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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


bromated (bro′mat-ed)
Combined or saturated with bromine or any of its compounds. SYN: brominated.

bromazepam (bro-ma′ze-pam)
An antianxiety agent of the benzodiazepine class.

bromazine hydrochloride (bro′ma-zen)
SYN: bromodiphenhydramine hydrochloride.

bromcresol green (brom-kre′sol)
A substituted triphenylmethane dye (pKa 4.7), sparingly soluble in water but readily soluble in alcohol, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate; used as an indicator of pH (yellow at pH 3.8, blue-green at pH 5.4).

bromcresol purple
A substituted triphenylmethane dye (pKa 6.3), practically insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol and dilute alkalies; used as an indicator of pH (yellow at pH 5.2, purple at pH 6.8).

bromelain, bromelin (bro′me-lan, -lin)
One of a group of peptide hydrolases, all thiol proteinases, obtained from pineapple stem; used in tenderizing meats and in producing hydrolysates of proteins; orally administered in the treatment of inflammation and edema of soft tissues associated with traumatic injury.

Bromelius
C., Swedish botanist, 1639–1705. See bromelain.

bromhexine hydrochloride (brom-hek′sen)
An expectorant with mucolytic, antitussive, and bronchodilator properties.

bromhidrosis (brom-hi-dro′sis)
SYN: bromidrosis.

bromic (bro′mik)
Relating to bromine; denoting especially b. acid, HBrO3.

bromide (bro′mid)
The anion Br−; salt of hydrogen b. (HBr); several salts formerly used as sedatives, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants.

bromidrosiphobia (bro′mi-dro-si-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of giving forth a bad odor from the body, sometimes with the belief that such an odor is present. [bromidrosis + G. phobos, fear]

bromidrosis (brom-i-dro′sis)
Fetid or foul-smelling perspiration. Apocrine b. affects the axilleo after puberty, and eccrine b. is generalized, with excessive sweating. SYN: bromhidrosis. [G. bromos, a stench, + hidros, perspiration]

brominated (bro′min-at-ed)
SYN: bromated.

bromindione (bro-min-di′on)
An oral anticoagulant.

bromine (Br) (bro′men, -min)
A nonmetallic, reddish, volatile, liquid element; atomic no. 35, atomic wt. 79.904; valences 1–7, inclusive; it unites with hydrogen to form hydrobromic acid, and this reacts with many metals to form bromides, some of which are used in medicine. [Fr. brome, b., fr. G. bromos, stench]

bromism, brominism (bro′mizm, -min-izm)
Chronic bromide intoxication, characterized by headache, drowsiness, confusion and occasionally violent delirium, muscular weakness, cardiac depression, an acneform eruption, foul breath, anorexia, and gastric distress.

bromo-
See brom-.

bromobenzylcyanide (BBC) (bro′mo-benz-il-si′a-nid)
A lacrimator used in tear gases in training and in riot control.

bromocresol green (bro-mo-kre′sol)
Tetrabromo-m-cresolsulfonphthalein;an indicator dye changing from yellow to blue at pH 4.7; used to track DNA in agarose electrophoresis, and in a dye-binding method for analysis of serum albumin.

bromocriptine (bro-mo-krip′ten)
A semisynthetic ergot derivative that slows dopamine turnover, inhibits prolactin secretion and release of prolactin by thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and retards tumor growth and hence is used in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia associated with various pituitary tumors; an agonist at dopamine receptors also used in Parkinson disease.

bromodeoxyuridine (BrDu) (bro′mo-de-ok′se-ur′i-den)
A compound that competes with uridine for incorporation in RNA and fluoresces in ultraviolet light; used in BrDu-banding.

bromoderma (bro-mo-der′ma)
An acneform or granulomatous eruption due to hypersensitivity to bromide. [bromide + G. derma, skin]

bromodiphenhydramine hydrochloride (bro′mo-di-fen-hi′dra-men)
An antihistamine that may cause drowsiness and xerostomia. SYN: bromazine hydrochloride.

bromohyperhidrosis, bromohyperidrosis (bro′mo-hi′per-hi-dro′sis, -hi′per-i-dro′sis)
Excessive secretion of sweat having a fetid odor, usually eccrine and generalized or affecting the feet. [G. bromos, a stench, + hyper, over, + hidrosis, sweating]

bromophenol blue (bro-mo-fe′nol)
SYN: bromphenol blue.

bromosulfophthalein (bro′mo-sul′fo-thal′e-in)
SYN: sulfobromophthalein sodium.

5-bromouracil (bro-mo-u′ra-sil)
Synthetic analog (antimetabolite) of thymine, in which a bromine atom takes the place of the methyl group in thymine; a mutagen.

brompheniramine maleate (brom-fen-ir′a-men)
A potent antihistaminic agent.

bromphenol blue (brom-fe-nol)
A substituted triphenylmethane dye (MW 670, pK 4.0), used as an acid-base indicator (yellow at pH less than 3.1, blue at pH more than 4.7); also used for histochemical and electrophoretic demonstration of proteins. SYN: bromophenol blue.

bromsulfophthalein (brom-sul′fo-thal′e-in)
SYN: sulfobromophthalein sodium.

bromthymol blue (brom-thi′mol)
A substituted triphenylmethane dye (MW 624, pK 7.0), used primarily as a hydrogen ion indicator (yellow at pH 6.0, blue at pH 7.6); also a weak but toxic vital stain.

broncatar (bron′ka-tar)
Camphoric acid compound (neutralized) with 2-amino-2-thiazoline (1:2); an antitussive and respiratory stimulant.

bronch-
See broncho-.

bronchi (brong′ki)
Plural of bronchus.

bronchi-
See broncho-.

bronchia (brong′ke-a)
The smaller divisions of the bronchi. SEE ALSO: bronchus, bronchiole. SYN: bronchial tubes. [G. pl. of bronchion, dim. of bronchos, trachea]

bronchial (brong′ke-al)
Relating to the bronchi.

bronchiectasia (brong′ke-ek-ta′ze-a)
SYN: bronchiectasis. b. sicca SYN: dry bronchiectasis.

bronchiectasis (brong-ke-ek′ta-sis)
Chronic dilation of bronchi or bronchioles as a sequel of inflammatory disease or obstruction often associated with heavy sputum production. SYN: bronchiectasia. [bronchi- + G. ektasis, a stretching] congenital b. a rare form of b. due to developmental arrest in the tracheobronchial tree; may be unilateral or bilateral. cylindrical b. b. resulting in dilated bronchi of cylindrical shape; i.e., of uniform caliber. cystic b. b. in which the bronchi end in blind sacs greater in diameter than the draining bronchi. SEE ALSO: saccular b.. dry b. b. characterized by lack of productive cough and by occasional hemoptysis. SYN: bronchiectasia sicca. saccular b. b. resulting in dilated bronchi of saccular or irregular shape. SEE ALSO: cystic b.. varicose b. cylindrical b. with irregular constrictions resembling varicose veins in shape.

bronchiectatic (brong-ke-ek-tat′ik)
Relating to bronchiectasis.

bronchiloquy (brong-kil′o-kwe)
Rarely used term for bronchophony [bronchi- + L. loquor, to speak]

bronchiogenic (brong-ke-o-jen′ik)
SYN: bronchogenic.

bronchiole (brong′ke-ol) [TA]
One of approximately six generations of increasingly finer subdivisions of the bronchi, all less than 1 mm in diameter, and having no cartilage in its wall, but relatively abundant smooth muscle and elastic fibers. SYN: bronchiolus [TA] . respiratory bronchioles the smallest bronchioles (0.5 mm in diameter) that connect the terminal bronchioles to alveolar ducts; alveoli rise from part of the wall. SYN: bronchioli respiratorii. terminal b. the end of the nonrespiratory conducting airway; the lining is simple columnar or cuboidal epithelium without mucous goblet cells; most of the cells are ciliated, but a few nonciliated serous secreting cells occur. SYN: bronchiolus terminalis.

bronchiolectasia (brong′ke-o-lek-ta′ze-a)
SYN: bronchiolectasis.

bronchiolectasis (brong′ke-o-lek′ta-sis)
Bronchiectasis involving the bronchioles. SYN: bronchiolectasia. [bronchiole + G. ektasis, a stretching]

bronchioli (brong-ke′o-li)
Plural of bronchiolus.

bronchiolitis (brong-ke-o-li′tis)
Inflammation of the bronchioles, often associated with bronchopneumonia. [bronchiole + -itis, inflammation] constrictive b. obliteration of bronchioles by scarring following b. obliterans. Cf.:proliferative b.. exudative b. inflammation of the bronchioles, with fibrinous exudation. b. fibrosa obliterans obstruction of bronchioles and alveolar ducts by fibrous granulation tissue induced by mucosal ulceration; the condition may follow inhalation of irritant gases (see silo-filler's lung) or may complicate pneumonia (see BOOP); associated with obstructive findings (see unilateral hyperlucent lung, Swyer-James syndrome). SYN: b. obliterans. b. obliterans SYN: b. fibrosa obliterans. b. obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP) b. fibrosa obliterans complicated by pneumonia with organization. proliferative b. b. with obliteration of bronchiolar lumen and alveoli by epithelial proliferation, which may follow influenza and giant cell pneumonia.

bronchiolo-
Bronchiole. [L. bronchiolus]

bronchiolopulmonary (brong′ke-o-lo-pul′mo-nar-e)
Relating to the bronchioles and the lungs.

bronchiolus, pl .bronchioli (brong-ke′o-lus, -o-li) [TA]
SYN: bronchiole. [Mod. L. dim. of bronchus] bronchioli respiratorii SYN: respiratory bronchioles, under bronchiole. b. terminalis SYN: terminal bronchiole.

bronchiostenosis (brong′ke-o-sten-o′sis)
SYN: bronchial stenosis.

bronchitic (brong-kit′ik)
Relating to bronchitis.

bronchitis (brong-ki′tis)
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes. asthmatic b. b. that causes or aggravates bronchospasm. Castellani b. SYN: hemorrhagic b.. chronic b. a condition of the bronchial tree characterized by cough, hypersecretion of mucus, and expectoration of sputum over a long period of time, associated with frequent bronchial infections; usually due to inhalation, over a prolonged period, of air contaminated by dust or by noxious gases of combustion. croupous b. obsolete term for fibrinous b.. fibrinous b. inflammation of the bronchial mucous membrane, accompanied by a fibrinous exudation, which often forms a cast of the bronchial tree with severe obstruction of air flow. SYN: plastic b., pseudomembranous b.. hemorrhagic b. chronic b. due to infection with spirochetes (though other bacteria are usually present and contribute to the infection) and characterized by cough and bloody sputum. SYN: bronchopulmonary spirochetosis, bronchospirochetosis, Castellani b.. obliterative b., b. obliterans fibrinous b. in which the exudate becomes organized, obliterating the affected portion of the bronchial tubes with consequent permanent collapse of affected portions of the lung. plastic b. SYN: fibrinous b.. pseudomembranous b. SYN: fibrinous b.. putrid b. b. accompanied by an expectoration of foul-smelling sputum.

bronchium (brong′ke-um)
SYN: bronchus. [Mod. L. fr. G. bronchion]

broncho-, bronch-, bronchi-
Bronchus, and, in ancient usage, the trachea. [G. bronchos, windpipe]

bronchoalveolar (brong′ko-al-ve′o-lar)
SYN: bronchovesicular.

bronchocavernous (brong-ko-kav′er-nus)
Relating to a bronchus or bronchial tube and a pulmonary pathologic cavity.

bronchocele (brong′ko-sel)
A circumscribed dilation of a bronchus. [broncho- + G. kele, hernia]

bronchoconstriction (brong-ko-kon-strik′shun)
Reduction in the caliber of a bronchus or bronchi, usually referring to a dynamic process as in asthma and emphysema, rather than a fixed constriction (the latter is a bronchial stenosis). Cf.:bronchospasm.

bronchoconstrictor (brong-ko-kon-strik′ter, -tor)
1. Causing a reduction in caliber of a bronchus or bronchial tube. 2. An agent that possesses this action ( e.g., histamine, acetylcholine).

bronchodilatation (brong′ko-dil-a-ta′shun)
SYN: bronchodilation.

bronchodilation (brong′ko-di-la′shun)
1. Increase in caliber of the bronchi and bronchioles in response to pharmacologically active substances or autonomic nervous activity. 2. Rarely used term for bronchiectasis. SYN: bronchodilatation.

bronchodilator (brong-ko-di-la′ter, -tor)
1. Causing an increase in caliber of a bronchus or bronchial tube. 2. An agent that possesses this power ( e.g., epinephrine, albuterol).

bronchoedema (brong′ko-e-de′ma)
Swelling of the mucosa of the bronchi.

bronchoesophagology (brong′ko-e-sof-a-gol′o-je)
The specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the tracheobronchial tree and esophagus by endoscopy and other means. [broncho- + G. oisophagos, esophagus, + logos, study]

bronchoesophagoscopy (brong′ko-e-sof-a-gos′ko-pe)
Examination of the tracheobronchial tree and esophagus through appropriate endoscopes.

bronchofiberscope (brong-ko-fi′ber-skop)
SYN: bronchoscope.




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