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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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bronchogenic (brong-ko-jen′ik)
Of bronchial origin; emanating from the bronchi. SYN: bronchiogenic.

bronchogram (brong′ko-gram)
A radiograph obtained by bronchography; radiographic visualization of a bronchus. [broncho- + G. gramma, a writing] air b. radiographic appearance of an air-filled bronchus surrounded by fluid-filled airspaces.

bronchography (brong-kog′ra-fe)
Radiographic examination of the tracheobronchial tree following introduction of a radiopaque material, usually an iodinated compound in a viscous suspension; rarely performed at this time, having been superseded by high resolution computed tomography. [broncho- + G. graphe, a drawing] tantalum b. historically, b. using insufflated metallic tantalum powder.

broncholith (brong′ko-lith)
A hard concretion in a bronchus, usually resulting from the erosion of a tuberculous or other granulomatous lymph node through the bronchial wall into the lumen. SYN: bronchial calculus. [broncho- + G. lithos, stone]

broncholithiasis (brong′ko-li-thi′a-sis)
Bronchial inflammation or obstruction caused by broncholiths.

bronchomalacia (brong′ko-ma-la′she-a)
Degeneration of elastic and connective tissue of bronchi and trachea. [broncho- + G. malakia, a softening]

bronchomotor (brong-ko-mo′ter)
1. Relating to a change in caliber, dilation, or contraction of a bronchus or bronchiole. 2. An agent possessing this action. [broncho- + L. motor, mover]

bronchomycosis (brong′ko-mi-ko′sis)
Any fungus disease of the bronchial tubes or bronchi. [broncho- + G. mykes, fungus]

bronchophony (brong-kof′o-ne)
Increased intensity and clarity of voice sounds heard over a bronchus surrounded by consolidated lung tissue. SEE ALSO: tracheophony. SYN: bronchial voice. [broncho- + G. phone, voice] whispered b. SYN: whispered pectoriloquy.

bronchoplasty (brong′ko-plas-te)
Surgical alteration of the configuration of a bronchus. [broncho- + G. plastos, formed]

bronchopneumonia (brong′ko-nu-mo′ni-a)
Acute inflammation of the walls of the smaller bronchial tubes, with varying amounts of pulmonary consolidation due to spread of the inflammation into peribronchiolar alveoli and the alveolar ducts; may become confluent or may be hemorrhagic. SYN: bronchial pneumonia. postoperative b. patchy pneumonia developing in a postoperative patient, usually following surgery to upper abdomen, with restricted diaphragmatic movement due to pain on inspiration, resulting in hypoventilation of the dependent portions of the lungs, with corresponding inadequate movement of secretions, allowing development of infection; likelihood minimized by early postoperative mobilization, deep breathing exercises. tuberculous b. an acute form of pulmonary tuberculosis characterized by widespread patchy consolidations.

bronchopulmonary (brong-ko-pul′mo-nar-e)
Relating to the bronchi and the lungs.

bronchorrhaphy (brong-kor′a-fe)
Suture of a wound of the bronchus. [broncho- + G. rhaphe, a seam]

bronchorrhea (brong′ko-re′a)
Excessive secretions from the bronchial mucosa, resulting in copious production of thin sputum and most often due to diffuse bronchoalveolar carcinoma or pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. [broncho- + G. rhoia, a flow]

bronchoscope (brong′ko-skop)
An endoscope for inspecting the interior of the tracheobronchial tree, either for diagnostic purposes (including biopsy) or for the removal of foreign bodies. There are two types: flexible and rigid. SYN: bronchofiberscope. [broncho- + G. skopeo, to view]

bronchoscopy (brong-kos′ko-pe)
Inspection of the interior of the tracheobronchial tree through a bronchoscope.

bronchospasm (brong′ko-spazm)
Contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, causing narrowing of the lumen. Cf.:bronchoconstriction.

bronchospasmolytic (brong′ko-spazm-mo-li-tik)
Relieving a bronchospasm.

bronchospirochetosis (brong′ko-spi′ro-ke-to′sis)
SYN: hemorrhagic bronchitis.

bronchospirography (brong′ko-spi-rog′ra-fe)
Use of a single-lumen endobronchial tube for measurement of ventilatory function of one lung. [broncho- + L. spiro, to breathe, + G. grapho, to write]

bronchospirometer (brong′ko-spi-rom′e-ter)
A rare device for measurement of rates and volumes of air flow into each lung separately, using a double-lumen endobronchial tube. [broncho- + L. spiro, to breathe, + G. metron, measure]

bronchospirometry (brong′ko-spi-rom′e-tre)
Use of a bronchospirometer to measure ventilatory function of each lung separately.

bronchostaxis (brong′ko-stak′sis)
SYN: hemoptysis. [broncho- + G. staxis, a dripping]

bronchostenosis (brong-ko-sten-o′sis)
Chronic narrowing of a bronchus.

bronchostomy (brong-kos′to-me)
Surgical formation of a new opening into a bronchus. [broncho- + G. stoma, mouth]

bronchotomy (brong-kot′o-me)
Incision of a bronchus.

bronchotracheal (brong-ko-tra′ke-al)
Relating to the trachea and bronchi.

bronchovesicular (brong′ko-ve-sik′u-lar)
Relating to the bronchi and alveoli in the lungs, especially as regards lung sound heard by auscultation. SYN: bronchoalveolar.

bronchus, pl .bronchi (brong′kus, brong′ki) [TA]
One of two subdivisions of the trachea serving to convey air to and from the lungs. The trachea divides into right and left main bronchi, which in turn form lobar, segmental, and intrasegmental bronchi. In structure, the intrapulmonary bronchi have a lining of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and a lamina propria with abundant longitudinal networks of elastic fibers; there are spirally arranged bundles of smooth muscle, abundant mucoserous glands, and, in the outer part of the wall, irregular plates of hyaline cartilage. SYN: bronchium. [Mod. L., fr. G. bronchos, windpipe] eparterial b. right superior lobar b. that passes above the right pulmonary artery. hyparterial bronchi those bronchi that pass below the pulmonary arteries, i.e., right middle and inferior lobar bronchi and left superior and inferior lobar bronchi. intermediate b. the portion of the right main b. between the upper lobar b. and the origin of the middle and lower lobar bronchi. SYN: b. intermedius. b. intermedius SYN: intermediate b.. intrasegmental bronchi [TA] branches of segmental bronchi to the bronchopulmonary segments of the lungs. SYN: bronchi intrasegmentales [TA] , branches of segmental bronchi, rami bronchiales segmentorum. bronchi intrasegmentales [TA] SYN: intrasegmental bronchi. left main b. [TA] it arises at the bifurcation of the trachea, passes in front of the esophagus and enters the hilum of the left lung where it divides into a superior lobe b. and an inferior lobe b.. It is longer, of narrower caliber, and more nearly horizontal than the right main b., hence, aspirated objects enter it less frequently. SYN: b. principalis sinister [TA] . lobar bronchi [TA] the divisions of the main bronchi that supply the lobes of the lungs; superior lobar bronchi (b. lobaris superior [TA]); middle lobar bronchi (b. lobaris medius [TA]); and inferior lobar bronchi (b. lobaris inferior [TA]) are the three lobar bronchi on the right; superior lobar bronchi (b. lobaris superior [TA]) and inferior lobar bronchi (b. lobaris inferior [TA]) are the two on the left. The lobar bronchi divide into segmental bronchi. SYN: bronchi lobares [TA] . bronchi lobares [TA] SYN: lobar bronchi. mucoid impaction of b. plugging of the lumen of bronchi due to thickened mucus, interfering with ventilation of corresponding lung segments and leading to characteristic clustered linear and grapelike radiologic densities and occasionally atelectasis and pneumonia; characteristically seen in cystic fibrosis but it can occur in a variety of disease states. primary b. the main b. arising at the tracheal bifurcation and extending into the developing lung of the embryo. b. principalis dexter [TA] SYN: right main b.. b. principalis sinister [TA] SYN: left main b.. right main b. [TA] it arises at the bifurcation of the trachea and enters the hilum of the right lung, giving off the superior lobe b. and continuing downward to give off the middle and inferior lobe bronchi. It is shorter, of greater caliber, and more nearly vertical than the left main b., thus, aspirated objects more frequently lodge on the right side. SYN: b. principalis dexter [TA] . segmental b. [TA] one of the divisions of the lobar b. that supplies a bronchopulmonary segment. In the right lung there are commonly ten: in the superior lobe, the apical (B1) segmental b., b. segmentalis apicalis (BI) [TA]; posterior (B2) segmental b., b. segmentalis posterior (BII) [TA]; and anterior (B3) segmental b., b. segmentalis anterior (BIII) [TA]; in the middle lobe, lateral (B4) segmental b., b. segmentalis lateralis (BIV) [TA]; and medial (B5) segmental b., b. segmentalis medialis (BV) [TA]; in the inferior lobe, superior (B6) segmental b., b. segmentalis superior (BVI) [TA], medial basal (B7) segmental b., b. segmentalis basalis medialis (BVII) [TA]; anterior basal (B8) segmental b., b. segmentalis basalis anterior (BVIII) [TA]; lateral basal (B9) segmental b., b. segmentalis basalis lateralis (BIX) [TA]; and posterior basal (B10) segmental b., b. segmentalis basalis posterior (BX) [TA]. In the left lung there are commonly nine: in the superior lobe, the apicoposterior (B1+2) segmental b., b. segmentalis apicoposterior (BI+II) [TA]; anterior (B3) segmental b., b. segmentalis anterior (BIII) [TA]; superior lingular (B4) segmental b., b. lingularis superior (BIV) [TA]; and inferior lingular (B5) segmental b., b. lingularis inferior (BV) [NA]; in the inferior lobe, superior (B6) segmental b., b. segmentalis superior (BVI) [TA]; medial basal (B7) segmental b., b. segmentalis basalis medialis (cardiacus) (BVII) [TA], anterior basal (B8) segmental b., b. segmentalis basalis anterior (BVIII) [TA]; lateral basal (B9) segmental b., b. segmentalis basalis lateralis (BIX) [TA]; and posterior basal (B10) segmental b., b. segmentalis basalis posterior (BX) [TA]. SYN: b. segmentalis [TA] . b. segmentalis [TA] SYN: segmental b.. stem b. the main b. from which the branches of the bronchial tree arise.

Br&slash;onsted
Johannes N., Danish physical chemist, 1879–1947. See B. acid, B. base, B. theory.

brontophobia (bront-o-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of thunder. SYN: tonitrophobia. [G. bronte, thunder, + phobos, fear]

brood (brood)
1. SYN: litter (2) . 2. To ponder anxiously; to meditate morbidly.

Brooke
Henry A.G., English dermatologist, 1854–1919. See B. tumor.

Brooke
Bryan N., British surgeon, *1915. See B. ileostomy.

brotizolam (bro′tiz-o-lam)
A triazolo-benzodiazepine derivative with a sulfur and bromine atom in the molecule. Used as a sedative and hypnotic.

Broviac
J.W., 20th century U.S. surgeon. See B. catheter.

brow
1. The eyebrow. See eyebrow. 2. SYN: forehead. [A.S. bru]

Brown
Harold W., U.S. ophthalmologist, *1898. See B. syndrome.

Brown
James, U.S. plastic surgeon, 1899–1971. See B.-Adson forceps.

Brown
James H., U.S. microbiologist, *1884. See B.-Brenn stain.

Brown
Robert, English botanist, 1773–1858. See brownian motion, brownian movement, brownian-Zsigmondy movement.

Browne
Sir Denis John, British surgeon, *1892. See Denis B. pouch, Denis B. splint.

brownian (brown′e-an)
Relating to or described by Robert Brown.

Browning
William, U.S. anatomist and neurologist, 1855–1941. See B. vein.

Brown-Séquard
Charles E., French physiologist and neurologist, 1817–1894. See Brown-Séquard paralysis, Brown-Séquard syndrome.

Bruce
Sir David, British surgeon, 1855–1931. See Brucella, brucellosis.

Bruce
Robert A., U.S. cardiologist. See B. protocol.

Brucella (broo-sel′la)
A genus of encapsulated, nonmotile bacteria (family Brucellaceae) containing short, rod-shaped to coccoid, Gram-negative cells. These organisms do not produce gas from carbohydrates, are parasitic, invading all animal tissues and causing infection of the genital organs, the mammary gland, and the respiratory and intestinal tracts, and are pathogenic for humans and various species of domestic animals. The type species is B. melitensis. B. abortus a bacterial species that causes abortion in cows (bovine brucellosis), mares, and sheep, undulant fever in humans, and a wasting disease in chickens. SYN: abortus bacillus. B. canis a bacterial species causing epididymitis, brucellosis, and abortion in dogs; occasionally causes human disease. B. melitensis a bacterial species that causes brucellosis in humans, abortion in goats, and a wasting disease in chickens; it may infect cows and hogs and be excreted in their milk; it is the type species of the genus B.. B. suis a bacterial species causing abortion in swine, brucellosis in humans, and a wasting disease in chickens; may also infect horses, dogs, cows, monkeys, goats, and laboratory animals.

Brucellaceae (broo-sel-a′se-e)
A family of bacteria (order Eubacteriales) containing small, coccoid to rod-shaped, Gram-negative cells which occur singly, in pairs, in short chains, or in groups. The cells may or may not show bipolar staining. Motile and nonmotile species occur; motile cells are peritrichous. V (phosphopyridine nucleotide) and/or X (hemin) factors are sometimes required for growth. Blood serum may be required or may enhance growth. Increased carbon dioxide tension may also favor growth, especially on primary isolation. These organisms are parasites and pathogens that affect warm-blooded animals, including humans, rarely cold-blooded animals; formerly called Parvobacteriaceae; type genus is Brucella.

brucellergin (broo-sel′er-jin)
See brucellin.

brucellin (broo-sel′in)
A preparation of antigenic material from several species of Brucella; used in the diagnosis of brucellosis as a skin test similar to that used for tuberculosis.

brucellosis (broo-sel-o′sis)
An infectious disease caused by the bacterium Brucella, characterized by fever, sweating, weakness, aches, and pains, and transmitted to humans by direct contact with diseased animals or through ingestion of infected meat, milk, or cheese, and particularly hazardous to veterinarians, farmers, and slaughterhouse workers; although some crossing over by species may occur, Brucella melitensis, B. abortus, B. canis, and B. suis characteristically affect goats, cattle, dogs, and swine, respectively. SYN: febris undulans, Malta fever, Mediterranean fever (1) , undulant fever, undulating fever. bovine b. a disease in cattle caused by Brucella abortus; in pregnant cows, characterized by abortion late in pregnancy, followed by retained placenta and metritis; in bulls, orchitis and epididymitis may occur; the organism may localize in the udder and thus appear in milk from infected cows. SYN: Bang disease.

Bruch
Carl W.L., German anatomist, 1819–1884. See B. glands, under gland, B. membrane.

brucine (broo-sen, -in)
An alkaloid from Strychnos nux-vomica and S. ignatii (family Loganiaceae), that produces paralysis of sensory nerves and peripheral motor nerves; the convulsive action which is characteristic of strychnine is almost entirely absent; formerly used as a local anodyne and tonic. [fr. Brucea sp., a shrub, after James Bruce, Scottish explorer, &dag;1794]

Bruck
Alfred, German physician, *1865. See B. disease.

Brücke
Ernst W. von, Austrian physiologist, 1819–1892. See B. muscle, B. tunic, B.-Bartley phenomenon.

Brudzinski
Josef von, Polish physician, 1874–1917. See B. sign.

Brugia (broo′je-a)
A genus of filarial worms transmitted by mosquitoes to humans, primates, felid carnivores, and a number of other mammals. B. malayi the Malayan filaria species, an important agent of human filariasis and elephantiasis in Southeast Asia and Indonesia, transmitted to humans by species of Mansonia and Anopheles mosquitoes; adult parasites cause lymphangitis and lymphadenitis, but there is less involvement of the genital region and lower extremities, and a relatively greater incidence of disease in the upper extremities than with Wuchereria bancrofti infection. Formerly called Wuchereria malayi.

bruise (brooz)
An injury producing a hematoma or diffuse extravasation of blood without rupture of the skin. [M.E. bruisen, fr. O.Fr., fr. Germanic]

bruissement (brwes-mawhn′)
A purring auscultatory sound. [Fr.]

bruit (broo-e′)
A harsh or musical intermittent auscultatory sound, especially an abnormal one. [Fr.] aneurysmal b. blowing murmur heard over an aneurysm. carotid b. a systolic murmur heard in the neck but not at the aortic area; any b. produced by turbulent blood flow in a carotid artery. b. de canon the loud first heart sound heard intermittently in complete atrioventricular block and in interference-dissociation when the ventricles happen to contract shortly after the atria. SYN: cannon sound. b. de claquement (broo-e′ de klak-maw′) the sound of cardiac clicks. See click. b. de cuir neuf (broo-e′ de kwer nuf) the sound of new leather (also b. de craquement); a creaking pericardial friction sound heard mainly in chronic pericarditis. b. de diable SYN: venous hum. [Fr. humming-top] b. de frolement (broo-e′ de frol′maw) a rough, rustling sound made by a pleural or pericardial friction rub. [Fr. rustling] b. de galop SYN: gallop. [Fr.] b. de la roue de moulin gurgling or splashing mill-wheel sounds heard when both fluid and air are present in the pericardial sac. [Fr. mill] b. de lime introduced by R. Laënnec to describe a rough rasping murmur. [Fr. file] b. de rappel applied by J. B. Bouillaud to describe the cadence of a split-second heart sound, or of the second sound followed by an opening snap or early third heart sound. SYN: double-shock sound. [Fr. drum-beat] b. de Roger SYN: Roger murmur. b. de scie (broo-e′ de se) a harsh heart murmur heard in systole and diastole that produces a sound resembling that of a saw. [Fr. saw] b. de scie ou de rape introduced by R. Laënnec to describe harsh, rasping murmurs. [Fr. saw, rasp] b. de soufflet introduced by R. Laënnec to describe a blowing murmur. [Fr. bellows] b. de tabourka a loud tambourlike or bell-like second heart sound heard at the aortic area in syphilitic aortitis. [Fr. tambour] b. de tambour (broo-e′ de tam-bur′) reverberating, musical tone heard as the second heart sound over the aortic area, associated with past syphilitic aortic valvular disease. SYN: tambour sound. [Fr. sound of drum] b. de triolet introduced by L. Gallavardin to describe the triple cadence produced by a systolic click added to the first and second heart sounds. [Fr. a little trio] Roger b. (broo-e′) SYN: Roger murmur. systolic b. any abnormal sound or any murmur heard during systole. thyroid b. vascular murmur heard over hyperactive thyroid gland, due to increased blood flow. Traube b. SYN: gallop.

Brunn
Fritz, 20th century Czechoslovakian physician. See B. reaction.

Brunn
Albert von, German anatomist, 1849–1895. See B. membrane, B. nest.

Brunner
Johann C., Swiss anatomist, 1653–1727. See B. glands, under gland.

Bruns
Ludwig von, German neurologist, 1858–1916. See B. ataxia, B. nystagmus.

Brunschwig
Alexander, U.S. surgeon, 1901–1969. See B. operation.

brush (brush)
An instrument made of some flexible material, such as bristles, attached to a handle or to the tip of a catheter. [A.S. byrst, bristle] Ayre b. a device, consisting of a long flexible tube with a b. at the distal end, for collecting gastric mucosal cells in cancer detection studies; after positioning in the stomach the b. is rotated and “sweeps” cells from the mucosa. bronchoscopic b. a small b. for insertion through a bronchoscope to wipe off cells for microscopic identification in suspected bronchial carcinoma and in obtaining microbiologic material for staining and culture. denture b. a b. used to clean removable dentures. Haidinger brushes the perception of two dark yellowish brushes or sheaves radiating about 5 degrees from the point of fixation when an evenly illuminated surface, such as the blue sky, is viewed through a polarizing lens. Kruse b. a bunch of fine platinum wires attached to a holder; used in bacteriological work to spread material over the surface of a culture medium. polishing b. a b. usually mounted in a rotating instrument, used to polish teeth or artificial replacements.

Brushfield
Thomas, British physician, 1858–1937. See B. spots, under spot, B.-Wyatt disease.

brushite (brush′it)
A naturally occurring acid calcium phosphate occasionally found in dental calculus and renal calculi.

Bruton
Ogden C., American pediatrician, *1908. See B. agammaglobulinemia.

bruxism (bruk′sizm)
A clenching of the teeth, associated with forceful lateral or protrusive jaw movements, resulting in rubbing, gritting, or grinding together of the teeth, usually during sleep; sometimes a pathologic condition. [G. brucho, to grind the teeth]

Bryant
Sir Thomas, English surgeon, 1828–1914. See B. traction.

BSA
Abbreviation for bovine serum albumin.




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