|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
A soft mass obtained by heating glycerin and boric acid; an obsolete antiseptic, usually used mixed with equal parts of glycerin, constituting glycerite. SYN: boroglycerol, glyceryl borate.
boron (B) (bor′on)
A nonmetallic trivalent element, atomic no. 5, atomic wt. 10.811; occurs as a hard crystalline mass or as a brown powder, and forms borates and boric acid. A nutritional need has been reported for pregnant women. [Pers. Burah]
Amédée, French bacteriologist, 1867–1936. See B. blue stain.
Borrelia (bo-re′le-a, bo-rel′e-a)
A genus of bacteria (family Treponemataceae) containing cells 8–16 μm in length, with coarse, shallow, irregular spirals and tapered, finely filamented ends. These organisms are parasitic on many forms of animal life, are generally hematophytic, or are found on mucous membranes; most are transmitted to animals or humans by the bites of arthropods. The type species is B. anserina. [A. Borrell] B. afzelii a bacterial genospecies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato causing Lyme disease in Europe and Asia; transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus in central and western Europe and by the tick Ixodes persulcatus in Eurasia from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. SEE ALSO: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. B. anserina a bacterial species that causes spirochetosis of fowls; found in the blood of infected geese, ducks, other fowl, and vector ticks; it is the type species of the genus B.. B. burgdorferi a bacterial species causing Lyme disease in humans and borreliosis in dogs, cattle, and possibly horses. The vector transmitting this spirochete to humans is the ixodid tick, Ixodes dammini. B. burgdorferi sensu lato a bacterial complex causing Lyme disease that is composed of several genospecies including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and B. afzelii. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto a bacterial genospecies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato causing Lyme disease in North America and Europe; transmitted by the tick Ixodes scapularis in the eastern and central United States, by the tick Ixodes pacificus in the western United States, and by the tick Ixodes ricinus in Europe. SEE ALSO: B. garinii. B. caucasica a bacterial species found as a cause of relapsing fever in the Caucasus; transmitted by Ornithodoros verrucosus. B. crocidurae a bacterial species that causes relapsing fever in North Africa, the Near East, and central Asia, and is transmitted by the small variety of the tick Ornithodoros erraticus. B. duttonii a bacterial species causing Central and South African relapsing fever; transmitted by a tick, Ornithodoros moubata. B. garinii a bacterial genospecies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato causing Lyme disease in Europe and Asia; transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus in central and western Europe and by the tick Ixodes persulcatus in Eurasia from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. SEE ALSO: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. B. hermsii a bacterial species found as a cause of relapsing fever in British Columbia, California, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington; transmitted by a tick, Ornithodoros hermsi. B. hispanica a bacterial species causing relapsing fever in Spain, Portugal, and northwest Africa, transmitted by the large variety of the tick Ornithodorus erratica. B. latyschewii a bacterial species that causes relapsing fever in Iran and central Asia; transmitted by the tick Ornithodoros tartakovskyi from rodents and reptiles. B. mazzottii a bacterial species that causes relapsing fever in Mexico and Central and South America; transmitted by the tick Ornithodoros talajé. B. parkeri a bacterial species found as a cause of relapsing fever in the western United States; transmitted by a tick, Ornithodoros parkeri. B. persica a bacterial species that causes relapsing fever in the Middle East and central Asia; the vector is the tick Ornithodoros tholozani. B. recurrentis a bacterial species causing relapsing fever in South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia; transmitted by the bedbug, Cimex lectularius, and the louse, Pediculus humanus humanus. SYN: Obermeier spirillum, Spirochaeta obermeieri. B. turicatae a bacterial species found as a cause of relapsing fever in Mexico, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas; transmitted by Ornithodoros turicata. B. venezuelensis a bacterial species causing spirochetal relapsing fever in Central and South America; transmitted by Ornithodoros rudis and O. venezuelensis.
Disease caused by bacteria of the genus Borrelia. Lyme b. SYN: Lyme disease.
Maximilian, German pathologist, 1869–1946. See B.-Jadassohn type intraepidermal epithelioma.
See under disease.
1. A protuberance; a circumscribed rounded swelling. 2. The prominence of a kyphosis. [M.E. boce, fr. O.Fr.]
Marked by numerous bosses or rounded protuberances. [Fr. bosseler, to emboss]
1. A boss. 2. A condition in which one or more bosses, or rounded protuberances, are present.
Leonard N., U.S. physician, 1871–1931.
Leonardo, Italian physician in Paris, 1530–ca.1587. See B. duct, B. foramen, B. ligament.
Robust, hairy fly of the order Diptera, often strikingly marked in black and yellow or gray, whose larvae produce a variety of myiasis conditions in humans and various domestic animals, especially herbivores. head botflies flesh flies of the dipterous families Oestridae and Cuterebridae; robust, hairy, black, yellow, or gray flies that, while flying, deposit newly hatched larvae or, in some cases, eggs, on or near the nostrils of sheep, goats, deer, horses, camels, and, rarely, humans. human b. SYN: Dermatobia hominis. skin botflies SYN: Dermatobia hominis. SEE ALSO: Cuterebra. warble b. SYN: Dermatobia hominis. SEE ALSO: Hypoderma.
Plural of bothrium.
A genus of pseudophyllid tapeworms with both plerocercoid and adult stages in fishes; sometimes historically confused with Diphyllobothrium. [G. bothrion, dim. of bothros, pit or trench, + kephale, head] B. cordatus a tapeworm species common in dogs and humans in Greenland. B. latus former name for Diphyllobothrium latum. B. mansoni former name for Spirometra mansoni. B. mansonoides former name for Spirometra mansonoides.
bothrium, pl .bothria (both′re-um, -re-a)
One of the slitlike sucking grooves found on the scolex of pseudophyllidean tapeworms, such as the broad fish tapeworm of man, Diphyllobothrium latum. [G. bothros, pit or trench]
Having numerous rounded protuberances resembling a bunch of grapes. SYN: staphyline, uviform. [G. botryoeides, like a bunch of grapes (botrys)]
A generic name applied to a supposed fungus causing botryomycosis. Since this disease is now known to be caused by several kinds of bacteria, staphylococci most commonly, the name is invalid and rarely used. The name of the disease has been retained, nevertheless, to indicate a peculiar type of tissue reaction. [G. botrys, a bunch of grapes, + mykes, fungus]
A chronic granulomatous condition of horses, cattle, swine, and humans, usually involving the skin but occasionally also the viscera, and characterized by granules in the pus, consisting of masses of bacteria, generally staphylococci but sometimes other types, surrounded by a hyaline capsule which sometimes exhibits clublike bodies around its periphery; the anatomic structure of the lesion resembles that of actinomycosis and mycetoma. SYN: actinophytosis (2) . [fr. Botryomyces]
Relating to or affected by botryomycosis.
The larvae of several species of botflies. [Gael. boiteag, maggot] ox b. cattle grub, the larvae of the warble flies, Hypoderma bovis and H. lineatum. sheep b. Oestrus ovis larvae.
Arthur, Estonian anatomist, 1831–1889. See B. canal, B. cells, under cell, B. crystals, under crystal, B. ganglion, B. space, Charcot-B. crystalloids, under crystalloid.
A container for liquids. Mariotte b. a stoppered b. with bottom outlet, used as a reservoir for constant infusions; air enters only by bubbling through a tube extending down through the stopper almost to the bottom; a partial vacuum thus supports the variable height of liquid above the air inlet, providing a constant gravity head for outflow. wash-b. 1. a b. with a tube passing to the bottom, through which gases are forced into water to purify them; 2. a stoppered b. with two tubes, one ending above and the other below a fluid, so that air blowing through the short tube forces liquid in a small stream from the free end of the long one; used for washing chemical apparatus. Woulfe b. a b. with two or three necks, used in a series, connected with tubes, for working with gases (washing, drying, absorbing, etc.).
SYN: botulinus toxin.
Food poisioning usually caused by the ingestion of the neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum from improperly canned or preserved food; mainly affects humans, chickens, water fowl, cattle, sheep, and horses, and is characterized by paralysis in all species; can be fatal; swine, dogs, and cats are somewhat resistant. In some cases ( e.g., in infants) b. may be formed in the gastrointestinal tract by ingested organisms. SEE ALSO: Clostridium botulinum. [L. botulus, sausage] wound b. b. resulting from infection of a wound.
SYN: botulinus toxin.
Botulism-producing. SYN: botulinogenic.
SYN: yaws. [native Brazilian]
Charles Jacques, French physician, 1837–1915. See B. disease.
bouche de tapir (boosh-de-ta′pir)
SYN: tapir mouth. [Fr.]
Jean A.E., French physician, 1818–1891. See B. tube.
A cylindrical instrument, usually somewhat flexible and yielding, used for calibrating or dilating constricted areas in tubular organs, such as the urethra or esophagus; sometimes containing a medication for local application. [Fr. candle] b. à boule (boo-zhe′a-bool′) a ball-tipped b.. bulbous b. a b. with a bulb-shaped tip, some of which are shaped like an acorn or an olive. Eder-Pustow b. a metal olive-shaped b. with a flexible metal dilating system (for esophageal stricture). elastic b. a b. made of rubber, latex, or other similarly flexible material. elbowed b. a b. with a sharply angulated bend near its tip. filiform b. a very slender b. usually used for gentle exploration of strictures or sinus tracts of small diameter where false passages can be encountered or created; the entering end can consist of either a straight or spiral tip, and the trailing end usually consists of a threaded cylinder into which the screw tip of a following b. can be inserted. following b. a flexible tapered b. with a screw tip which is attached to the trailing end of a filiform b., to allow progressive dilation without danger of creating false passages. Hurst bougies a series of mercury-filled round-tipped tubes of graded diameter for dilating the cardioesophageal region. Maloney bougies a series of bougies similar to Hurst bougies but having cone-shaped tips. Savary bougies silastic tapered-tip bougies used over a guide wire in esophageal dilation. tapered b. a b. with gradually increasing caliber, used to dilate strictures. wax-tipped b. a long slender flexible b. with a wax tip, used for endoscopic passage into the ureter to confirm the presence of a calculus by scratching the surface of the tip with the sharp edges of the stone. whip b. a b. tapered to a threadlike tip at the end.
Examination or treatment of the interior of any canal by the passage of a bougie or cannula.
A clear beef tea. [Fr. broth, fr. bouillir, to boil]
Paul, French histologist, 1870–1962. See B. fixative.
SYN: bulimia nervosa.
1. Limited, circumscribed; enclosed. 2. Denoting a substance, such as iodine, phosphorus, calcium, morphine, or another drug, that is not in readily diffusible form but exists in combination with a high–molecular weight substance, especially protein. 3. Fixed to a receptor, such as on a cell wall.
A cluster or bunch of structures, especially of blood vessels, suggesting a b.. [Fr.] Riolan b. the muscles and ligaments, “les fleurs rouges et les fleurs blanches” (the red and white flowers), arising from the styloid process.
Marc-Jean, French anatomist and surgeon, 1797–1849. See B. ligament.
Désiré-Magloire, French physician, 1840–1909. See B. disease, B.-Pringle disease.
Anne, U.S. chemist, *1897. See Sherman-B. unit of vitamin B2.
A button, pustule, or knob-like swelling. [Fr. button] axonal terminal boutons SYN: axon terminals, under terminal. b. de Baghdad the lesion occurring in cutaneous leishmaniasis. SYN: b. de Biskra. b. en chemise small abscess of the intestinal mucosa, occurring in amebic dysentery. boutons en passage consecutive synapses along the course of an axon. synaptic boutons SYN: axon terminals, under terminal. terminal boutons, b. terminaux SYN: axon terminals, under terminal.
bouton de Biskra
SYN: bouton de Baghdad.
boutonnière (boo-ton-nir′, -nar′)
A traumatically produced slit or buttonhole-like opening. [Fr. buttonhole]
A genus of biting lice that is considered by some to be a subgenus of Damalinia; includes the species B. bovis (Trichodectes scalaris), the common red or biting ox louse of cattle; B. caprae (Trichodectes climax), found on sheep and goats; B. equi (Trichodectes parumpilosus), the common biting louse of horses; B. ovis (Trichodectes sphaerocephalus), the common biting louse of sheep. SEE ALSO: Trichodectes.
An instrument used for electrosurgical dissection and hemostasis. Frequently used as a verb, i.e., to B. something is to dissect or cauterize it with the B. instrument.
bovine (bo′vin, -vin)
Relating to cattle. [L. bos (bov-), ox]
Any device bent in a simple curve or semicircle and possessing flexibility. [A.S. boga] Cupid's b. the contour of the superior margin of the upper lip. Logan b. heavy stainless steel wire bent in an arc and taped to both cheeks to protect a freshly repaired cleft lip.
Henry P., U.S. physiologist, 1840–1911. See B. law, B. effect.
SYN: intestine. See small b. series. [through the Fr. from L. botulus, sausage] large b. the colon. small b. proximal portion of the intestine distal to the stomach, comprising the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
John T., U.S. dermatologist, 1857–1941. See B. disease, B. precancerous dermatosis, bowenoid papulosis, Bowenoid cells, under cell.
Donald James, Canadian physician, *1887. See B. stain.
bowleg, bow-leg (bo′leg)
SYN: genu varum.
Bowles type stethoscope
See under stethoscope.
Sir William, English ophthalmologist, anatomist, and physiologist, 1816–1892. See B. capsule, B. disks, under disk, B. gland, B. membrane, B. muscle, B. probe, B. space.
Container; receptacle. [L.L. buxis, fr. G. puxis, b. tree] black b. 1. (Jargon) descriptive of a method of reasoning or studying a problem, in which the methods and procedures, as such, are not described, explained, or perhaps even understood: conclusions relate solely to the empirical relationships observed; 2. in some contexts, the term can mean a piece of apparatus or an experimental animal in which the pharmacologic or toxicologic pathway has not yet been worked out. brain b. neurocranium. CAAT b. a sequence of nucleotides found in a conserved region of DNA located “upstream” (5′ direction) of the start points of eukaryotic transcription units; specific transcription factors appear to associate with it; found in many promoters at −75 bp with the consensus sequence: GG(T/C)CAATCT. It is believed to determine the efficiency of transcription. Hogness b. homeobox. Pribnow b. homeobox. Skinner b. an experimental apparatus in which an animal presses a lever to obtain a reward or receive punishment. TATA b. a highly conserved bacterial DNA sequence found about 25 bp upstream from the transcription start site of genes, usually flanked by GC rich sequences; binding site of transcription factors but not RNA polymerase. view b. a light b. for display of radiographs or other photographic transparencies.
In dentistry, the building up of vertical walls, usually in wax, around a dental impression after beading, to produce the desired size and form of the dental cast, and to preserve certain landmarks of the impression.
William H., U.S. urologist, *1918. See Smith-B. operation.
Edward A., U.S. anatomist, 1886–1976. See B. meal, B. sphincter.
Baron Alexis, French surgeon, 1757–1833. See B. bursa, B. cyst.
Hon. Robert, British physicist and chemist, 1627–1691. See B. law.
Nathan G., U.S. surgeon, 1825–1905. See B. operation, B. position, B.-Fritsch catheter.
Camillo, Italian physician, 1845–1920. See B. sign.
Abbreviation for blood pressure; British Pharmacopoeia.
Abbreviation for boiling point; base pair.
Abbreviation for becquerel.
Symbol for bromine.
William F., U.S. urologist, 1878–1975. See B. bulb, B. catheter.
An orthosis or orthopedic appliance that supports or holds in correct position a part of the body and can allow motion at adjacent joints, in contrast to a splint, which prevents motion of the part. [M.E., fr. O.Fr., fr. L. bracchium, arm, fr. G. brachion] Taylor back b. a steel spinal support. SYN: Taylor apparatus, Taylor splint.
Colloquialism for orthodontic appliances.
Plural of brachium.
Relating to the arm.
Pain in the arm. [L. brachium, arm, + algos, pain] b. statica paresthetica pain in the arm and transient paresthesia occurring only at night.
SYN: arm (1) . [L. brachium]
Relating to both arm and head.
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