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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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BSE
Abbreviation for bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

BSER
Abbreviation for brainstem evoked response. See auditory brainstem response.

Bt2cAMP
N6,O2′-dibutyryladenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate, a dibutyryl derivative of cAMP.

BTPS
Symbol indicating that a gas volume has been expressed as if it were saturated with water vapor at body temperature (37°C) and at the ambient barometric pressure; used for measurements of lung volumes.

BTU
Abbreviation for British thermal unit.

BTX
Abbreviation for brevetoxins.

buaki (boo-ak′e)
A nutritional (protein deficiency) disease observed in natives of the Congo and characterized by edema, skin lesions, and anemia; possibly related to kwashiorkor.

buba madre (boo′ba mah′dre)
SYN: mother yaw.

bubas (boo′bahs)
SYN: mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. b. braziliana SYN: espundia.

bubo (boo′bo)
Inflammatory swelling of one or more lymph nodes, usually in the groin; the confluent mass of nodes usually suppurates and drains pus. [G. boubon, the groin, a swelling in the groin] bullet b. a hard, painless swelling of a gland in the groin, accompanying a chancre. chancroidal b. an ulcerating b., due to Haemophilus ducreyi. SYN: virulent b.. indolent b. an indurated enlargement of an inguinal node. malignant b. the enlarged lymph node associated with bubonic plague. parotid b. a swelling of the parotid gland due to secondary septic infection. primary b. a b. occurring as the first sign of venereal infection. tropical b. SYN: venereal lymphogranuloma. venereal b. an enlarged gland in the groin associated with any sexually transmitted disease, especially chancroid. virulent b. SYN: chancroidal b..

bubonalgia (boo′bon-al′je-a)
Rarely used term for pain in the groin. [G. boubon, groin, + algos, pain]

bubonic (boo-bon′ik)
Relating in any way to a bubo.

bubonulus (boo-bon′u-lus)
1. An abscess occurring along the course of a lymphatic vessel. 2. One of a number of hard nodules, often breaking down into ulcers, which form along the course of acutely inflamed lymphatic vessels of the dorsum of the penis. [Mod. L. dim. of bubo]

bucardia (bu-kar′de-a)
SYN: ox heart. [G. bous, ox, + kardia, heart]

bucca, gen. and pl. buccae (buk′a, buk′se)
SYN: cheek. [L.]

buccal (buk′al)
Pertaining to, adjacent to, or in the direction of the cheek.

buccinator
See b. (muscle).

bucco-
Cheek. [L. bucca]

buccoaxial (buk-o-ak′se-al)
Referring to the line angle formed by the buccal and axial walls of a cavity.

buccoaxiocervical (buk′o-ak′se-o-ser′vi-kal)
Referring to the point angle formed by the junction of the buccal, axial, and cervical (gingival) walls of a cavity.

buccoaxiogingival (buk′o-ak′se-o-jin′ji-val)
Referring to the point angle formed by the junction of a buccal, axial, and gingival (cervical) wall.

buccocervical (buk-o-ser′vi-kal)
1. Relating to the cheek and the neck. 2. In dental anatomy, referring to that portion of the buccal surface of a bicuspid or molar tooth adjacent to its cemento-enamel junction.

buccoclusal (buk-o-kloo′sal)
Incorrect term referring to the line angle formed by the junction of a buccal and pulpal wall. See buccopulpal.

buccodistal (buk-o-dis′tal)
Referring to the line angle formed by the junction of a buccal and distal wall of a cavity.

buccogingival (buk-o-jin′ji-val)
Relating to the cheek and the gum.

buccolabial (buk-o-la′be-al)
1. Relating to both cheek and lip. 2. In dentistry, referring to that aspect of the dental arch or those surfaces of the teeth in contact with the mucosa of lip and cheek.

buccolingual (buk-o-ling′wal)
1. Pertaining to the cheek and the tongue. 2. In dentistry, referring to that aspect of the dental arch or those surfaces of the teeth in contact with the mucosa of the lip or cheek and the tongue.

buccomesial (buk-o-me′ze-al)
Referring to the line angle formed by the junction of a buccal and mesial wall of a cavity.

buccopharyngeal (buk′o-fa-rin′je-al)
Relating to both cheek or mouth and pharynx.

buccopulpal (buk-o-pul′pal)
Referring to the line angle formed by the junction of a buccal and pulpal wall of a cavity.

buccoversion (buk′o-ver-zhun)
Malposition of a posterior tooth from the normal line of occlusion toward the cheek.

buccula (buk′u-la)
A fatty puffing under the chin. SYN: double chin. [L. dim. of bucca, cheek]

Büchner
Eduard, German chemist and Nobel laureate, 1860–1917. See B. extract, B. funnel.

Büchner
Hans E.A., German bacteriologist, 1850–1902. See B. extract.

buchu (boo′koo)
The dried leaves of Barosma betulina, B. crenulata, or B. serratifolia (family Rutaceae), a shrub growing in South Africa; used as a carminative, diuretic, and urinary antiseptic. SYN: Hottentot tea. [native]

Buchwald
Hermann Edmund, German physician, *1903. See B. atrophy.

Buck
Gordon, U.S. surgeon, 1807–1877. See B. extension, B. fascia, B. traction.

buckbean
The leaves of Menyanthes trifoliata (family Gentianaceae); credited with emmenagogue, antiscorbutic, and simple bitter properties. SYN: bogbean, menyanthes.

Bücklers
Max, German ophthalmologist, 1895–1969. See Reis-B. corneal dystrophy.

buckthorn (buk′thorn)
SYN: Rhamnus.

Bucky
Gustav, U.S. radiologist, 1880–1963. See B. diaphragm.

buclizine hydrochloride (bu′kli-zen)
A mild sedative used for motion sickness, vertigo, and anxiety accompanying psychosomatic disorders.

buclosamide (buk-lo′sa-mid)
A topical antifungal agent.

bucrylate (bu′kri-lat)
A tissue adhesive used in surgery.

Bucy
Paul C., U.S. neurosurgeon, 1904–1992. See Klüver-B. syndrome.

bud (bud)
1. An outgrowth that resembles the b. of a plant, usually pluripotential, and capable of differentiating and growing into a definitive structure. 2. To give rise to such an outgrowth. SEE ALSO: gemmation. 3. A small outgrowth from a parent cell; a form of asexual reproduction. bronchial b. one of the outgrowths from the primordial endodermal laryngotracheal tube giving rise to the primary bronchi. See laryngotracheal diverticulum. end b. SYN: tail b.. gustatory b. SYN: taste b.. limb b. an ectodermally covered mesenchymal outgrowth on the embryonic flank giving rise to either the forelimb or hindlimb. liver b. the primordial cellular diverticulum of the embryonic foregut endoderm that gives rise to the parenchyma of the liver. lung b. SYN: tracheobronchial diverticulum. median tongue b. SYN: tuberculum impar. metanephric b. the primordial cellular outgrowth from the mesonephric duct that gives rise to the epithelial lining of the ureter, of the pelvis, and calyces of the kidney, and of the straight collecting tubules. SYN: ureteric b.. periosteal b. a vascular connective tissue b. from the perichondrium that invades the ossification center of the cartilaginous model of a developing long bone. syncytial b. SYN: syncytial knot. tail b. the rapidly proliferating mass of cells at the caudal extremity of the embryo; remnant of the primitive node. SYN: end b.. taste b. one of a number of flask-shaped cell nests located in the epithelium of vallate, fungiform, and foliate papillae of the tongue and also in the soft palate, epiglottis, and posterior wall of the pharynx; it consists of sustentacular, gustatory, and basal cells between which the intragemmal sensory nerve fibers terminate. SYN: caliculus gustatorius, gustatory b., Schwalbe corpuscle, taste bulb, taste corpuscle. tooth b. the primordial structures from which a tooth is formed; the enamel organ, the dental papilla, and the dental sac enclosing them. ureteric b. SYN: metanephric b.. vascular b. an endothelial sprout arising from a blood vessel.

Budd
George, English physician, 1808–1882. See B. syndrome, B.-Chiari syndrome.

Budde
E., Danish sanitary engineer, *1871. See B. process.

budding (bud′ing)
SYN: gemmation.

Budge
Julius L., German physiologist, 1811–1888. See B. center.

Budin
Pierre C., French gynecologist, 1846–1907. See B. obstetrical joint.

Buerger
Leo, Austrian-U.S. physician, 1879–1943. See Winiwarter-B. disease, B. disease.

bufa-, bufo-
Combining forms denoting origin from toads; used in the systematic and trivial names of toxic substances (genins) isolated from plants and animals containing the bufanolide structure; prefixes denoting species origin are often attached. [L. bufo, toad]

bufadienolide (boo-fa-di-en′o-lid)
See bufanolide.

bufagenins (boo′fa-jen-inz)
SYN: bufagins.

bufagins (boo′fa-jinz)
A group of steroids (bufanolides) in the venom of a family of toads (Bufonidae) having a digitalislike action upon the heart; cardiac glycosides having a six-membered lactone. SEE ALSO: bufotoxins. SYN: bufagenins, bufogenins.

bufanolide (boo-fan′o-lid)
The fundamental steroid lactone of several vegetable ( e.g., squill) and animal ( e.g., toad) venoms or toxins; also found in the form of glycosides in plants ( e.g., digitalis). The steroid is essentially a 5β-androstane, with a 14β H. The lactone at C-17 is structurally related to the &cbond;CH(CH3)CH2CH2CH3 radical attached to C-17 in the cholanes, and is in the same configuration as that of cholesterol ( i.e., 20R); in some species, b. is formed from cholesterol. Various b. derivatives having unsaturation in the lactone ring (20, 22) or elsewhere (4) are known as bufenolides (one double bond), bufadienolides (two double bonds), bufatrienolides (three double bonds), etc; they have varying numbers of hydroxyl groups at positions 3, 5, 14, and 16, and these may be further substituted. For structure, see steroids.

bufatrienolide (boo-fa-tri-en′o-lid)
See bufanolide.

bufenolide (boo-fen′o-lid)
See bufanolide.

buffer (buf′er)
1. A mixture of an acid and its conjugate base (salt), such as H2CO3/HCO3−; H2PO4−/HPO42−, that, when present in a solution, reduces any changes in pH that would otherwise occur in the solution when acid or alkali is added to it; thus, the pH of the blood and body fluids is maintained relatively constant (pH 7.45) although acid metabolites are continually being formed in the tissues and CO2 is lost in the lungs. SEE ALSO: conjugate acid-base pair. 2. To add a b. to a solution and thus give it the property of resisting a change in pH when it receives a limited amount of acid or alkali. dipolar b. SYN: zwitterionic b.. zwitterionic b. b. whose structure can include opposite charges. SYN: dipolar b..

bufo-
See bufa-.

bufogenins (boo-fo-jen-inz)
SYN: bufagins.

Bufonidae (boo-fon′i-de)
A family of toads whose dermal glands secrete several kinds of pharmacologically active substances having a cardiac action similar to that of digitalis. [L. bufo, toad]

buformin (boo-for′min)
An oral hypoglycemic agent similar to metformin.

bufotenine (boo-fo-ten′en)
A psychotomimetic agent isolated from the venom of certain toads (family Bufonidae) and also present in several plants and one of the active principles of cohoba; raises the blood pressure by a vasoconstrictor action and produces psychic effects including hallucinations. SYN: mappine.

bufotoxins (boo-fo-toks′inz)
1. A group of steroid lactones (conjugates of bufagins and suberylarginine at C-3) of digitalis present in the venoms of toads (family Bufonidae); their effects are similar to but weaker than those of the bufagins. 2. Specifically, the main toxin of the European toad (Bufo vulgaris).

bug
An insect belonging to the suborder Heteroptera. For organisms so called, see the specific term. assassin b. an insect of the family Reduviidae (order Hemiptera) that inflicts irritating, painful bites in animals and humans; related to the cone-nosed bugs (triatomines), a vector of American trypanosomiasis. [Fr., fr. It. assassino, fr. Ar. hashshashin, those addicted to hashish]

buggery (bug′ger-e)
SYN: sodomy. [O.F. bougre, heretic, fr. Med. L. Bulgaris, a Bulgar (hence a heretic)]




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