincter incoordination with urinary incontinence, constipation, UTI, upper tract changes. SYN: Hinman syndrome, pseudoneurogenic b.. poorly compliant b. a b. that has high pressure at low volumes in the absence of detrusor activity. pseudoneurogenic b. SYN: nonneurogenic neurogenic b.. reflex neurogenic b. an abnormal condition of urinary b. function whereby the b. is cut off from upper motor neuron control, but the lower motor neuron arc is still intact. swim b. SYN: air b.. trabeculated b. characterized by thick wall and hypertrophied muscle bundles. Typically seen in instances of chronic obstruction. uninhibited neurogenic b. a condition, either congenital or acquired, of abnormal urinary b. function whereby normal inhibitory control of detrusor function by the central nervous system is impaired or underdeveloped, resulting in urgency or enuresis. unstable b. characterized by uninhibited detrusor contractions. urinary b. [TA] a musculomembranous elastic bag serving as a storage place for the urine. SYN: b. (2) [TA] , vesica urinaria [TA] , vesica (1) [TA] , cystis urinaria, urocyst, urocystis.


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