|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
Abbreviation for bolus.
A glycoside from boldus; a cholagogue and diuretic. SYN: boldoglucin.
A bitter alkaloid obtained from boldus.
boldine dimethyl ether
The leaves of Boldu b. or Peumus b. (family Monimiaceae), an evergreen shrub of Chile; used in various disturbances of liver function. SYN: boldo. [Chilean]
See under gauge.
Franz C., German histologist and physiologist, 1849–1879. See B. cells, under cell.
Otto, German pathologist, 1843–1909. See B. granules, under granule.
Jesse L., U.S. physiologist, *1896. See Mann-B. fistula.
See under symptom.
1. An instrument for determining minute degrees of radiant heat. 2. An obsolete instrument for measuring the force of the heartbeat as distinguished from the blood pressure. [G. bole, a throw, a sunbeam, + metron, measure]
bolus (bol) (bo′lus)
1. A single, relatively large quantity of a substance, usually one intended for therapeutic use, such as a b. dose of a drug injected intravenously. 2. A masticated morsel of food or another substance ready to be swallowed, such as a b. of barium for x-ray studies. 3. In high-energy radiation therapy, a quantity of tissue-equivalent material placed in the radiation beam, over the surface of the irradiated region, to increase the absorbed dose in the superficial tissues. [L. fr. G. bolos, lump, clod] intravenous b. a relatively large volume of fluid or dose of a drug or test substance given intravenously and rapidly to hasten or magnify a response; in radiology, rapid injection of a large dose of contrast medium to increase opacification of blood vessels.
To expose a substance to particulate or electromagnetic radiations for the purpose of making it radioactive. [Mediev. L. bombarda, artillery assault, fr. bombus, a booming sound]
Pharmacologically active tetradecapeptide found in skins of European amphibians of the family Discoglossidae, principally Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata variegata. A potent stimulant of gastric and pancreatic secretions; a bombesinlike immunoreactive peptide is found in both brain and gut. Other actions include hypertensive, antidiuretic, and hyperglycemic activity. Has a strong effect on core temperature lowering in rats. High levels of intracellular b. have also been found in human small-cell lung carcinoma.
In chemistry, the force holding two neighboring atoms in place and resisting their separation; a b. is electrovalent if it consists of the attraction between oppositely charged groups, or covalent if it results from the sharing of one, two, or three pairs of electrons by the bonded atoms. acylmercaptan b. &cbond;CO&cbond;S&cbond;;a “high-energy” b. formed by the condensation of a carboxyl group (&cbond;COOH) and a mercaptan (or thiol) group (&cbond;SH); widely formed in the course of intermediary metabolism, notably in the oxidation of fats, where the &cbond;SH is part of coenzyme A and the &cbond;COOH is part of the fatty acid being oxidized. apolar b. hydrophobic interaction. conjugated double bonds two or more double b. separated by each single b.. coordinate covalent b. SYN: semipolar b.. disulfide b. a single b. between two sulfurs; specifically, the &cbond;S&cbond;S&cbond; link binding two peptide chains (or different parts of one peptide chain); also occurs as part of the molecule of the amino acid, cystine, and is important as a structural determinant in many peptide and protein molecules, e.g., keratin, insulin, and oxytocin. A symmetric disulfide is R&cbond;S&cbond;S&cbond;R; R′&cbond;S&cbond;S&cbond;R is a mixed or asymmetric disulfide. double b. a covalent b. resulting from the sharing of two pairs of electrons, e.g., H2C&dbond;CH2 (ethylene). electrostatic b. b. between atoms or groups carrying opposite charges (or, in some cases, partial charges). SYN: heteropolar b., salt bridge. energy-rich b. high-energy compounds, under compound. eupeptide b. a peptide b. between the α-carboxyl group of one amino acid and the α-amino group of another amino acid. Cf.:peptide b., isopeptide b.. heteropolar b. SYN: electrostatic b.. high energy phosphate b. high-energy phosphates, under phosphate. hydrogen b. a b. arising from the sharing of a hydrogen atom, covalently bound to a strongly electronegative element ( e.g., N or O), with another strongly electronegative element ( e.g., N, O, or a halogen). In substances of biologic importance, the most common hydrogen bonds are those in which H links N to O or N; such bonds link purines on one strand to pyrimidines on the other strand of nucleic acids, thus maintaining double-stranded structures as in the Watson-Crick helix. hydrophobic b. hydrophobic interaction. isopeptide b. an amide linkage between a carboxyl group of one amino acid and an amino group of another amino acid in which at least one of these groups is not on the α-carbon of one of the amino acids; for example, the b. between the glutamyl residue and the cysteinyl residue of glutathione. Cf.:peptide b., eupeptide b.. noncovalent b. b. in which electrons are not shared between atoms; E.G., electrostatic b., hydrogen b.. peptide b. the common link (&cbond;CO&cbond;NH&cbond;) between amino acids in proteins, actually a substituted amide, formed by elimination of H2O between the &cbond;COOH of one amino acid and the H2N&cbond; of another. Cf.:eupeptide b., isopeptide b.. semipolar b. a b. in which the two electrons shared by a pair of atoms belonged originally to only one of the atoms; often represented by a small arrow pointing toward the electron receiver; e.g., nitric acid, O(OH)N→O; phosphoric acid, (OH)3P→O. SYN: coordinate covalent b.. single b. a covalent b. resulting from the sharing of one pair of electrons; e.g., H3C&cbond;CH3 (ethane). triple b. a covalent b. resulting from the sharing of three pairs of electrons; e.g., HC&tbond;CH (acetylene).
Formation of a close and enduring emotional attachment, such as between parent and child, lovers, or husband and wife.
bone (bon) [TA]
A hard connective tissue consisting of cells embedded in a matrix of mineralized ground substance and collagen fibers. The fibers are impregnated with a form of calcium phosphate similar to hydroxyapatite as well as with substantial quantities of carbonate, citrate sodium, and magnesium; by weight, b. is composed of 75% inorganic material and 25% organic material; a portion of osseous tissue of definite shape and size, forming a part of the animal skeleton; in humans there are 200 distinct bones in the skeleton, not including the auditory ossicles of the tympanic cavity or the sesamoid bones other than the two patellae. B. consists of a dense outer layer of compact substance or cortical substance covered by the periosteum, and an inner loose, spongy substance; the central portion of a long b. is filled with marrow. SYN: os [TA] . [A.S. ban] Albrecht b. a small b. between the basioccipital and basisphenoid. alveolar b. 1. SYN: alveolar process of maxilla. 2. in dentistry, the specialized bony structure which supports the teeth; it consists of the cortical b. that comprises the tooth socket into which the roots of the tooth fit, and is supported by the trabecular b.. SYN: alveolar supporting b.. alveolar supporting b. SYN: alveolar b. (2) . ankle b. SYN: talus. arm b. SYN: humerus. basal b. the osseus tissue of the mandible and maxillae except the alveolar processes. basilar b. the developmental basilar process of the occipital b. that unites with the condylar portions in about the fourth or fifth year, becoming the basilar part of occipital b.. SEE ALSO: basilar part of occipital b.. SYN: basioccipital b., os basilare. basioccipital b. SYN: basilar b.. basisphenoid b. in comparative anatomy, the b. in the floor of the brain case in the region of the pituitary. See body of sphenoid. Bertin bones SYN: sphenoidal conchae, under concha. blade b. SYN: scapula. breast b. SYN: sternum. Breschet bones SYN: suprasternal bones. brittle bones SYN: osteogenesis imperfecta. bundle b. immature b. containing thick bundles of collagen fibers arranged nearly parallel to one another with osteocytes in between; a similar type of b. is found in regions penetrated by fibers of Sharpey, as at ligament and tendon attachments. calcaneal b. SYN: calcaneus (1) . calf b. SYN: fibula. [O.N. kalfi, fibula] cancellous b. SYN: substantia spongiosa. capitate b. SYN: capitate (1) . carpal bones [TA] eight bones arranged in two rows that articulate proximally with the radius and indirectly with the ulna, and distally with the five metacarpal bones; in domestic mammals, the bones of the proximal row are called radial, intermediate, ulnar, and accessory, while those of the distal row are termed first, second, third, and fourth carpal bones. SYN: carpus (2) [TA] , ossa carpi [TA] . cartilage b. SYN: endochondral b.. central b. SYN: os centrale. central b. of ankle SYN: navicular. cheek b. 1. SYN: zygomatic b.. 2. SYN: zygomatic arch. coccygeal b. SYN: coccyx. collar b. SYN: clavicle. compact b. [TA] the compact, noncancellous portion of b. that consists largely of concentric lamellar osteons and interstitial lamellae. SYN: substantia compacta [TA] , compact substance, substantia compacta ossium. convoluted b. inferior nasal concha, middle nasal concha, superior nasal concha, supreme nasal concha. cortical b. [TA] the superficial thin layer of compact b.. SYN: substantia corticalis [TA] , cortical substance. coxal b. hip b.. cranial bones SYN: bones of cranium. bones of cranium [TA] the paired inferior nasal concha, lacrimal, maxilla, nasal, palatine, parietal, temporal, and zygomatic; and the unpaired ethmoid, frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and vomer. SYN: ossa cranii [TA] , bones of skull, cranial bones. cubital b. SYN: triquetrum. cuboid (b.) the lateral b. of the distal row of the tarsus, articulating with the calcaneus, lateral cuneiform, navicular (occasionally), and fourth and fifth metatarsal bones. SYN: os cuboideum. cuneiform b. triquetrum, intermediate cuneiform (b.), lateral cuneiform (b.), medial cuneiform (b.). dermal b. a b. formed by ossification of the cutis. bones of digits the phalanges and sesamoid bones of the fingers and toes. SYN: ossa digitorum&star. dorsal talonavicular b. an anomalous b. of the foot located near the head of the talus. SYN: Pirie b.. ear bones SYN: auditory ossicles, under ossicle. elbow b. SYN: olecranon. endochondral b. a b. that develops in a cartilage environment after the latter is partially or entirely destroyed by calcification and subsequent resorption. SYN: cartilage b., replacement b.. epactal bones SYN: sutural bones. epihyal b. an ossified stylomastoid ligament. epipteric b. a sutural b. occasionally present at the pterion or junction of the parietal, frontal, greater wing of the sphenoid, and squamous portion of the temporal bones. SYN: Flower b.. episternal b. SYN: suprasternal bones. ethmoid b. [TA] an irregularly shaped b. lying between the orbital plates of the frontal and anterior to the sphenoid b.; it consists of two lateral masses of thin plates enclosing air cells, attached above to a perforated horizontal lamina, the cribriform plate, from which descends a median vertical or perpendicular plate in the interval between the two lateral masses; the b. articulates with the sphenoid, frontal, maxillary, lacrimal, and palatine bones, the inferior nasal concha, and the vomer; it enters into the formation of the anterior cranial fossa, the orbits, and the nasal cavity. exoccipital b. (eks-ok-sip′i-tal) SYN: lateral part of occipital b.. facial bones the bones surrounding the mouth and nose and contributing to the orbits; they are the paired maxillae, zygomatic, nasal, lacrimal, palatine, and inferior nasal conchae; and the unpaired ethmoid, vomer, mandible, and hyoid. SYN: bones of visceral cranium, ossa faciei. first cuneiform b. SYN: medial cuneiform (b.). flank b. SYN: ilium. flat b. [TA] a type of b. characterized by its thin, flattened shape, such as the scapula or certain of the cranial bones. SYN: os planum [TA] . Flower b. SYN: epipteric b.. bones of foot [TA] bones that collectively comprise the skeleton of the foot; includes tarsal bones, metatarsals (bones) [I–V], phalanges, and sesamoid bones. SYN: ossa pedis [TA] , foot bones. foot bones SYN: bones of foot. fourth turbinated b. SYN: supreme nasal concha. frontal b. [TA] the large single b. forming the forehead and the upper margin and roof of the orbit on either side; it articulates with the parietal, nasal, ethmoid, maxillary, and zygomatic bones, and with the lesser wings of the sphenoid. SYN: os frontale [TA] , coronale (1) . funny b. colloquial name for tip of olecranon. Goethe b. SYN: preinterparietal b.. greater multangular b. SYN: trapezium b.. hamate (b.) [TA] the b. on the medial (ulnar) side of the distal row of the carpus; it articulates with the fourth and fifth metacarpal, triquetral, lunate, and capitate. SYN: hamatum, hooked b., os hamatum, unciform b., unciforme, uncinatum. heel b. SYN: calcaneus (1) . heterotopic bones bones that do not belong to the main skeleton but that regularly develop in certain organs, e.g., the heart, penis, clitoris, and snout of some animals. highest turbinated b. SYN: supreme nasal concha. hip b. [TA] a large flat b. formed by the fusion of the ilium, ischium, and pubis (in the adult), constituting the lateral half of the pelvis; it articulates with its fellow anteriorly, with the sacrum posteriorly, and with the femur laterally. SYN: os coxae [TA] , coxal b.&star, pelvic b.&star, innominate b., os innominatum. hollow b. SYN: pneumatized b.. hooked b. SYN: hamate (b.). hyoid b. 1. a U-shaped b. lying between the mandible and the larynx, suspended from the styloid processes by slender stylohyoid ligaments; 2. See hyoid apparatus. SYN: lingual b., os hyoideum, tongue b.. iliac b. SYN: ilium. incarial b. SYN: interparietal b.. incisive b. [TA] the anterior and inner portion of the maxilla, which in the fetus and sometimes in the adult is a separate b.; the incisive suture runs from the incisive canal between the lateral incisor and the canine tooth; according to K. Albrecht, the incisive b. is further divided by a suture between the two incisor teeth on each side into two bones, the en dognathion and the mesognathion. SYN: os incisivum [TA] , premaxilla (1) &star, intermaxilla, intermaxillary b., os intermaxillare, os premaxillare, premaxillary b.. bones of inferior limb SYN: bones of lower limb. inferior turbinated b. SYN: inferior nasal concha. innominate b. SYN: hip b.. intermaxillary b. SYN: incisive b.. intermediate cuneiform (b.) [TA] a b. of the distal row of the tarsus; it articulates with the medial and lateral cuneiform, navicular, and second metatarsal bones. SYN: mesocuneiform, middle cuneiform b., os cuneiforme intermedium, second cuneiform b., wedge b.. interparietal b. [TA] the upper part of the squama of the occipital b., developed in membrane instead of in cartilage as is the rest of the occipital, and occasionally (especially in ancient Peruvian skulls) existing as a separate b., separated from the remainder of the occipital by the sutura mendosa. SYN: os interparietale [TA] , incarial b., os incae. irregular b. [TA] one of a group of bones having peculiar or complex forms, e.g., vertebrae, many of the skull bones. SYN: os irregulare [TA] . ischial b. SYN: ischium. jaw b. SYN: mandible. jugal b. SYN: zygomatic b.. Krause b. small b. (secondary ossification center) in the triradiate cartilage between the ilium, the ischium, and the pubic b. in the growing acetabulum. lacrimal b. [TA] an irregularly rectangular thin plate, forming part of the medial wall of the orbit behind the frontal process of the maxilla; it articulates with the inferior nasal concha, ethmoid, frontal, and maxillary bones. SYN: os lacrimale [TA] , os unguis. lamellar b. the normal type of adult mammalian b., whether cancellous or compact, composed of parallel lamellae in the former and concentric lamellae in the latter; lamellar organization reflects a repeating pattern of collagen fibroarchitecture. lateral cuneiform (b.) [TA] a b. of the distal row of the tarsus; it articulates with the intermediate cuneiform, cuboid, navicular, and second, third, and fourth metatarsal bones. SYN: os cuneiforme laterale [TA] , third cuneiform b., wedge b.. lenticular b. SYN: lenticular process of incus. lentiform b. SYN: pisiform (b.). lesser multangular b. SYN: trapezoid (b.). lingual b. SYN: hyoid b.. long b. [TA] one of the elongated bones fof the extremities, consisting of a tubular shaft (diaphysis) and two extremities (epiphyses) usually wider than the shaft; the shaft is composed of compact b. surrounding a central medullary cavity. Cf.:short b.. SYN: os longum [TA] , pipe b.. bones of lower limb [TA] these include the inferior limb girdle (hip b.) and the skeleton of the free inferior limb (femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsus, metatarsus, and bones of the toes). SYN: ossa membri inferioris [TA] , bones of inferior limb. lunate (b.) one of the proximal row in the carpus between the scaphoid and triquetral; it articulates with the radius, scaphoid, triquetral, hamate, and capitate. SYN: os lunatum [TA] , lunare, os intermedium. malar b. SYN: zygomatic b.. marble bones SYN: osteopetrosis. mastoid b. SYN: mastoid process. medial cuneiform (b.) the largest of the three cuneiform bones, the medial b. of the distal row of the tarsus, articulating with the intermediate cuneiform, navicular, and first and second metatarsal bones. SYN: os cuneiforme mediale [TA] , first cuneiform b., wedge b.. membrane b. a b. that develops embryologically within a membrane of vascularized primitive mesenchymal tissue without prior formation of cartilage. mesethmoid b. in comparative anatomy, the b. present in some species as the most anterior b. of the floor of the braincase. metacarpal (bones) [I–V] [TA] five long bones (numbered I to V, beginning with the b. on the radial or thumb side) forming the skeleton of the metacarpus or palm; they articulate with the bones of the distal row of the carpus and with the five proximal phalanges. SYN: ossa metacarpi [TA] , ossa metacarpalia I–V. metatarsal (bones) [I–V] the five long bones numbered I to V beginning with the b. on the medial side forming the skeleton of the anterior portion of the foot, articulating posteriorly with the three cuneiform and the cuboid bones, anteriorly with the five proximal phalanges. SYN: ossa metatarsi [TA] , ossa metatarsalia I–V. middle cuneiform b. SYN: intermediate cuneiform (b.). middle turbinated b. SYN: middle nasal concha. multangular b. See trapezium, trapezoid (b.). nasal b. [TA] an elongated rectangular b. which, with its fellow, forms the bridge of the nose; it articulates with the frontal b. superiorly, the ethmoid and the frontal process of the maxilla posteriorly, and its fellow medially. SYN: os nasale [TA] . navicular (b.) SYN: navicular. navicular b. of hand SYN: scaphoid (b.). nonlamellar b. SYN: woven b.. occipital b. [TA] a b. at the lower and posterior part of the skull, consisting of three parts (basilar, condylar, and squamous), enclosing a large oval hole, the foramen magnum; it articulates with the parietal and temporal bones on either side, the sphenoid anteriorly, and the atlas below. SYN: os occipitale [TA] . orbicular b. SYN: lenticular process of incus. palatine b. [TA] an irregularly shaped b. posterior to the maxilla, which enters into the formation of the nasal cavity, the orbit, and the hard palate; it articulates with the maxilla, inferior nasal concha, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones, the vomer and its fellow of the opposite side. SYN: os palatinum [TA] . parietal b. [TA] a flat, curved b. of irregular quadrangular shape, at either side of the vault of the cranium; it articulates, with its fellow medially, with the frontal anteriorly, the occipital posteriorly, and the temporal and sphenoid inferiorly. SYN: os parietale [TA] . pelvic b. hip b.. perichondral b. in the development of a long b. a collar or cuff of osseous tissue forms in the perichondrium of the cartilage model; the connective tissue membrane of this perichondral b. then becomes periosteum. SYN: periosteal b.. periosteal b. SYN: perichondral b.. periotic b. SYN: petrous part of temporal b.. peroneal b. SYN: fibula. petrosal b. SYN: petrous part of temporal b.. petrous b. SYN: petrous part of internal carotid artery. ping-pong b. the thin shell of osseous tissue at the periphery of a giant cell tumor in a b.. pipe b. SYN: long b.. Pirie b. SYN: dorsal talonavicular b.. pisiform (b.) a small b. resembling a pea in size and shape, in the proximal row of the carpus, lying on the anterior surface of the triquetral, with which it articulates; it gives insertion to the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. SYN: os pisiforme [TA] , lentiform b.. pneumatic b. SYN: pneumatized b.. pneumatized b. [TA] a b. that is hollow or contains many air cells, such as the mastoid process of the temporal b.. SYN: os pneumaticum [TA] , hollow b., pneumatic b.. postsphenoid b. the posterior portion of the body of the sphenoid b.. preinterparietal b. a large sutural b. occasionally found detached from the anterior portion of the os interparietale. SYN: Goethe b.. premaxillary b. SYN: incisive b.. presphenoid b. in comparative anatomy, the b. in the floor of the brain case anterior to the basisphenoid b.. pubic b. SYN: mons pubis. pyramidal b. SYN: triquetrum. replacement b. SYN: endochondral b.. reticulated b. SYN: woven b.. rider's b. heterotopic b. ossification of the tendon of the adductor longus muscle from strain in horseback riding. Riolan bones several small sutural bones sometimes present in the petro-occipital suture. sacred b. SYN: sacrum. [so-called from belief in indestructibility of the b. as the basis for resurrection] scaphoid (b.) the largest b. of the proximal row of the carpus on the lateral (radial) side, articulating with the radius, lunate, capitate, trapezium, and trapezoid. SYN: os scaphoideum [TA] , navicular b. of hand, os naviculare manus. scroll bones inferior nasal concha, middle nasal concha, superior nasal concha, supreme nasal concha. second cuneiform b. SYN: intermediate cuneiform (b.). semilunar b. obsolete term for lunate (b.). septal b. SYN: interalveolar septum. sesamoid b. [TA] a b. formed after birth in a tendon where it passes over a joint, e.g., the patella. SYN: os sesamoideum [TA] . shin b. SYN: tibia. short b. [TA] one whose dimensions are approximately equal; it consists of a layer of cortical substance enclosing spongy substance and marrow. Cf.:long b.. SYN: os breve [TA] . b. sialoprotein 1 SYN: osteopontin. sieve b. SYN: cribriform plate of ethmoid b.. bones of skull SYN: bones of cranium. sphenoid (b.) a b. of most irregular shape occupying the base of the skull; it is described as consisting of a central portion, or body, and six processes: two greater wings, two lesser wings and two pterygoid processes; it articulates with the occipital, frontal, ethmoid, and vomer, and with the paired temporal, parietal, zygomatic, palatine, and sphenoidal concha bones. SYN: os sphenoidale [TA] , sphenoid (2) [TA] . sphenoidal turbinated bones SYN: sphenoidal conchae, under concha. spongy b. [TA] 1. SYN: substantia spongiosa. 2. a turbinated b.. bones of superior limb SYN: bones of upper limb. superior turbinated b. SYN: superior nasal concha. suprainterparietal b. a sutural b. at the posterior portion of the sagittal suture. suprasternal bones [TA] one of the small ossicles occasionally found in the ligaments of the sternoclavicular articulation. SYN: ossa suprasternalia [TA] , Breschet bones, episternal b.. supreme turbinated b. SYN: supreme nasal concha. sutural bones [TA] small irregular bones found along the sutures of the cranium, particularly related to the parietal b.. SYN: os suturarum [TA] , Andernach ossicles, epactal bones, epactal ossicles, wormian bones. tail b. SYN: coccyx. tarsal bones [TA] the seven bones of the instep: talus, calcaneus, navicular, three cuneiform (wedge), and cuboid bones. SYN: ossa tarsi [TA] , tarsale [TA] , ossa tarsalia&star. temporal b. [TA] a large irregular b. situated in the base and side of the skull; it consists of three parts, squamous, tympanic, and petrous, which are distinct at birth; the petrous part contains the vestibulocochlear organ; the b. articulates with the sphenoid, parietal, occipital, and zygomatic bones, and by a synovial joint with the mandible. SYN: os temporale [TA] . thigh b. thigh. third cuneiform b. SYN: lateral cuneiform (b.). three-cornered b. SYN: triquetrum. tongue b. SYN: hyoid b.. trabecular b. substantia spongiosa. trapezium b. the lateral (radial) b. in the distal row of the carpus; it articulates with the first and second metacarpals, scaphoid, and trapezoid bones. SYN: greater multangular b., os multangulum majus, os trapezium, trapezium (2) . trapezoid (b.) a b. in the distal row of the carpus; it articulates with the second metacarpal, trapezium, capitate, and scaphoid. SYN: os trapezoideum [TA] , trapezoid (3) [TA] , lesser multangular b., os multangulum minus. triangular b. SYN: os trigonum. triquetrum b. SYN: triquetrum. turbinated bones inferior nasal concha, middle nasal concha, superior nasal concha, supreme nasal concha. tympanic b. SYN: tympanic ring. tympanohyal b. a small nodule of b. forming the base of the cartilaginous styloid process of the temporal b. at birth. unciform b. SYN: hamate (b.). upper jaw b. SYN: maxilla. bones of upper limb [TA] these include the superior limb girdle (scapula and clavicle) and the skeleton of the free superior limb (humerus, radius, ulna, wrist bones, metacarpus, and bones of the fingers). SYN: ossa membri superioris [TA] , bones of superior limb. Vesalius b. SYN: os vesalianum. bones of visceral cranium SYN: facial bones. wedge b. SYN: intermediate cuneiform (b.), lateral cuneiform (b.), medial cuneiform (b.). wormian bones SYN: sutural bones. woven b. bony tissue characteristic of the embryonal skeleton, in which the collagen fibers of the matrix are arranged irregularly in the form of interlacing networks. SYN: nonlamellar b., reticulated b.. yoke b. SYN: zygomatic b.. zygomatic b. [TA] a quadrilateral b. that forms the prominence of the cheek; it articulates with the frontal, sphenoid, temporal, and maxillary bones. SYN: os zygomaticum [TA] , cheek b. (1) , jugal b., mala (2) , malar b., os malare, yoke b., zygoma (1) .
The pattern of trabeculae and associated structures. SEE ALSO: Wolff law.
SYN: tribasic calcium phosphate.
SYN: animal charcoal.
The main chemical compound in bone, deposited as minute amorphous crystals in a netlike matrix of collagenous fibers containing collagen; it closely resembles the naturally occurring fluorapatite 3Ca3(PO4)2&chmpnt;CaF2, but is probably a hydroxyapatite in which F is replaced by OH.
Karl, German psychiatrist, 1868–1948. See B. sign.
Amédée, French surgeon, 1802–1858. See B. capsule.
Kristine, German physician, 1872–1950.
Pierre, French clinician, 1861–1918. See B. syndrome.
William G.A., U.S. dentist, 1833–1899. See B. triangle.
Jan A., Swedish geneticist, *1915. See B. syndrome.
Abbreviation for bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, an idiopathic form of bronchiolitis obliterans.
See b. dose.
A b.-shaped appliance. [M.E. bote, fr. O.Fr.] Gibney b. adhesive tape treatment of a sprained ankle or similar condition, applied in a basket-weave fashion under the sole of the foot and around the back of the lower leg.
boracic acid (bo-ras′ik)
SYN: boric acid.
A salt of boric acid.
Mixed or impregnated with borax or boric acid.
SYN: sodium borate. [Pers. buraq]
borborygmus, pl .borborygmi (bor-bo-rig′mus, -rig′mi)
Rumbling or gurgling noises produced by movement of gas, fluid, or both in the alimentary canal, and audible at a distance. [G. borborygmos, rumbling in the bowels]
Théophile de, French physician, 1722–1776.
border (bor′der) [TA]
The part of a surface that forms its outer boundary. SEE ALSO: edge, margin, b.. SYN: margo [TA] . alveolar b. 1. the most occlusal edge of the alveolar bone; 2. SYN: alveolar process of maxilla. anterior b. [TA] the ventral or most forward margin of a structure. SYN: margo anterior [TA] , anterior margin, ventral b.. anterior b. of body of pancreas [TA] the sharp margin between the anterior and inferior surfaces of the pancreas. SYN: margo anterior corporis pancreatis [TA] , anterior b. of pancreas, margo anterior pancreatis. anterior b. of eyelids SYN: anterior palpebral margin. anterior b. of fibula [TA] a ridge on the shaft of the fibula to which is attached the anterior intermuscular septum of the leg. SYN: margo anterior fibulae [TA] . anterior b. of lung [TA] the thin anteromedial or sternal edge of the lung that overlaps the pericardial sac anteriorly and forms the boundary between the mediastinal and costal surfaces. SYN: margo anterior pulmonis [TA] . anterior b. of pancreas SYN: anterior b. of body of pancreas. anterior b. of radius [TA] the ridge on the shaft of the radius extending from the radial tuberosity to the anterior part of the styloid process. SYN: margo anterior radii [TA] . anterior b. of testis [TA] an imaginary convex line demarcating the lateral and medial surfaces. SYN: margo anterior testis [TA] . anterior b. of tibia [TA] the sharp subcutaneous ridge of the tibia that extends from the tuberosity to the anterior part of the medial malleolus. SYN: margo anterior tibiae [TA] , anticnemion, shin, tibial crest. anterior b. of ulna [TA] the ridge on the body of the ulna that extends from the tuberosity to the anterior part of the styloid process. SYN: margo anterior ulnae [TA] . brush b. the apical epithelial surface bearing closely packed microvilli about 2 μm long, such as occur on the cells of the proximal tubule of the nephron. SYN: limbus penicillatus. ciliary b. of iris SYN: ciliary margin of iris. denture b. 1. the limit or boundary or circumferential margin of a denture base; 2. the margin of the denture base at the junction of the polished surface with the impression (tissue) surface; 3. the extreme edges of a denture base at the buccolabial, lingual, and posterior limits. SYN: denture edge, periphery (2) . borders of eyelids SYN: palpebral margins, under margin. fibular (peroneal) b. of foot lateral b. of foot. free b. [TA] unattached edge of a sturcture, often opposite the attached edge. See free b. of nail, free b. of ovary. SYN: margo liber [TA] , free margin. free b. of nail [TA] the distal b. of the nail that overhangs the tip of the digit. SYN: margo liber unguis [TA] . free b. of ovary [TA] the unattached, posterior margin of the ovary. SYN: margo liber ovarii [TA] . frontal b. [TA] edge of a bone that articulates with the frontal bone. See frontal b. of parietal bone, frontal margin of sphenoid. SYN: margo frontalis [TA] , frontal margin. frontal b. of parietal bone [TA] the margin of the parietal bone that articulates with the frontal bone. SYN: margo frontalis ossis parietalis [TA] . frontal b. of sphenoid bone SYN: frontal margin of sphenoid. hidden b. of nail [TA] the proximal b. of the nail entirely covered by the nail wall. SYN: margo occultus unguis [TA] , occult b. of nail, proximal b. of nail. inferior b. [TA] the caudal or lowermost margin of a structure. SYN: margo inferior [TA] , inferior margin. inferior b. of body of pancreas [TA] the b. of the pancreas separating the inferior and posterior surfaces. SYN: margo inferior corporis pancreatis [TA] , inferior b. of pancreas, margo inferior corporis splenis, margo inferior pancreatis. inferior b. of liver [TA] the sharp b. of the liver that separates the diaphragmatic and visceral surfaces. SYN: margo inferior hepatis [TA] . inferior b. of lung [TA] the sharp b. of the lung that separates the diaphragmatic surface from the costal and mediastinal surfaces. SYN: margo inferior pulmonis [TA] . inferior b. of pancreas SYN: inferior b. of body of pancreas. inferior b. of spleen [TA] lowermost edge of the spleen, which separates the lower visceral surface (area of renal impression) from the lower diaphragmatic surface. SYN: margo inferior splenis [TA] . inner b. of iris [TA] the narrow inner zone of the iris. SYN: anulus iridis minor [TA] , lesser ring of iris. interosseous b. [TA] edge of a bone to which a fibrous (interosseous) membrane is attached, by which the bone becomes attached to another bone. See interosseous b. of fibula, interosseous b. of radius, interosseous b. of tibia, interosseous b. of ulna. SYN: margo interosseus [TA] , interosseous crest, interosseous margin. interosseous b. of fibula [TA] the ridge along the medial b. of the fibula to which is attached the interosseous membrane. SYN: margo interosseus fibulae [TA] . interosseous b. of radius [TA] the ridge along the medial side of the radius to which is attached the interosseous membrane. SYN: margo interosseus radii [TA] . interosseous b. of tibia [TA] the ridge along the lateral b. of the tibia to which is attached the interosseous membrane. SYN: margo interosseus tibiae [TA] . interosseous b. of ulna [TA] the ridge along the lateral side of the body of the ulna to which is attached the interosseous membrane. SYN: margo interosseus ulnae [TA] . b. of iris [TA] either of two zones on the anterior surface of the iris, separated by a circular line concentric with the pupillary b.. SYN: anulus iridis [TA] , ring of iris. lacrimal b. of maxilla SYN: lacrimal margin of maxilla. lambdoid b. of occipital bone [TA] the margin of the occipital squama that articulates with the parietal bones in the lambdoid suture. SYN: margo lambdoideus ossis occipitalis [TA] , lambdoid margin of occipital bone, margo lambdoideus squamae occipitalis. lateral b. [TA] the margin or edge of a structure which is farthest from the midline. SYN: margo lateralis [TA] , lateral margin. lateral b. of foot [TA] the b. of the foot between the small toe and the heel. SYN: margo lateralis pedis [TA] , fibular (peroneal) b. of foot&star, margo fibularis pedis&star, peroneal b. of foot&star, fibular margin of foot. lateral b. of forearm radial b. of forearm. lateral b. of humerus [TA] the ridge on the humerus that extends from the greater tubercle to the lateral epicondyle. SYN: margo lateralis humeri [TA] . lateral b. of kidney [TA] the convex narrow edge separating the anterior and posterior surfaces. SYN: margo lateralis renis [TA] . lateral b. of nail [TA] the sides of the nail extending from the proximal to the free borders. SYN: margo lateralis unguis [TA] . lateral b. of scapula [TA] the edge of the scapula extending from the glenoid fossa to the inferior angle. SYN: margo lateralis scapulae [TA] . mastoid b. of occipital bone [TA] the margin of the occipital squama that articulates with the temporal bone. SYN: margo mastoideus ossis occipitalis [TA] , margo mastoideus squamae occipitalis, mastoid margin of occipital bone. medial b. [TA] the b. of a structure closest to the medial plane. SYN: margo medialis [TA] , medial margin. medial b. of foot [TA] the inner b. of the foot extending from heel to the great toe. SYN: margo medialis pedis [TA] , margo tibialis pedis&star, tibial b. of foot&star. medial b. of forearm ulnar b. of forearm. medial b. of humerus [TA] the ridge on the humerus extending from the crest of the lesser tubercle to the medial epicondyle. SYN: margo medialis humeri [TA] . medial b. of kidney [TA] the concave b. of the kidney. SYN: margo medialis renis [TA] . medial b. of scapula [TA] the edge of the scapula closest to the vertebral column, extending from superior angle to inferior angle. SYN: margo medialis scapulae [TA] , vertebral b. of scapula. medial b. of suprarenal gland [TA] the paravertebral edge of the suprarenal gland. SYN: margo medialis glandulae suprarenalis [TA] . medial b. of tibia [TA] the rounded b. of the tibia that separates the posterior and medial surfaces. SYN: margo medialis tibiae [TA] . mesovarian b. of ovary [TA] the b. of the ovary to which the mesovarium is attached. SYN: margo mesovaricus ovarii, mesovarian margin of ovary. nasal b. of frontal bone SYN: nasal margin of frontal bone. occipital b. [TA] edge of a bone that articulates with the occipital bone. See occipital b. of parietal bone, occipital margin of temporal bone. SYN: margo occipitalis [TA] , occipital margin. occipital b. of parietal bone [TA] the posterior margin of the parietal bone that articulates with the occipital squama. SYN: margo occipitalis ossis parietalis [TA] . occipital b. of temporal bone SYN: occipital margin of temporal bone. occult b. of nail SYN: hidden b. of nail. outer b. of iris [TA] the outer, broader of the two zones of the iris. SYN: anulus iridis major [TA] , greater ring of iris. parietal b. [TA] edge of a bone that articulates with the parietal bone. See parietal margin of frontal bone, parietal margin of greater wing of sphenoid, parietal b. of squamous part of temporal bone. SYN: margo parietalis [TA] , parietal margin. parietal b. of frontal bone SYN: parietal margin of frontal bone. parietal b. of sphenoid bone SYN: parietal margin of greater wing of sphenoid. parietal b. of squamous part of temporal bone [TA] the b. of the squamous part of the temporal bone that articulates with the parietal bone. SYN: margo parietalis partis squamosae ossis temporalis [TA] , margo parietalis ossis temporalis, parietal b. of temporal bone. parietal b. of temporal bone SYN: parietal b. of squamous part of temporal bone. peroneal b. of foot lateral b. of foot. posterior b. of eyelids SYN: posterior palpebral margin. posterior b. of fibula [TA] the ridge on the posterior aspect of the fibula extending from the head to the medial aspect of the peroneal groove. SYN: margo posterior fibulae [TA] . posterior b. of petrous part of temporal bone [TA] the margin of the petrous part of the temporal bone that extends from the apex to the jugular notch; it articulates with the basal and jugular portions of the occipital bone. SYN: margo posterior partis petrosae ossis temporalis [TA] . posterior b. of radius [TA] the ridge on the radius that extends from the tuberosity to the tubercle on the posterior aspect of the distal extremity. SYN: margo posterior radii [TA] . posterior b. of testis [TA] the rounded posterior portion of the testis into which the vessels enter. SYN: margo posterior testis [TA] . posterior b. of ulna [TA] the sinuous palpable subcutaneous ridge on the posterior aspect of the ulna that extends from near the olecranon to the styloid process, demarcating “anterior” (flexor) from “posterior” (extensor) compartments of forearm. SYN: margo posterior ulnae [TA] . proximal b. of nail SYN: hidden b. of nail. pupillary b. of iris SYN: pupillary margin of iris. radial b. of forearm [TA] an imaginary line running along the outermost extent of the forearm separating anterior and posterior surfaces laterally. SYN: margo radialis antebrachii [TA] , lateral b. of forearm&star, margo lateralis antebrachii&star. right b. of heart [TA] the b. between the sternocostal and diaphragmatic surfaces of the heart; it is fairly well defined in fixed hearts but is rounded and indefinite in the living heart. SYN: margo dexter cordis [TA] , right margin of heart. sagittal b. of parietal bone [TA] the medial b. of the parietal bone entering into the sagittal suture. SYN: margo sagittalis ossis parietalis [TA] . sphenoidal b. of temporal bone SYN: sphenoidal margin of temporal bone. squamosal b. [TA] edge of a bone that articulates with the squamous part of the temporal bone. SYN: margo squamosus [TA] , squamous b., squamous margin. squamosal b. of parietal bone [TA] the lateral b. of the parietal bone that articulates with the squamous part of the temporal bone. SYN: margo squamosus ossis parietalis [TA] , squamous b. of parietal bone. squamous b. SYN: squamosal b.. See squamosal b. of parietal bone, squamosal margin of greater wing of sphenoid. squamous b. of parietal bone SYN: squamosal b. of parietal bone. squamous b. of sphenoid bone SYN: squamosal margin of greater wing of sphenoid. striated b. the free surface of the columnar absorptive cells of the intestine formed by closely packed microvilli about 1 μm long, giving the appearance of parallel striations. SYN: limbus striatus. superior b. the cranial or uppermost margin of a structure. superior b. of body of pancreas [TA] the uppermost b. of the body of the pancreas that separates the anterior and posterior surfaces. SYN: margo superior corporis pancreatis [TA] , margo superior pancreatis, superior b. of pancreas. superior b. of pancreas SYN: superior b. of body of pancreas. superior b. of petrous part of temporal bone [TA] the margin that separates the anterior and posterior surfaces of the petrous part of the temporal bone and the lateral part of the middle cranial fossa from the posterior cranial fossa. SYN: margo superior partis petrosae ossis temporalis [TA] , crest of petrous part of temporal bone, crest of petrous temporal bone. superior b. of scapula [TA] the margin of the scapula that extends from the glenoid fossa to the superior angle. SYN: margo superior scapulae [TA] . superior b. of spleen [TA] the notched b. of the spleen that separates the visceral (gastric) and diaphragmatic surfaces. SYN: margo superior splenis [TA] . superior b. of suprarenal gland [TA] the b. of the suprarenal gland at the superior junction of the anterior and posterior surfaces. SYN: margo superior glandulae suprarenalis [TA] . tibial b. of foot medial b. of foot. ulnar b. of forearm [TA] an imaginary line extrapolated from the medial epicondyle of the humerus to the styloid process of the ulna, forming a b. between the anterior and posterior surfaces. SYN: margo ulnaris antebrachii [TA] , margo medialis antebrachii&star, medial b. of forearm&star, ulnar margin of forearm. b. of uterus [TA] the right or left margin of the uterus along which the broad ligament is attached. The uterine tube and round ligament attach to the uterus at the upper part of the b.. SYN: margo uteri [TA] . ventral b. SYN: anterior b.. vermilion b. the red margin of the upper and lower lip that commences at the exterior edge of the intraoral labial mucosa (“moist line”) and extends outward, terminating at the extraoral labial cutaneous junction; a thinly keratinized type of stratified squamous epithelium deeply penetrated by well-vascularized dermal papillae which show through the translucent epidermis to impart the typical red appearance of the lips. SYN: vermilion zone, vermilion transitional zone. vertebral b. of scapula SYN: medial b. of scapula. zygomatic b. of greater wing of sphenoid bone SYN: zygomatic margin of greater wing of sphenoid bone.
Jules, Belgian bacteriologist and Nobel laureate, 1870–1961. See Bordetella, B.-Gengou potato blood agar, B.-Gengou bacillus, B.-Gengou phenomenon, B. and Gengou reaction.
A genus of strictly aerobic bacteria (family Brucellaceae) containing minute, Gram-negative non–spore bearing, coccobacilli. Motile and nonmotile species occur; motile cells are peritrichous. The metabolism of these organisms is respiratory. They require nicotinic acid, cysteine, and methionine; hemin (X factor) and coenzyme I (V factor) are not required. They are parasites and pathogens of the mammalian respiratory tract; type species is B. pertussis. [J. Bordet] B. bronchiseptica a bacterial species found in a broad range of animal species, causing atrophic rhinitis of swine, bronchopneumonia in rodents, and a highly contagious bronchopneumonia in dogs. It is a rare cause of opportunistic respiratory tract infection in immunocomprimised patients. B. hinzii a newly described bacterial species isolated from a few human blood cultures and respiratory secretions, as well as from poultry respiratory secretions. B. holmesii a newly described bacterial species isolated from human blood cultures, primarily from mmunocompromised patients. B. parapertussis a bacterial species that causes a whooping cough-like disease, usually milder than that seen with B. pertussis. B. pertussis the bacterial species that is the causative agent of whooping cough, a respiratory tract infection that in infants and young children may be life-threatening; the severe cough, progressing to a paroxysmal form after 7–10 days, is associated with production of pertussis toxin, a protein consisting of 5 B subunits that bind the molecule to respiratory epithelial cells, and an A subunit, an ADP-ribosyl-transferase that interferes with proteins associated with normal signal transduction; pathology is also associated with heavy mucous secretion and hypoxia due to paroxysmal coughing and to blockage of air passages with mucus. SYN: Bordet-Gengou bacillus.
boric acid (bo′rik)
A very weak acid, used as an antiseptic dusting powder, in saturated solution as a collyrium, and with glycerin in aphthae and stomatitis. SYN: boracic acid.
Symptoms caused by the ingestion of borax or any compound of boron.
Mats, Swedish physician, *1922. See B.-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome.
Gustav Jacob, German embryologist, 1851–1900. See B. method of wax plate reconstruction.
The monoterpene parent of borneols, camphene, and similar essential oils (terpenes).
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