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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


bloodstream (blud′strem)
The flowing blood as it is encountered in the circulatory system as distinguished from blood that has been removed from the circulatory system or sequestered in a part; thus, something added to the b. may be expected to become distributed to all parts of the body through which blood is flowing.

blood type
The specific agglutination pattern of erythrocytes of an individual to the antisera of one blood group; e.g., the ABO blood group consists of four major blood types: O, A, B, and AB. This classification depends on the presence or absence of two major antigens: A or B. Type O occurs when neither is present and type AB when both are present. The b. is the genetic phenotype of the individual for one blood group system and may be determined using different antisera available for testing. See Blood Groups appendix.

blood vessel [TA]
Any vessel conveying blood: arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins. conveying blood. SYN: vas sanguineum [TA] . choroid blood vessels [TA] the arteries and veins that, with the loose connective tissue and pigmented cells which form their matrix, comprise the vascular lamina of the choroid. SYN: vasa sanguinea choroideae [TA] . intrapulmonary blood vessels [TA] the intrasegmental branches of the pulmonary artery and vein that course within the parenchyma of the lungs. SYN: vasa sanguinea intrapulmonalia [TA] . retinal blood vessels [TA] the blood vasculature of the retina, including the branches and tributaries of the central retinal artery and vein, respectively, and the vascular circle of the optic nerve. SYN: vasa sanguinea retinae [TA] .

bloodworm (blud′werm)
1. The filarial parasite of sheep, Elaeophora schneideri. 2. Red aquatic larvae of certain dipterous gnats and midges. 3. Marine annelids in the family Terebellidae with soft bodies and red blood. 4. Blood-inhabiting worms, such as the human blood flukes in the genus Schistosoma.

David, U.S. dermatologist, *1892. See B. syndrome.

See Northern b. analysis, Southern b. analysis, Western b. analysis, zoo b. analysis.

Commonly used term to denote a pigmented or erythematous lesion.

Walter P., U.S. orthopedic surgeon, *1900. See B. disease, B.-Barber disease.

See Calliphora, Lucilia, Phormia regina.

blue (bloo)
A color between green and violet on the spectrum. For individual b. dyes, see the specific name. SYN: cerulean.

blues (blooz)
State of depression or sadness. [slang, fr. blue devils] postpartum b. mood disturbance (including insomnia, weepiness, depression, anxiety, and irritability) experienced by up to 50% of women the first week postpartum; apparently precipitated by progesterone withdrawal.

Paul, French physician, 1878–1933. See Gougerot and B. disease.

Jacob M., German surgeon and gynecologist, 1873–1955. See B. sign.

Leonid W., Russian neurologist, 1862–1932. See B. nucleus.

Johann F., German physiologist, 1752–1840. See B. clivus.

George A., U.S. physician, 1858–1940. See B. shelf.

blunt-end (blunt-end)
Refers to double-stranded DNA in which there are no unpaired bases at the end of the polynucleotide.

blush (blush)
1. A sudden and brief redness of the face and neck due to emotion. 2. In angiography, used metaphorically to describe neovascularity or, in some cases, extravasation. [M.E., fr. O.E. blyscan,] tumor b. enhancement of tumor on radiologic exams by administration of contrast agents.

Abbreviation for bovine leukemia virus.

A two-dimensional diagnostic ultrasound presentation of echo-producing interfaces; the intensity of the echo is represented by modulation of the brightness of the spot, and the position of the echo is determined from the angular position of the transducer and the transit time of the acoustical pulse and its echo.

Abbreviation for basal metabolic rate.

Abbreviation for Basle Nomina Anatomica.


bobbing (bob′ing)
An up-and-down movement. inverse ocular b. slow downward eye movement followed by delayed quick upward return. ocular b. sudden conjugate downward deviation of the eyes with a slow return to the normal position; seen in some comatose patients who have bilateral hemisphere lesions.

bobierrite (bob′-e-er-it)
The octahydrate of magnesium phosphate; sometimes found in renal calculi. Cf.:newberyite, struvite. [Pierre A. Bobierre, Fr. chemist, + -ite]

Abbreviations formerly used for t-butoxycarbonyl; current usage is Boc.

Abbreviation for t-butoxycarbonyl.

Vincent A., Czechoslovakian anatomist, 1801–1883. See B. foramen, B. ganglion, B. gap, foramen of B. hernia, B. muscle, B. valve, flower basket of B..

August C., German anatomist, 1782–1833. See B. ganglion.

Max, German physician, 1883–1921. See B. impetigo.

Abbreviation for biochemical oxygen demand.

Aaron, U.S. biochemist, 1887–1961. See B. unit.

Charles F., U.S. oral histologist, embryologist, and pathologist, *1880. See B. index.

David, U.S. anatomist, *1910. See B. copper-protargol stain.

Bodo (bo′do)
A genus of free-living, ovoid or slightly pyriform protozoa with two flagella, one projecting anteriorly and the other posteriorly; may be ingested as encysted forms in food or drink, or possibly deposited in feces or urine after excretion; in either instance, cysts frequently develop into trophozoites if the specimen is permitted to remain at room temperature for a few hours prior to examination; the organisms are not pathogenic in humans. B. caudatus a species that is found in specimens of human feces (especially in tropical regions); the organisms are frequently termed coprozoic flagellates. B. saltans a species of the intestinal tract sometimes observed in ulcers. B. urinarius a species found occasionally in the urine.

body (bod′e)
1. The head, neck, trunk, and extremities. The human b., consisting of head (caput), neck (collum), trunk (truncus), and limbs (membra). 2. The material part of a human, as distinguished from the mind and spirit. 3. The principal mass of any structure. 4. A thing; a substance. SEE ALSO: corpus, soma. SYN: corpus (1) [TA] . [A.S. bodig] acetone b. SYN: ketone b.. adrenal b. SYN: suprarenal gland. alcoholic hyaline bodies SYN: Mallory bodies. Alder bodies granular inclusions in polymorphonuclear leukocytes; they take on a dark color with Giemsa-Wright stain and react metachromatically with toluidine blue. SEE ALSO: Alder anomaly. alveolar b. SYN: alveolar process of maxilla. amygdaloid b. [TA] a rounded mass of gray matter in the temporal lobe internal to the cortex of the uncus and immediately anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle; its major afferents are olfactory and its efferent connections are with the hypothalamus and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus and it is also reciprocally associated with the cortex of the temporal lobe; it is subdivided into two major nuclear groups; basolateral and corticormedial. The individual nuclei of the amygdaloid b. (or complex) are the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus [TA] (nucleus anygdalae basilis lateralis [TA]), basomedial amygdaloid nucleus [TA] (nucleus amygdalae basalis medialis [TA]), central amygdaloid nucleus [TA] (nucleus amygdalae centralis [TA]), cortical amygdaloid nucleus [TA] (nucleus amygdalae corticalis [TA]), interstitial amygdaloid nucleus [TA] (nucleus amygdalae interstitialis [TA]), lateral amygdaloid nucleus [TA] (nucleus amygdalae lateralis [TA]), medial amygdaloid nucleus [TA] (nucleus amygdalae medialis [TA]), and the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract [TA] (nucleus tractus olfactorii lateralis [TA]). SYN: amygdaloid complex [TA] , corpus amygdaloideum [TA] , amygdaloid nucleus, nucleus amygdalae. amylogenic b. SYN: amyloplast. anococcygeal b. SYN: anococcygeal ligament. anterior quadrigeminal b. SYN: superior colliculus. aortic bodies SYN: paraaortic bodies. Arnold bodies small portions or minute fragments of erythrocytes (sometimes mistaken for blood platelets), or small “ghosts” of erythrocytes. asbestos bodies ferruginous bodies with asbestos fibers as a core; a histologic hallmark of exposure to asbestos. Aschoff bodies a form of granulomatous inflammation characteristically observed in acute rheumatic carditis; fully developed Aschoff bodies consist of fibrinoid change in connective tissue, lymphocytes, occasional plasma cells, and abnormal characteristic histiocytes. SYN: Aschoff nodules. asteroid b. 1. an eosinophilic inclusion resembling a star with delicate radiating lines, occurring in a vacuolated area of cytoplasm of a multinucleated giant cell; especially frequent in sarcoidosis, but also seen in other granulomas; 2. a structure that is characteristic of sporotrichosis when found in the skin or secondary lesions of this mycosis; in tissue, it surrounds the 3- to 5-μm in diameter ovoid yeast of Sporothrix schenckii. Auer bodies rod-shaped structures of uncertain nature in the cytoplasm of immature myeloid cells, especially myeloblasts, in acute myelocytic leukemia; may be an abnormal form of lysosomes; they contain peroxidase and acid phosphatase, and stain red by azure-eosin stains. SYN: Auer rods. Barr chromatin b. SYN: sex chromatin. basal b. an elongated centriolar structure situated at the base of each cilium at the apical margin of a cell. SYN: basal corpuscle, basal granule, blepharoplast, kinetosome. bigeminal bodies a bilateral single swelling of the roofplate of the embryonic midbrain that later in development becomes subdivided into a superior and an inferior colliculus. See quadrigeminal bodies. SYN: corpora bigemina. b. of bladder [TA] the portion of the bladder between the apex and fundus. SYN: corpus vesicae [TA] . brassy b. a dark-colored, usually shrunken erythrocyte in which there is a malarial parasite. b. of breast [TA] the principal part of the breast, consisting of glandular tissue and its supporting fibrous tissue. It forms a conical mass converging toward the nipple and is surrounded by adipose tissue. SYN: corpus mammae [TA] , b. of mammary gland. Cabot ring bodies ring-shaped or figure-of-eight structures that stain red with Wright stain, found in red blood cells in severe anemias, possibly a remnant of the nuclear membrane; a form of basophilic degenerative process. Call-Exner bodies small fluid-filled spaces between granulosal cells in ovarian follicles and in ovarian granulosa cell tumors; they may form a rosettelike structure. carotid b. [TA] a small epithelioid structure located just above the bifurcation of the common carotid artery on each side. It consists of granular principal cells and nongranular supporting cells, a sinusoidal vascular bed, and a rich network of sensory fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve. It serves as a chemoreceptor organ responsive to oxygen lack, carbon dioxide excess, and increased hydrogen ion concentration. SYN: glomus caroticum [TA] , intercarotid b., nodulus caroticus. b. of caudate nucleus [TA] the suprathalamic part of the caudate nucleus lying in the floor of the central part (the b.) of the lateral ventricle. SYN: corpus nuclei caudati [TA] . cavernous bodies of anal canal SYN: anal cushions, under cushion. cavernous b. of clitoris SYN: corpus cavernosum of clitoris. cavernous b. of penis SYN: corpus cavernosum penis. cell b. the part of the cell containing the nucleus. central b. SYN: cytocentrum. central fibrous b. the fibrous area where the leaflets of the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valves meet in the heart. chromaffin b. SYN: paraganglion. chromatin b. the genetic apparatus of bacteria. See nucleus (2) . ciliary b. [TA] a thickened portion of the vascular tunic of the eye between the choroid and the iris; it consists of three parts or zones; orbiculus ciliaris, corona ciliaris, and ciliary muscle. SYN: corpus ciliare [TA] , anulus ciliaris. Civatte bodies eosinophilic hyaline spherical bodies seen in the epidermis, in lichen planus and other skin disorders; formed by apoptosis of individual basal cells. SYN: colloid bodies. b. of clavicle shaft of clavicle. b. of clitoris [TA] the shaft or pendulous portion of the clitoris, composed of two fused corpora cavernosa clitoridae, the distal end of which is the glans clitoris. SYN: corpus clitoridis [TA] . coccygeal b. [TA] an arteriovenous (arteriolovenular) anastomosis supplied by the middle sacral artery and located on the pelvic surface of the coccyx. It was formerly called a gland (of Luschka) or a glomus and included with the paraganglia. SYN: corpus coccygeum [TA] , arteriococcygeal gland, coccygeal gland, glomus coccygeum. colloid bodies SYN: Civatte bodies. compressible cavernous bodies submucous venous plexuses found at the level of the pharyngoesophageal junction and anal canal, which assist in reducing or obliterating the lumen. conchoidal bodies SYN: Schaumann bodies. b. of corpus callosum trunk of corpus callosum. Councilman b., Councilman hyaline b. an eosinophilic globule, seen in the liver in yellow fever, derived from apoptosis of a single hepatic cell. Cowdry type A inclusion bodies dropletlike masses of acidophilic material surrounded by clear halos within nuclei, with margination of chromatin on the nuclear membrane as seen in human herpesvirus–infected cells. Cowdry type B inclusion bodies obsolete term for dropletlike masses of acidophilic material surrounded by clear halos within nuclei, without other nuclear changes during early stages of development of the inclusion as seen in poliomyelitis. creola bodies large compact clusters of ciliated columnar cells found in the sputum of some asthmatic patients. cyanobacteriumlike bodies SYN: Cyclospora. cytoid bodies swollen retinal nerve fibers that on light microscopy look like cells when cut transversely; histopathologic correlative of retinal cotton-wool patches. cytoplasmic inclusion bodies inclusion bodies. Deetjen bodies obsolete term for platelet. demilune b. a circular b. of extreme transparency except for a crescentic punctate substance on one edge which contains hemoglobin. The b. is much larger than a red blood cell, but is thought possibly to be a degenerated red blood cell swollen by imbibition; it has been found in malaria and in convalescence from typhoid fever; the transparent portion is called the glass b.. dense bodies granules in the central granulomere of blood platelets that take up and store serotonin from plasma. Electron-dense bodies containing α-actinin in the cytoplasm of smooth muscle cells associated with the cell membrane are believed to be homologous to the Z-lines of striated muscle. Döhle bodies discrete round or oval bodies ranging in diameter from just visible to 2 μm, which stain sky blue to gray blue with Romanowsky stains, found in neutrophils of patients with infections, burns, trauma, pregnancy, or cancer. SYN: Döhle inclusions, leukocyte inclusions. Donovan bodies clusters of blue or black staining, bipolar chromatin condensations in large mononuclear cells in granulation tissue infected with Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. Ehrlich inner b. a round oxyphil b. found in the red blood cell in case of hemocytolysis due to a specific blood poison. SYN: Heinz-Ehrlich b.. elementary bodies 1. (E.B., EB) old term for virions, especially the largest virus particles, visible by light microscopy when stained; as in lesions of smallpox, vaccinia; 2. SYN: platelet. b. of epididymis [TA] the middle part that extends downward from the head to the tail of the epididymis on the posterior surface of the testis. SYN: corpus epididymidis [TA] . epithelial b. SYN: parathyroid gland. fat b. fat-pad. fat b. of cheek SYN: buccal fat-pad. fat b. of ischioanal fossa [TA] the fat within the ischiorectal fossa. SYN: corpus adiposum fossae ischiorectalis, fat b. of ischiorectal fossa, ischiorectal fat-pad. fat b. of ischiorectal fossa SYN: fat b. of ischioanal fossa. fat b. of orbit SYN: retrobulbar fat. b. of femur shaft of femur. ferruginous bodies in the lungs, foreign inorganic or organic fibers coated by complexes of hemosiderin and glycoproteins, and believed to be formed by macrophages that have phagocytized the fibers. SEE ALSO: asbestos bodies. b. of fibula shaft of fibula. foreign b. anything of material substance in the tissues or cavities of the b. that has been introduced there from without, and that is not rapidly absorbable. b. of fornix [TA] the middle part of the fornix situated ventral to the corpus callosum. SYN: corpus fornicis [TA] . fruiting b. any fungal structure that bears spores. fuchsin bodies 1. SYN: Russell bodies. 2. SYN: hyaline bodies. b. of gallbladder [TA] the main part of the gallbladder terminating in the rounded fundus below and continuing into the neck of the gallbladder above. SYN: corpus vesicae biliaris [TA] , corpus vesicae felleae&star. Gamna-Favre bodies characteristic, relatively large, intracytoplasmic basophilic inclusion bodies observed in endothelial cells in lymphogranuloma venereum; probably composed of degenerated nuclear material. SEE ALSO: Miyagawa bodies. Gamna-Gandy bodies small firm spheroidal or irregular foci that are yellow-brown, brown, or rusted color, occurring chiefly in the spleen in such conditions as congestive splenomegaly and sickle cell disease, and consisting of relatively dense fibrous tissue or collagenous fibers impregnated with iron pigment and calcium salts; probably result from organization and scarring of sites where small perivascular hemorrhages occurred. SYN: Gamna-Gandy nodules, Gandy-Gamna bodies, siderotic nodules. Gandy-Gamna bodies SYN: Gamna-Gandy bodies. geniculate b. lateral geniculate b., medial geniculate b.. glass b. demilune b.. glomus b. SYN: glomus (2) . Golgi b. SYN: Golgi apparatus. Guarnieri bodies intracytoplasmic acidophilic inclusion bodies observed in epithelial cells in variola (smallpox) and vaccinia infections, and which include aggregations of Paschen bodies or virus particles. Halberstaedter-Prowazek bodies SYN: trachoma bodies. Hassall bodies SYN: thymic corpuscle. Hassall-Henle bodies hyaline bodies on the posterior surface of Descemet membrane at the periphery of the cornea. SYN: Henle warts. Heinz bodies intracellular inclusions usually attached to the red cell membrane, composed of denatured hemoglobin; they occur in thalassemia, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy. Visualization of these usually requires examination of red cells using supravital stains or by phase microscopy. Heinz-Ehrlich b. SYN: Ehrlich inner b.. hematoxylin bodies, hematoxyphil bodies poorly defined, homogeneous basophilic remnants of whole nuclei, an occasional finding in the fixed tissues of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, but observed more frequently in the renal glomeruli and the walls of blood vessels, and probably related to the LE phenomenon; so named because of their affinity for hematoxylin stain. Herring bodies accumulations of neurosecretory granules in dilated terminal endings of axons in the neurohypophysis. Highmore b. SYN: mediastinum of testis. Howell-Jolly bodies spherical or ovoid eccentrically located granules, approximately 1 μm in diameter, occasionally observed in the stroma of circulating erythrocytes, especially in stained preparations (as compared with wet unstained films); probably represent nuclear remnants, inasmuch as they can be stained with dyes that are rather specific for chromatin; the significance of the bodies is not exactly known; they occur most frequently after splenectomy or in megaloblastic or severe hemolytic anemia. SYN: Jolly bodies. b. of humerus shaft of humerus. hyaline bodies homogeneous eosinophilic inclusions in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells; in renal tubules, hyaline bodies represent droplets of protein reabsorbed from the lumen. SEE ALSO: Mallory bodies, drusen. SYN: fuchsin bodies (2) . hyaline bodies of pituitary accumulations of a gelatinous neurosecretory substance in the axons of the hypothalamohypophyseal tract in the posterior lobe of the hypophysis. hyaloid b. SYN: vitreous b.. b. of hyoid bone [TA] the b. of the hyoid bone, from which the greater and lesser horns extend. SYN: corpus ossis hyoidei [TA] , base of hyoid bone, basihyal, basihyoid. b. of ilium [TA] it forms the upper two-fifths of the acetabulum and joins the pubis and ischium in the acetabulum. It continues above into the ala or wing of the ilium. SYN: corpus ossis ilii [TA] . inclusion bodies distinctive structures frequently formed in the nucleus or cytoplasm (occasionally in both locations) in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses; may be demonstrated by means of various stains, especially Mann eosin methylene blue or Giemsa techniques and visible by light microscopy. Nuclear inclusion bodies are usually acidophilic and are of two morphologic types: 1) granular, hyaline, or amorphous bodies of various sizes, i.e., Cowdry type A inclusion bodies, occurring in such diseases as herpes simplex infection or yellow fever; 2) more circumscribed bodies, frequently with several in the same nucleus (and no reaction in adjacent tissue), i.e., the type B bodies, occurring in such diseases as Rift Valley fever and poliomyelitis. Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies may be: 1) acidophilic, relatively large, spherical or ovoid, and somewhat granular, as in variola or vaccinia, rabies, and molluscum contagiosum; 2) basophilic, relatively large, complex combinations of viral and cellular material, as in trachoma, psittacosis, and lymphogranuloma venereum. In some instances, inclusion bodies are known to be infective and probably represent aggregates of virus particles in combination with cellular material, whereas others are apparently not infective and may represent only abnormal products formed by the cell in response to injury. b. of incus [TA] the main part of the incus that articulates with the malleus and from which the short and long limbs arise. SYN: corpus incudis [TA] . infrapatellar fat b. SYN: infrapatellar fat-pad. intercarotid b. SYN: carotid b.. intermediate b. of Flemming SYN: midbody. b. of ischium [TA] the entire ischium with the exception of the ramus. SYN: corpus ossis ischii [TA] . Jaworski bodies mucous shreds in the gastric contents in hyperchlorhydria. Jolly bodies SYN: Howell-Jolly bodies. juxtaglomerular b. a collection of modified smooth muscle cells around the renal glomerular arterioles that contain cytoplasmic granules, probably composed of renin. SYN: periarterial pad. juxtarestiform b. [TA] a medial (smaller) subdivision of the inferior cerebellar peduncle composed of fibers reciprocally connecting the vestibular nuclei with the cerebellum, in particular the latter's nodulus, flocculus, and uvula vermis. It also carries primary sensory fibers from the vestibular ganglia to the cerebellum, as well as cerebellar projections to the rhombencephalic reticular formation and vestibular nuclei. SYN: corpus juxtarestiforme. ketone b. one of a group of ketones that includes acetoacetic acid, its reduction product, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and its decarboxylation product, acetone; high levels are found in tissues and b. fluids in ketosis. SYN: acetone b., acetone compound. Lafora b. [MIM*254780] an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intraneural intracytoplasmic inclusion b. composed of acid mucopolysaccharides, seen in familial myoclonic epilepsy. Lallemand bodies 1. old term for small gelatinoid concretions sometimes observed in seminal fluid; 2. old term for Bence Jones cylinders, under cylinder. SYN: Trousseau-Lallemand bodies. lateral geniculate b. the lateral of a pair of small oval masses that protrude slightly from the posteroinferior aspect of the thalamus; commonly considered a part of the metathalamus. SYN: corpus geniculatum laterale [TA] , corpus geniculatum externum. b. of lateral ventricle SYN: pars centralis ventriculi lateralis. L-D b. SYN: Leishman-Donovan b.. LE b. the amorphous round b. in the cytoplasm of an LE cell. Leishman-Donovan b. the intracytoplasmic, nonflagellated leishmanial form of certain intracellular parasites, such as species of Leishmania or the intracellular form of Trypanosoma cruzi; originally used for Leishmania donovani parasites in infected spleen or liver cells in kala azar. SYN: amastigote, L-D b.. Lewy bodies intracytoplasmic neuronal inclusion; bodies especially noted in pigmented brainstem neurons and seen in Parkinson disease. Lieutaud b. SYN: trigone of bladder. Lindner bodies initial bodies resembling inclusion bodies found in scrapings of epithelial cells infected with trachoma. loose b. a solid tissue fragment lying free in a b. cavity, especially in a joint or the peritoneal cavity; e.g., joint mice, melon-seed b., rice b.. Luse bodies collagen fibers with abnormally long spacing (exceeding 1000 Å) between electron-dense bands. Luys b. SYN: subthalamic nucleus. Mallory bodies large, poorly defined accumulations of eosinophilic material in the cytoplasm of damaged hepatic cells in certain forms of cirrhosis especially those due to alcoholism. SYN: alcoholic hyalin, alcoholic hyaline bodies. malpighian bodies SYN: splenic lymph follicles, under follicle. b. of mammary gland SYN: b. of breast. mammillary b. [TA] a small, round, paired cell group that protrudes into the interpeduncular fossa from the inferior aspect of the hypothalamus. It receives hippocampal fibers through the fornix and projects fibers to the anterior thalamic nuclei and into the brainstem tegmentum. SYN: corpus mammillare [TA] , mammillary tubercle of hypothalamus. b. of mandible [TA] the heavy, U-shaped, horizontal portion of the mandible extending posteriorly to the angle where it is continuous with the ramus; it supports the lower teeth. SYN: corpus mandibulae [TA] . b. of maxilla [TA] the central portion of the maxilla hollowed out by the maxillary sinus; it presents orbital, nasal, anterior, and infratemporal surfaces and supports four processes, frontal, zygomatic, palatine, and alveolar. SYN: corpus maxillae [TA] . medial geniculate b. the medial one of a pair of small masses that protrude from the posteroinferior part of the thalamus; commonly considered a part of the metathalamus. SYN: corpus geniculatum mediale [TA] , corpus geniculatum internum. melon-seed b. a small fibrous loose b. in a joint or tendon sheath. b. of metacarpal shaft of metacarpal. metachromatic bodies concentrated deposits consisting primarily of polymetaphosphate and occurring in many bacteria as well as in algae, fungi, and protozoa; m. bodies differ in staining properties from the surrounding protoplasm. See metachromasia. b. of metatarsal shaft of metatarsal. Michaelis-Gutmann b. a rounded homogeneous or concentrically laminated b., 1 to 10 μ in diameter, containing calcium and iron; found within macrophages in malakoplakia. Miyagawa bodies an obsolete term for Chlamydia trachomatis (Miyagawanella lymphogranulomatosis), the elementary bodies that develop in the intracytoplasmic microcolonies of lymphogranuloma venereum. molluscum b. a distinctive cytoplasmic spherical b. in the lesions of molluscum contagiosum caused by a member of the family Poxviridae; it consists of degenerated cytoplasm and the virus. SYN: molluscum corpuscle. Mooser bodies a term used to refer to the rickettsiae found in the exudate (and in tissue) from the tunica vaginalis in endemic typhus fever (caused by Rickettsia typhi). multilamellar b. SYN: cytosome (2) . multivesicular bodies membrane-bound bodies, 0.5 to 1.0 μm wide, that occur in the cytoplasm of cells and contain a number of small vesicles; hydrolases (especially acid phosphatase) occur in the matrix. myelin b. SYN: myelin figure. b. of nail [TA] the exposed portion of the nail distal to its root. SYN: corpus unguis [TA] . Negri bodies eosinophilic, sharply outlined, pathognomonic inclusion bodies (2 to 10 μm in diameter) found in the cytoplasm of certain nerve cells containing the virus of rabies, especially in Ammon horn of the hippocampus. nerve cell b. the part of the neuron that includes the nucleus but excludes the processes. neuroepithelial b. a corpuscular aggregate of highly innervated nonciliated cells containing neurosecretory substance found in normal intrapulmonary epithelium primarily at the bifurcations of bronchi. Nissl bodies SYN: Nissl substance. nodular b. in fungi, a compact, roughly spherical or squarish structure formed by coiling and twisting of the end of a hypha; considered to be abortive growths toward sexual reproduction. nu b. SYN: nucleosome. nuclear inclusion bodies inclusion bodies. Odland b. SYN: keratinosome. olivary b. SYN: oliva. orbital fat b. retrobulbar fat. pacchionian bodies SYN: arachnoid granulations, under granulation. pampiniform b. SYN: epoophoron. b. of pancreas [TA] the part of the pancreas from the point where it crosses the portal vein to the point where it enters the lienorenal ligament. SYN: corpus pancreatis [TA] . Pappenheimer bodies phagosomes, containing ferruginous granules, found in red blood cells in diseases such as sideroblastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, and sickle cell disease; may contribute to spurious platelet counts by electro-optical counters. paraaortic bodies [TA] small masses of chromaffin tissue found near the sympathetic ganglia along the aorta; they are more prominent during fetal life. The chromaffin cells secrete noradrenalin; chemoreceptive endings monitor levels of blood gases. SYN: corpora para-aortica [TA] , glomus aorticum [TA] , aortic glomera&star, glomera aortica&star, aortic bodies, corpus aorticum, organs of Zuckerkandl, Zuckerkandl bodies. parabasal b. a term formerly equivalent to the DNA kinetoplast, part of the giant mitochondrion of certain parasitic flagellates. The parabasal b. plus the basal b. were previously thought to comprise a kinetoplast, or locomotory apparatus, but kinetoplast is now restricted to part of the DNA giant mitochondrion and parabasal b. is a distinct structure near the nucleus, probably equivalent to the metazoan Golgi apparatus. paranephric b. a mass of fat lying behind the renal fascia. paranuclear b. SYN: astrosphere. paraphysial b. SYN: paraphysis. paraterminal b. SYN: subcallosal gyrus. Paschen bodies particles of virus observed in relatively large numbers in squamous cells of the skin (or the cornea of experimental animals) in variola (smallpox) or vaccinia. b. of penis [TA] the free pendulous portion of the penis, consisting of shaft and glans penis. SYN: corpus penis [TA] , scapus penis. perineal b. SYN: central tendon of perineum. b. of phalanx shaft of phalanx. Pick bodies intracytoplasmic argentophilic neuronal inclusion bodies seen in Pick disease. pineal b. [TA] a small, unpaired, flattened b., shaped somewhat like a pine cone, attached at its anterior pole to the region of the posterior and habenular commissures, and lying in the depression between the two superior colliculi below the splenium of the corpus callosum; it is a glandular structure, composed of follicles containing epithelioid cells and lime concretions called brain sand; despite its attachment to the brain, it appears to receive nerve fibers exclusively from the peripheral autonomic nervous system. It produces melatonin. SYN: corpus pineale [TA] , glandula pinealis [TA] , pineal gland [TA] , conarium, epiphysis cerebri, pinus. polar b. one of two small cells formed by the first and second meiotic division of oocytes; the first is usually released just prior to ovulation, the second not until discharge of the ovum from the ovary; in mammals, the second polar b. may fail to form unless the ovum has been penetrated by a sperm cell. SYN: polar cell, polar globule, polocyte. polyhedral b. an inclusion b. associated with replication of certain insect viruses. pontobulbar b. a collection of nerve cells in the lower part of the medulla oblongata forming a ridge which crosses the restiform b. obliquely. SYN: corpus pontobulbare. posterior quadrigeminal b. SYN: inferior colliculus. Prowazek bodies historic term for either of two types of inclusion bodies associated with certain diseases: 1) trachoma bodies; 2) tiny, ovoid, granular forms, frequently in pairs, observed in the cytoplasm and in Guarnieri bodies in the cutaneous squamous cells of humans and animals infected with variola (smallpox) or vaccinia virus; probably the same as Paschen bodies. Prowazek-Greeff bodies SYN: trachoma bodies. psammoma bodies 1. mineralized bodies occurring in the meninges, choroid plexus, and in certain meningiomas; composed usually of a central capillary surrounded by concentric whorls of meningocytes in various stages of hyaline change and mineralization; can also occur in benign and malignant epithelial tumors (such as papillary ovarian or thyroid carcinoma); SYN: sand bodies. 2. SYN: corpora arenacea, under corpus. 3. SYN: calcospherite. psittacosis inclusion bodies intracytoplasmic chlamydial microcolonies observed in bronchial epithelial cells infected with Chlamydia psittaci. pubic b., b. of pubic bone SYN: b. of pubis. b. of pubis [TA] the flattened medial portion of the pubic bone entering into the pubic symphysis. From it extend the superior and inferior rami. SYN: corpus ossis pubis [TA] , pubic b., b. of pubic bone. purine bodies any purine. quadrigeminal bodies See inferior colliculus, superior colliculus. SYN: corpora quadrigemina. b. of radius shaft of radius. Renaut b. subperineurial structure comprised of loosely arranged and randomly oriented collagen fibers in a fine fibrillary material, seen in normal nerve as well as in certain pathologic states. residual b. a cytoplasmic vacuole (lysosome) containing accumulated particulate products of metabolism, e.g., lipofuscin. residual b. of Regaud the excess cytoplasm that separates from the spermatozoon during spermiogenesis. rest b. a small mass of cytoplasm remaining after the nucleus and cytoplasm of the schizont of certain sporozoan protozoa have divided into asexual spores or merozoites. restiform b. [TA] a lateral (larger) subdivision of the inferior cerebellar peduncle located on the dorsolateral aspect of the medulla oblongata and composed of a variety of fibers including, but not limited to, olivo-, reticulo-, cuneo-, trigemino-, and dorsal spinocerebellar. SEE ALSO: inferior cerebellar peduncle. SYN: corpus restiforme [TA] , eminentia restiformis, restiform eminence. b. of rib [TA] the shaft of a rib; the portion that extends laterally, anteriorly, and then medially from the tubercle. SYN: corpus costae [TA] . rice b. one of the small, loose bodies found in hygromas, tendon sheaths, and joints; usually one of many small loose bodies. Rushton bodies linear or curved hyaline bodies, presumably of hematogenous origin, found within the epithelial lining of odontogenic cysts. Russell bodies small, discrete, variably sized, spherical, intracytoplasmic, acidophilic, hyaline bodies that stain deeply with fuchsin; they occur in plasma cells in chronic inflammation and malignant disorders, and consist of immunoglobulin. SYN: fuchsin bodies (1) . sand bodies SYN: psammoma bodies (1) . Sandström bodies parathyroid gland. Savage perineal b. SYN: central tendon of perineum. Schaumann bodies concentrically laminated calcified bodies found in granulomas, particularly in sarcoidosis. SYN: conchoidal bodies. sclerotic bodies vegetative rounded muriform cells of dematiaceous fungi, characteristic of the causal agents of chromoblastomycosis in tissue. SYN: copper pennies. segmenting b. SYN: schizont. b. of sphenoid [TA] the central portion of the sphenoid bone from which the greater and lesser wings and the pterygoid processes arise. The sphenoidal sinuses lie within it. SYN: corpus ossis sphenoidalis. spongy b. of penis SYN: corpus spongiosum penis. b. of sternum [TA] the middle and largest portion of the sternum, lying between the manubrium superiorly and the xiphoid process inferiorly. SYN: corpus sterni [TA] , gladiolus, mesosternum, midsternum. b. of stomach [TA] the part of the stomach that lies between the fundus above and the pyloric antrum below; its boundaries are poorly defined. SYN: corpus gastricum [TA] . striate b. the caudate and lentiform (lenticular) nuclei; the striate appearance on section is caused by slender fascicles of myelinated fibers. Histologically, the striate b. can be subdivided into the generally small-celled striatum, consisting of the caudate nucleus and the outer segment of the lentiform nucleus (the putamen), and a large-celled globus pallidus composed of the two segments. SYN: corpus striatum [TA] . suprarenal b. SYN: suprarenal gland. b. of sweat gland the coiled tubular secretory portion of a sweat gland located in the subcutaneous tissue or deep in the corium and connected to the surface of the skin by a long duct. SYN: corpus glandulae sudoriferae. Symington anococcygeal b. SYN: anococcygeal ligament. b. of talus [TA] the large posterior part of the talus forming the trochlea above for articulation with the tibia and fibula and articulating below with the calcaneus. SYN: corpus tali [TA] . b. of thigh bone SYN: shaft of femur. threshold b. SYN: threshold substance. thyroid b. SYN: thyroid gland. b. of tibia shaft of tibia. tigroid bodies SYN: Nissl substance. b. of tongue [TA] the oral part of the tongue anterior to the terminal sulcus. SYN: corpus linguae [TA] . trachoma bodies distinctive, complex, intracytoplasmic forms found in the conjunctival epithelial cells of persons in the acute phase of trachoma, less frequently in later stages, varying from 1) discrete acidophilic granules (approximately 250 nm in diameter), to 2) irregular clumps of such material embedded in a basophilic matrix, to 3) relatively large basophilic bodies (approximately 700–1000 nm in diameter), to 4) large basophilic bodies that include discrete, tiny, acidophilic granules. SYN: Halberstaedter-Prowazek bodies, Prowazek-Greeff bodies. trapezoid b. [TA] a plate of transverse fibers running over the dorsal (deep) border of the pontine nuclei; it is formed by ascending auditory fibers that cross to the opposite side of the brainstem. SYN: corpus trapezoideum [TA] , trapezoid (4) [TA] . Trousseau-Lallemand bodies SYN: Lallemand bodies. tuffstone b. membrane-bound electron-dense granules, measuring about 0.5 μm in diameter, found primarily in Schwann cells of patients suffering from metachromatic leukodystrophy; the name alludes to their resemblance to volcanic limestone. turbinated b. 1. a concha with its covering of mucous membrane and other soft parts; SYN: turbinal. 2. SYN: inferior nasal concha, middle nasal concha, superior nasal concha, supreme nasal concha. tympanic b. SYN: tympanic gland. b. of ulna shaft of ulna. ultimobranchial b. a diverticulum from the fourth pharyngeal pouch of an embryo, regarded by some as a rudimentary fifth pharyngeal pouch and by others as a lateral thyroid primordium; the ultimobranchial bodies of lower vertebrates contain large amounts of calcitonin; in mammals, the ultimobranchial bodies fuse with the thyroid gland and are thought to develop into the parafollicular cells. SEE ALSO: ultimobranchial pouch. b. of uterus [TA] the part of the uterus above the isthmus, comprising about two-thirds of the nonpregnant organ. SYN: corpus uteri [TA] . vaccine bodies old term pertaining to intracellular bodies that were erroneously thought to be forms in the life cycle of a protozoan organism, Cytorhyctes vaccinae, postulated to be the causal agent of vaccinia. Verocay bodies hyalinized acellular areas composed of reduplicated basement membrane outlined by opposing rows of parallel nuclei; seen microscopically in neurilemomas. b. of vertebra SYN: vertebral b.. vertebral b. [TA] the main portion of a vertebra anterior to the vertebral canal, as distinct from the arches. SYN: corpus vertebrae [TA] , b. of vertebra. Virchow-Hassall bodies SYN: thymic corpuscle. vitreous b. [TA] a transparent jellylike substance filling the interior of the eyeball behind the lens of the eye; it is composed of a delicate network (vitreous stroma) enclosing in its meshes a watery fluid (vitreous humor). SYN: corpus vitreum [TA] , hyaloid b., vitreous (2) , vitreum. Weibel-Palade bodies rod-shaped bundles of microtubules seen by electron microscopy in vascular endothelial cells. wolffian b. SYN: mesonephros. Wolf-Orton bodies intranuclear inclusion bodies seen in cells of malignant neoplasms, especially those of glial cell origin. Y b. a single fluorescent spot originating in the long arm of the Y chromosome and visible in somatic nuclei of buccal smears. yellow b. SYN: corpus luteum. zebra b. metachromatically staining membrane-bound granules, measuring 0.5–1 μm in diameter and containing lamellae with a 5.8 nm spacing, reported in Schwann cells and macrophages of patients suffering from metachromatic leukodystrophy. Zuckerkandl bodies SYN: paraaortic bodies.

body burden
Activity of a radiopharmaceutical retained by the body at a specified time following administration.

Caesar P.M., Norwegian dermatologist, 1845–1917. See B. disease, B. sarcoid, Besnier-B.-Schaumann disease, Besnier-B.-Schaumann syndrome.

Carl W., Norwegian physician, 1808–1875. See Danielssen-B. disease.

F. See B. hematoxylin.

Hermann, Dutch physician, 1668–1738. See B. syndrome.

bogbean (bog′ben)
SYN: buckbean.

Antoine, 19th century French anatomist. See B. serous membrane.

Jean-Annet, French anatomist, 1786–1823. See B. space.

Heinrich, German physician, 1832–1888. See B. nodules, under nodule.

Niels H.D., Danish physicist and Nobel laureate, 1885–1962. See B. atom, B. magneton, B. theory.

Christian, Danish physiologist, 1855–1911. See B. effect, B. equation.

boil (boyl)
SYN: furuncle. [A.S. byl, a swelling] Aleppo b., Bagdad b. the lesion occurring in cutaneous leishmaniasis. See cutaneous leishmaniasis. SYN: Biskra b.. Biskra b. SYN: Aleppo b.. blind b. a furuncle that does not have a fluctuant central point; it appears as a dull red painful papule. date b., Delhi b., Jericho b. the lesion occurring in cutaneous leishmaniasis. Madura b. SYN: mycetoma. Oriental b. the lesion occurring in cutaneous leishmaniasis. salt water boils furuncles on hands and forearms of fishermen. tropical b. the lesion occurring in cutaneous leishmaniasis.


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