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Medical Dictionary


branchial (brang′ke-al)
1. Relating to branchiae or gills. 2. In embryology, denoting the various structures constituting the b. apparatus.

Dividing into parts; sending out offshoots; bifurcating. SYN: ramose, ramous. [Fr. branche, related to L. branchium, arm] false b. in bacteriology, the appearance of b. produced when a cell is pushed out of the general line of growth and develops a new line of growth while the remaining cells continue to develop along the original line of growth.

branchiogenic, branchiogenous (brang′ke-o-jen′ik, -ke-oj′en-us)
Originating from the branchial arches. [G. branchia, gill, -gen, to produce]

branchiomere (brang′ke-o-mer)
An embryonic segment from which a branchial arch is developed. [G. branchia, gill, + meros, part]

branchiomerism (brang-ke-om′er-izm)
Arrangement into branchiomeres.

branchiomotor (brang′ke-o-mo′tor)
Relating to or controlling the movement of muscles associated with the branchial arches.

An alcoholic liquid obtained by the distillation of the fermented juice of sound ripe grapes and usually containing 48 to 54% ethyl alcohol. [Du. brandewijn, burnt (distilled) wine]

H.H., 19th century U.S. surgeon. See B. sign.

Sara Elizabeth, U.S. bacteriologist, 1888–1962. See Branhamella.

Branhamella (bran-ha-mel′a)
A subgenus of aerobic, nonmotile, nonsporeforming bacteria containing Gram-negative cocci that occur in pairs with adjacent sides flattened; these organisms are currently considered closely related to the genus Moraxella. They occur in the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. The type species is B. catarrhalis. [Sara Branham] B. catarrhalis SYN: Moraxella catarrhalis.

branny (bran′e)
Denoting desquamation of small husklike scales. [M.E. bran, broken coat of cereal grain]

Pierre, French surgeon, 1721–1798. See B. method.

Christopher Heinrich, German surgeon, 1847–1911. See B. anastomosis.

Christian W., German anatomist, 1831–1892. See B. muscle, B. valve.

brawny (brahw′ne)
Thickened (lichenified) and dusky (a darkened hue), as of a swelling. [M.E. fleshy]

Braxton Hicks
John, British gynecologist, 1823–1897. See B. contraction, B. sign.

Charles William, U.S. otologist, *1904. See Wever-B. phenomenon.

T. Berry, U.S. pediatrician, *1918. See B. Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, under scale.

brazilein (bra-zil′e-in)
A red oxidation product of brazilin.

brazilin (bra-zil′in) [C.I. 75280]
A red natural dye, C16H14O5, obtained from the bark of several species of tropical trees and oxidized to the active red dye brazilein; resembles hematoxylin in origin, chemistry, and usage; used as a nuclear stain and as an indicator (red in alkalies, yellow in acids).

brazing (bra′zing)
In dentistry, soldering.

Abbreviation for bromodeoxyuridine.

break (brak)
Separation into parts. double-strand b. a b. in double-stranded DNA in which both strands have been cleaved; however, the two strands have not separated from each other. single-strand b. a b. in double-stranded DNA in which only one of the two strands has been cleaved; both strands have not separated from each other.

breakpoint (brak′poynt)
In helminth epidemiology, the critical mean wormload in a community, below which the helminth mating frequency is too low to maintain reproduction. Below this level, helminth infection in the community will progressively decline, ultimately to zero.

breakthrough (brak′throo)
A sudden manifestation of new insights and more constructive attitudes following a period of resistance during psychotherapy.

breast (brest) [TA]
1. The pectoral surface of the thorax. 2. The female organ of milk secretion; one of two commonly hemispheric projections anterior to the pectoral muscles including the mammary glands within a highly variable amount of fat of the subcutaneous layer and bearing the nipple superficially on either side of the chest of the mature female; it is rudimentary in the male. SYN: mamma [TA] , teat (2) . [A.S. breost] accessory b. [TA] a milk-secreting gland located elsewhere than at the normal place on the chest and existing in addition to the two usual mammae. SYN: mamma accessoria [TA] , supernumerary b., supernumerary mamma. chicken b. SYN: pectus carinatum. funnel b. SYN: pectus excavatum. irritable b. swelling and induration of the b., not due to a neoplasm, and usually of comparatively brief duration. male b. [TA] one of the two, usually rudimentary, mammary glands and overlying nipples of the male. SYN: mamma masculina [TA] , mamma virilis. pigeon b. SYN: pectus carinatum. supernumerary b. SYN: accessory b..

breath (breth)
1. The respired air. 2. An inspiration. [A.S. braeth] liver b. SYN: fetor hepaticus. uremic b. characteristic odor of the b. in patients with chronic renal failure, variously described as “fishy,” “ammoniacal,” and “fetid,” which is indicative of the systemic accumulation of volatile metabolites, usually excreted in the urine; dimethylamine and trimethylamine have been identified and correlated with the classic fishy odor.

breath-holding (breth′hold-ing)
Voluntary or involuntary cessation of breathing; often seen in young children as a response to frustration.

breathing (breth′ing)
Inhalation and exhalation of air or gaseous mixtures. SYN: pneusis. apneustic b. pauses in the respiratory cycle at full inspiration, caused by damage of the respiratory control centers in the more caudal pons. ataxic b. SYN: Biot respiration. Biot b. SYN: Biot respiration. bronchial b. breath sounds of a harsh or blowing quality, heard on auscultation of the chest, made by air moving in the large bronchi and barely, if at all, modified by the intervening lung; duration of the expiratory sound is as long as or longer than that of the inspiratory sound, and its pitch as high as or higher than that of the inspiratory sound; may be heard over a consolidated lung, above a pleural effusion due to an underlying compressed lung, and rarely over a pulmonary cavity; whispered pectoriloquy is another manifestation that usually can be elicited when bronchial b. is present. glossopharyngeal b. respiration unaided by the usual primary muscles of respiration; the air is forced into the lungs by use of the tongue and muscles of the pharynx. intermittent positive pressure b. (IPPB) mechanical ventilating mode in which the patient triggers a pressure-limited breath. Outdated method of delivering aerosol therapy to the lungs. mouth b. habitual respiration through the mouth instead of the nose, usually due to obstruction of the nasal airways. positive-negative pressure b. (PNPB) inflation of the lungs with positive pressure and deflation with negative pressure by an automatic ventilator. pursed lips b. a technique in which air is inhaled slowly through the nose and mouth and exhaled slowly through pursed lips; used by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to improve their b. by increasing resistance to air flow, forcibly dilating small bronchi. shallow b. a type of b. with abnormally low tidal volume. stertorous b. SYN: stertorous respiration.

Achille, Italian dermatologist, 1850–1933. See B. disease.

bredouillement (bra-dwe-mahn′)
Omission of parts of words related to extremely rapid speech. [Fr.]

breech (brech)
SYN: buttocks. [A.S. brec]

breeding (bred′ing)
Selected mating of individuals to produce a strain that is desirable or of scientific interest. SEE ALSO: hybridization, linebreeding, inbreeding. [breed, fr. M.E. breden, fr. O.E. bredan, + -ing]

bregma (breg′ma) [TA]
The point on the skull corresponding to the junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures. [G. the forepart of the head]

bregmatic (breg-mat′ik)
Relating to the bregma.

brei (bri)
A fine and uniform mince or mush of tissue in which the cells are for the most part intact. Cf.:homogenate. [Ger. pulp]

bremsstrahlung (bremz′strah-lung)
Continuous spectrum radiation produced by the slowing of electrons in a beam by nuclei in their vicinity. [Ger. B., braking radiation]

Lena, 20th century U.S. researcher. See Brown-B. stain.

Fritz, German pathologist, *1877. See B. tumor.

Prefix denoting a primitive stage of development. [G. brephos, embryo or newborn infant]

Breschet, Brechet
Gilbert, French anatomist, 1784–1845. See B. bones, under bone, B. canals, under canal, B. hiatus, B. sinus, B. vein.

Michael J., U.S. nephrologist, *1933. See B.-Cimino fistula.

Alexander, U.S. pathologist, 1928–1980. See B. thickness.

1. An antihypertensive, which on chronic oral dosing, first releases, then diminishes the release of norepinephrine from noradrenergic nerve endings. 2. An antiarrhythmic used to treat life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias; blocks potassium channels.

bretylium tosylate (bre-til′e-um)
A sympatholytic agent that prevents the release of norepinephrine from the nerve ending; used in the treatment of essential hypertension. SEE ALSO: bretylium.

Josef, Austrian internist, 1842–1925. See Hering-B. reflex.

brevetoxins (BTX) (brev′e-tok′sins)
Structurally unique neurotoxins produced by the &dquor;red tide&dquor; dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis Davis (Gymnodinium breve Davis). An algae responsible for large fish kills and mollusk and human food poisoning in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Florida coast. Unlike previously isolated dinoflagellate toxins, such as saxitoxin, which are water-soluble sodium channel blockers, the brevotoxins are lipid-soluble sodium channel activators. Used as tools in neurobiologic research.

Brevibacterium (brev-e-bak-ter′e-um)
A bacterial genus of nonmotile, nonsporeforming, Gram-positive rods found as normal human skin flora and in raw milk and on the surface of cheeses; some species, recovered from patients with septicemia and from the peritoneum of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, appear to be opportunistic human pathogens.

brevicollis (brev-e-kol′is)
Abnormal shortness of the neck. [L. brevis, short, + collum, neck]

brevis (brev′is)
Brief, short. [L. short]

George E., U.S. surgeon, 1861–1939. See B. infarcts, under infarct.

Eugene M., U.S. urologist, *1908. See B. operation.

bridge (bridj)
1. The upper part of the ridge of the nose formed by the nasal bones. 2. One of the threads of protoplasm that appear to pass from one cell to another. 3. SYN: fixed partial denture. arteriolovenular b. the largest capillary connecting arteriole to venule. cantilever b. a fixed partial b. denture in which the pontic is retained only on one side by an abutment tooth. SYN: extension b.. caudolenticular gray bridges [TA] strands of neuron cell bodies that span the internal capsule, primarily its anterior limb, between the caudate nucleus and the putamen. SYN: pontes grisei caudolenticulares [TA] , transcapsular gray bridges&star. cell bridges SYN: intercellular bridges. cystine b. SYN: disulfide b.. cytoplasmic bridges SYN: intercellular bridges. dentin b. a deposit of reparative dentin or other calcific substances which forms across and reseals exposed tooth pulp tissue. disulfide b. 1. a disulfide linkage between two cysteinyl residues in a poly- or oligopeptide or in a protein; 2. any disulfide linkage between any thiol-containing moieties of a larger molecule. SYN: cystine b.. extension b. SYN: cantilever b.. fixed b. SYN: fixed partial denture. Gaskell b. SYN: atrioventricular bundle. intercellular bridges slender cytoplasmic strands connecting adjacent cells; in histological sections of the epidermis and other stratified squamous epithelia, the bridges are processes attached by a desmosome and are shrinkage artifacts of fixation; true bridges with cytoplasmic confluence exist between incompletely divided germ cells. SYN: cell bridges, cytoplasmic bridges. myocardial b. a b. of cardiac muscle fibers extending over the epicardial aspect of a coronary artery; this finding, in cases of sudden unexpected death, has led to speculation that cardiac contraction during exertion could constrict the coronary artery. removable b. SYN: removable partial denture. salt b. SYN: electrostatic bond. transcapsular gray bridges caudolenticular gray bridges. Wheatstone b. an apparatus for measuring electrical resistance; four resistors are connected to form the four sides or “arms” of a square; a voltage is applied to one diagonal pair of connections, while the voltage between the other diagonal pair is measured, e.g., by a galvanometer; the b. is “balanced” when the measured voltage is zero; then, the ratios of the two pairs of adjoining resistances must be identical.

bridgework (bridj′work)
SYN: partial denture.

bridle (bri′dl)
1. SYN: frenum. 2. A band of fibrous material stretching across the surface of an ulcer or other lesion or forming adhesions between opposing serous or mucous surfaces. [M.E. bridel] b. of clitoris obsolete term for frenulum of clitoris.

Richard, English internist and pathologist, 1789–1858. See B. disease.

Nathan E., U.S. physician, 1860–1925. See B. disease, B.-Zinsser disease.

brilliant cresyl blue
See cresyl blue.

brilliant green [C.I. 42040]
The sulfate of di-(p-diethylamino)-triphenyl carbinolanhydride. An indicator dye that changes from yellow to green at pH 0.0 to 2.6; also used as a topical antiseptic and as a selective bacteriostatic agent in culture media. SYN: ethyl green.

brilliant vital red
SYN: vital red.

brilliant yellow [C.I. 13085]
An indicator dye that changes from yellow to orange or red at pH 6.4 to 8.0.

The upper edge or rim of a hollow structure. pelvic b. SYN: pelvic inlet.

brimstone (brim′ston)
SYN: sulfur. [A.S. brinnan, to burn]

brindle (brin′dl)
A hair coat color in which there is a uniform mixture of gray or tawny hairs with others of white or black; a composite color. [diminutive of O.E. brinded]

Johan A., Swedish metallurgist, 1849–1925. See B. hardness number.

Paul, French physician, 1796–1881. See B. ataxia, B. syndrome.

brisement (briz-mon′for-sa′)
Procedure infrequently used to treat frozen shoulder in which a forceful manipulation is performed to restore range of motion that usually results in torn adhesions and adjacent joint capsule. [Fr. forcible breaking]

Edouard, French physician, 1852–1909. See B. disease, B. infantilism, B. reflex, B.-Marie syndrome.

British anti-Lewisite (BAL) (brit′ish an-te-loo′is-it)
SYN: dimercaprol.

British Pharmacopoeia (BP)
See Pharmacopeia.

broach (broch)
A dental instrument for removing the pulp of a tooth or exploring the canal. barbed b. a root canal instrument set with barbs; used for removing a dental pulp, pulp tissue remnants, or dentinal debris. smooth b. an exploring instrument used in endodontic practice; a root canal tine.

Sir William H., British physician, 1835–1907. See B. law, B. sign.

See spectrum.

Pierre P., French surgeon, neurologist, and anthropologist, 1824–1880. See B. angles, under angle, B. aphasia, B. basilar angle, B. facial angle, B. area, B. parolfactory area, B. diagonal band, B. center, B. field, B. fissure, B. formula, B. visual plane, B. pouch.

Sir Russell C., British surgeon, *1903. See B. syndrome, B. operation.

E.C., U.S. surgeon, *1930. See B. sign.

brocresine (bro-kre′sen)
A histidine decarboxylase inhibitor.

Max, German medical artist in the U.S., 1870–1941. See B. bloodless line.

Sir Benjamin C., British surgeon, 1783–1862. See B. abscess, B. bursa, B. disease, B. knee.

Charles Gordon, Scottish anatomist and surgeon, 1860–1933. See B. ligament.

Thomas Gregor, British physiologist, 1866–1916. See B. fluid.

Korbinian, German neurologist, 1868–1918. See B. areas, under area.

Gustav, German anatomist, *1853. See B. fossa.

brom-, bromo-
1. Foul-smelling. 2. Indicating the presence of bromine in a compound. [G. bromos, a stench]

bromate (bro′mat)
Salt or anion of bromic acid.


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