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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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brachiocrural (bra′ke-o-kroo′ral)
Relating to both arm and thigh.

brachiocubital (bra′ke-o-ku′bi-tal)
Relating to both arm and elbow or to both arm and forearm.

brachiogram (bra′ke-o-gram)
Tracing of the brachial artery pulse.

brachium, pl .brachia (bra′ke-um, brak′; -a) [TA]
1. SYN: arm (1) . 2. An anatomic structure resembling an arm. [L. arm, prob. akin to G. brachion] b. colliculi inferioris [TA] SYN: b. of inferior colliculus. b. colliculi superioris [TA] SYN: commissure of superior colliculus. b. conjunctivum cerebelli SYN: superior cerebellar peduncle. b. of inferior colliculus [TA] a fiber bundle passing from the inferior colliculus on either side of the brainstem along the lateral border of the superior colliculus to the posterior part of the thalamus where it enters the medial geniculate body. It forms part of the major ascending auditory pathway. SYN: b. colliculi inferioris [TA] , b. quadrigeminum inferius, inferior quadrigeminal b.. inferior quadrigeminal b. SYN: b. of inferior colliculus. b. pontis SYN: middle cerebellar peduncle. b. quadrigeminum inferius SYN: b. of inferior colliculus. b. quadrigeminum superius SYN: b. of superior colliculus. b. of superior colliculus [TA] a band of fibers of the optic tract bypassing the lateral geniculate body to terminate in the superior colliculus and pretectal region. SYN: b. quadrigeminum superius, superior quadrigeminal b.. superior quadrigeminal b. SYN: b. of superior colliculus.

Bracht
Erich Franz, German obstetrician and gynecologist, *1882. See B. maneuver.

Bracht
E., 20th century German pathologist. See B.-Wächter lesion.

brachy-
Short. [G. brachys, short]

brachybasia (brak-e-ba′se-a)
The shuffling gait characteristic of pyramidal tract disease. [brachy- + G. basis, a stepping]

brachybasocamptodactyly (brak-e-ba′so-kamp-to-dak′ti-le)
Combined disproportionate shortness and crookedness of the fingers. [brachy- + G. basis, base, + campylos, curved, + daktylos, finger]

brachybasophalangia (brak-e-ba′so-fa-lan′je-a)
Abnormal shortness of the proximal phalanges. [brachy- + G. basis, base, + phalanx]

brachycardia (brak-e-kar′de-a)
SYN: bradycardia.

brachycephalia (brak-e-se-fa′le-a)
SYN: brachycephaly.

brachycephalic (brak-e-se-fal′ik)
Relating to or characterized by brachycephaly. SYN: brachycephalous.

brachycephalism (brak-e-sef′a-lizm)
SYN: brachycephaly. [brachy- + G. kephale, head]

brachycephalous (brak-e-sef′a-lus)
SYN: brachycephalic.

brachycephaly (brak-e-sef′a-le)
Disproportionate shortness of head, the skull having a cephalic index of over 80; among the brachycephalic races are the Native Americans, Malays, and Burmese. SYN: brachycephalia, brachycephalism. [brachy- + G. kephale, head]

brachycheilia, brachychilia (brak′e-ki′le-a)
Abnormal shortness of the lips. [brachy- + G. cheilos, lip]

brachycnemic (brak-e-ne′mik)
Having short legs; specifically, relating to a tibiofemoral index of less than 82 with the leg disproportionately shorter than the thigh. [brachy- + G. kneme, leg]

brachycranic (brak-e-kra′nik)
Brachycephalic with a cephalic index of 80.0 to 84.9. [brachy- + G. kranion, skull]

brachydactylia (brak-e-dak-til′e-a)
SYN: brachydactyly. [brachy- + G. daktylos, finger]

brachydactylic (brak-e-dak-til′ik)
Denoting brachydactyly.

brachydactyly (brak-e-dak′ti-le)
Abnormal shortness of the fingers. SYN: brachydactylia. [brachy- + G. daktylos, finger]

brachyesophagus (brak′e-e-sof′a-gus)
An abnormally short esophagus. [brachy- + esophagus]

brachyfacial (brak-e-fa′shal)
SYN: brachyprosopic.

brachyglossal (brak-e-glos′al)
Denoting an abnormally short tongue. [brachy- + G. glossa, tongue]

brachygnathia (brak-ig-na′the-a)
Abnormal shortness or recession of the mandible. SEE ALSO: micrognathia. SYN: bird face. [brachy- + G. gnathos, jaw]

brachygnathous (brak-ig′na-thus)
Having a receding underjaw.

brachykerkic (brak-e-ker′kik)
Relating to a radiohumeral index of less than 75, with a forearm relatively shorter than the upper arm. [brachy- + G. kerkis, radius]

brachymelia (brak-e-me′le-a)
Disproportionate shortness of the limbs. [brachy- + G. melos, limb]

brachymesophalangia (brak-e-mes′o-fa-lan′je-a)
Abnormal shortness of the middle phalanges. [brachy- + G. mesos, middle, + phalanx]

brachymetacarpalia, brachymetacarpalism (brak′e-met-a-kar-pa′le-a, -met-a-kar′pa-lizm)
SYN: brachymetacarpia.

brachymetacarpia (brak′e-met-a-car′pe-a)
Abnormal shortness of the metacarpals, especially the fourth and fifth. SYN: brachymetacarpalia, brachymetacarpalism.

brachymetapody (brak′e-me-tap′o-de)
Apparent shortness of toes or fingers resulting from shortness or hypoplasia of the metacarpals or metatarsals. [brachy- + G. meta- (tarsal) + pous (pod-), foot]

brachymetatarsia (brak′e-met-a-tar′se-a)
Abnormal shortness of the metatarsals.

brachymorphic (brak′e-mor′fik)
Having, or denoting, a shorter form than that of the usually accepted norm. [brachy- + G. morphe, form]

brachyodont (brak′e-o-dont)
Having abnormally short teeth. [brachy- + G. odous, tooth]

brachyonychia (brak′e-o-nik′e-a)
Short nails, in which the width of the nail plate and nail bed is greater than the length; may be congenital or result from nail biting, bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism, or psoriatic arthropathy. [G. brachys, short + onyx, onychos, nail, + suffix -ia, condition]

brachypellic (brak-e-pel′ik)
Denoting a transverse oval pelvis. See b. pelvis. SYN: brachypelvic. [brachy- + pelvis]

brachypelvic (brak-e-pel′vik)
SYN: brachypellic.

brachyphalangia (brak′e-fa-lan′je-a)
Abnormal shortness of the phalanges. [brachy- + phalanx]

brachypodous (bra-kip′o-dus)
Having abnormally short feet. [brachy- + G. pous, foot]

brachyprosopic (brak-e-pro-sop′ik)
Having a disproportionately short face. SYN: brachyfacial. [brachy- + G. prosopikos, facial]

brachyrhinia (brak-e-ri′ne-a)
Abnormal shortness of the nose. [brachy- + G. rhis, nose]

brachyrhynchus (brak-e-ring′kus)
Abnormal shortness of the nose and maxilla, often associated with cyclopia. [brachy- + G. rhynchos, snout]

brachyskelic (brak-e-skel′ik)
Relating to abnormally short legs. [brachy- + G. skelos, leg]

brachystaphyline (brak-e-staf′i-lin)
Having a short palate; having a palatomaxillary index above 85. [brachy- + G. staphyle, uvula]

brachysyndactyly (brak′e-sin-dak′ti-le)
Abnormal shortness of fingers or toes combined with a webbing between the adjacent digits. [brachy- + syndactyly]

brachytelephalangia (brak-e-tel′e-fa-lan′je-a)
Abnormal shortness of the distal phalanges. [brachy- + G. telos, end, + phalanx]

brachytherapy (brak-e-ther′a-pe)
Radiotherapy in which the source of irradiation is placed close to the surface of the body or within a body cavity; e.g., application of radium to the cervix. high-dose-rate b. high-dose b. over time. interstitial b. radiotherapy by implantation of radioactive needles or other sources directly into and around the tissue to be irradiated. remote afterloading b. locally delivered radiotherapy that is loaded remotely into previously placed receptacles. stereotactic b. radiotherapy delivered with the help of CT-guided tissue localization.

brachytype (brak′e-tip)
SYN: endomorph.

bracing (bras′ing)
In dentistry, resistance to horizontal components of masticatory force. See component of force.

bracket (brak′et)
In dentistry, a small metal attachment that is soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or bonded directly to the teeth, serving to fasten the arch wire to the band or tooth.

Bradbury
Samuel, U.S. physician. See B.-Eggleston syndrome.

Bradford
Edward H., U.S. orthopedist, 1848–1926. See B. frame.

brady-
Slow. [G. bradys, slow]

bradyarrhythmia (brad′e-a-rith′me-a)
Any disturbance of the heart's rhythm resulting(by convention) in a rate under 50 beats per min. [brady- + G. a- priv. + rhythmos, rhythm]

bradyarthria (brad-e-arth′re-a)
A form of dysarthria characterized by an abnormal slowness or deliberation in speech. SYN: bradyglossia (2) , bradylalia, bradylogia. [brady- + G. arthroo, to utter distinctly, fr. arthron, a joint]

bradycardia (brad-e-kar′de-a)
Slowness of the heartbeat, usually defined (by convention) as a rate under 50 beats/min. SYN: brachycardia, bradyrhythmia. [brady- + G. kardia, heart] central b. b. due to disease of the central nervous system, usually with increased intracranial pressure. essential b. a slow pulse for which no cause can be discovered. SYN: idiopathic b.. fetal b. a fetal heart rate of less than 120 beats/min. idiopathic b. SYN: essential b.. marked fetal b. a fetal heart rate less than 100 beats per minute. mild fetal b. a fetal heart rate between 100-120 beats per minute. nodal b. SYN: atrioventricular junctional rhythm. postinfectious b. a toxic b. occurring during convalescence from various infectious diseases, such as influenza. sinus b. b. originating in the normal sinus pacemaker. vagal b. any excessive cardiac slowing due to stimulation of the vagus nerves. ventricular b. slowness of ventricular rate, usually implying the presence of atrioventricular block.

bradycardiac (brad-e-kar′de-ak)
Relating to or characterized by bradycardia. SYN: bradycardic.

bradycardic (brad-e-kar′dik)
SYN: bradycardiac.

bradycinesia (brad-e-si-ne′se-a)
SYN: bradykinesia.

bradycrotic (brad-e-krot′ik)
Relating to or characterized by a slow pulse. [brady- + G. krotos, a striking]

bradydiastole (brad-e-di-as′to-le)
Prolongation of the diastole of the heart.

bradyesthesia (brad-e-es-the′ze-a)
Slow sensory perception. [brady- + G. aisthesis, sensation]

bradyglossia (brad-e-glos′e-a)
1. Slow or difficult tongue movement. 2. SYN: bradyarthria. [brady- + G. glossa, tongue]

bradykinesia (brad-e-kin-e′ze-a)
A decrease in spontaneity and movement. One of the features of extrapyramidal disorders, such as Parkinson disease. SYN: bradycinesia. [brady- + G. kinesis, movement]

bradykinetic (brad-e-ki-net′ik)
Characterized by or pertaining to slow movement.

bradykinin (brad-e-ki′nin)
The nonapeptide Arg–Pro–Pro–Gly–Phe–Ser–Pro–Phe–Arg, produced from the decapeptide kallidin (bradykininogen) that is produced from α2-globulin by kallikrein, normally present in blood in an inactive form and similar to trypsin in action; b. is one of a number of the plasma kinins, is a potent vasodilator, and is one of the physiologic mediators of anaphylaxis released from cytotropic antibody-coated mast cells following reaction with antigen (allergen) specific for the antibody. SYN: kallidin 9, kallidin I, kinin 9. [brady- + G. kineo, to move]




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