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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


c
Abbreviation or symbol for:
  • centi-
  • small calorie
  • canine
  • cathode
  • centimeter
  • centum
  • concentration
  • speed of light in a vacuum
  • circumference
  • closure
  • cobalt
  • coefficient
  • contact
  • contraction
  • coulomb (unit of electric measuremenet)
  • curie (unit of radiation measuremenet)
  • cylinder
c
As a subscript, refers to blood capillary.

c
Abbreviation for Latin "cum" = with — used in writing prescriptions.

C
Abbreviation or symbol for
  • large calorie
  • carbon
  • cathodal
  • cathode
  • Celsius
  • cervical vertebra (used especially with a number from 1 to 7 to indicate a vertebra or segment of the spinal cord: C1–C7)
  • closure (of an electrical circuit)
  • cocaine
  • complement
  • congius (gallon)
  • contraction
  • coulomb
  • curie
  • cylinder
  • cylindrical lens
  • cytidine
  • cysteine
  • cytosine
  • component of complement (C1–C9)
  • third substrate in a multisubstrate enzyme-catalyzed reaction. 2. When followed by subscript letters, e.g., Cin, indicates renal clearance of a substance ( e.g., inulin). When followed by subscript numbers, e.g., C19, indicates the number of carbon atoms in a molecule, e.g., 19.
11C
Symbol for carbon-11.

12C
Symbol for carbon-12, the most common form of carbon.

13C
Symbol for carbon-13.

14C
Symbol for carbon-14.

C1
The first vertebra of the spine.

C2
The 2nd vertebra of the spine.

C3
The 3rd vertebra of the spine.

C4
The 4th vertebra of the spine.

C5
The 5th vertebra of the spine.

C6
The 6th vertebra of the spine.

C7
The 7th vertebra of the spine.

C gene
A gene that codes genetic information for the constant region of an immunoglobulin — compare to V gene.

C-peptide
A protein fragment 35 amino acid residues long produced by enzymatic cleavage of proinsulin in the formation of insulin.

C-reactive protein
A protein produced by the liver that is normally present in trace amounts in the blood serum but is elevated during episodes of acute inflammation (as those associated with neoplastic disease, chronic infection, or coronary artery disease)

C-section
Cesarean section.

CA
Abbreviation for cancer; q; cardiac arrest; chronologic age; cytosine arabinoside.

CA19-9
Carbohydrate antigen 19-9, also called cancer antigen 19-9 or sialylated Lewis (a) antigen, is a tumor marker that is used primarily in the management of pancreatic cancer.

CA-125
Or CA125: Abbreviation for cancer antigen 125 test.

Ca
1. Abbreviation for cathode. 2. Symbol for calcium.

45Ca
Symbol for calcium-45.

47Ca
Symbol for calcium-47.

ca.
Abbreviation for L. circa (about, approximately).

caapi (ka′pe)
A hallucinogenic preparation obtained from Banisteria c. (family Malpighaceae), a South American jungle vine; contains harmine and other psychotomimetic principles. SYN: ayahuasca.

cabbage tree (kab′ij tre)
SYN: andira.

Cabot
Richard C., U.S. physician, 1868–1939. See C. ring bodies, under body, C.-Locke murmur.

cac-
See caco-.

cacao (ka-ka′o)
Prepared c., or cocoa, a powder prepared from the roasted cured kernels of the ripe seed of Theobroma c. Linné (family Sterculiaceae); the tree yields a fat, theobroma oil. SYN: theobroma. [native Mexican origin] c. oil SYN: theobroma oil.

CaCC
Abbreviation for cathodal closure contraction.

Cacchione
Aldo, 20th century Italian psychiatrist. See De Sanctis-C. syndrome.

cachectic (ka-kek′tik)
Relating to or suffering from cachexia.

cachectin (ka-kek′tin)
A polypeptide cytokine, produced by endotoxin-activated macrophages, which has the ability to modulate adipocyte metabolism, lyse tumor cells in vitro, and induce hemorrhagic necrosis of certain transplantable tumors in vivo. SYN: tumor necrosis factor. [G. kakos, bad, + hexis, condition of body]

cachet (ka-sha′)
A seal-shaped capsule or wafer made of flour for enclosing powders of disagreeable taste. The sealed dosage form is wetted and swallowed. [Fr. a seal]

cachexia (ka-kek′se-a)
A general weight loss and wasting occurring in the course of a chronic disease or emotional disturbance. [G. kakos, bad, + hexis, condition of body]
  • c. aphthosa SYN: sprue (1) .
  • c. aquosa an edematous form of ancylostomiasis.
  • diabetic neuropathic c. a clinical syndrome seen almost exclusively in elderly diabetic males, consisting of the rather sudden onset of severe limb pain, marked weight loss, depression, and impotence. These patients appear to have a combination of a severe diabetic polyneuropathy, diffuse bilateral diabetic polyradiculopathy, and diabetic autonomic neuropathy.
  • hypophyseal c. SYN: panhypopituitarism.
  • c. hypophyseopriva a condition following total removal of the hypophysis cerebri resulting in panhypopituitarism marked by a fall of body temperature, electrolyte imbalance, and hypoglycemia, followed by coma and death.
  • hypophysial c. SYN: panhypopituitarism.
  • malarial c. SYN: chronic malaria.
  • pituitary c. SYN: Sheehan syndrome.
  • c. strumipriva SYN: c. thyropriva.
  • c. thyroidea SYN: c. thyropriva.
  • c. thyropriva signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism (with or without myxedema) resulting from the loss of thyroid tissue, either from surgery, radiotherapy, or disease. SYN: c. strumipriva, c. thyroidea.
cachinnation (kak-i-na′shun)
Laughter without apparent cause, often observed in schizophrenia. [L. cachinno, to laugh immoderately and loudly]

caco-, caci-, cac-
Bad; ill. Cf.:mal-. [G. kakos]

cacodyl (kak′o-dil)
An oil resulting from the distillation together of arsenous acid and potassium acetate. SYN: dicacodyl, tetramethyldiarsine. [G. kakodes, foul-smelling]

cacodylate (kak′o-dil-at)
A salt or ester of cacodylic acid. See cacodylic acid.

cacodylic (kak-o-dil′ik)
Relating to cacodyl; denoting especially c. acid.

cacodylic acid
Prepared by treating cacodyl and cacodyl oxide with mercuric oxide, and forms cacodylates with various bases that were used in skin diseases, tuberculosis, malaria, and other affections in which arsenic was considered of value. SYN: dimethylarsinic acid.

cacogeusia (kak-o-goo′se-a)
A bad taste due to a bad-tasting substance, uncinate epilepsy, or a delusion. SEE ALSO: dysgeusia. [caco- + G. geusis, taste]

cacomelia (kak-o-me′le-a)
Congenital deformity of one or more limbs. [caco- + G. melos, limb]

cacoplastic (kak-o-plas′tik)
1. Relating to or causing abnormal growth. 2. Incapable of normal or perfect formation. [caco- + G. plastikos, formed]

cacosmia (ka-koz′me-a)
A bad smell due to a bad smelling substance, uncinate epilepsy, or a delusion. See dysosmia. [G. kakosmia, a bad smell, fr. kakos, bad, + osme, the sense of smell]

cactinomycin (kak′ti-no-mi′sin)
Produced by Streptomyces chrysomallus. A mixture of actinomycins C1 (dactinomycin), C2, and C3 used as an antineoplastic, immunosuppressive agent. SEE ALSO: actinomycin. SYN: actinomycin C.

cacumen, pl .cacumina (kak-u′men, -mi-na)
The top or apex of a plant or an anatomic structure. [L. summit]

cacuminal (kak-u′mi-nal)
Relating to a top or apex, particularly of a plant or anatomical structure.

cadaver (ka-dav′er)
A dead body. SYN: corpse. [L. fr. cado, to fall]

cadaveric (ka-dav′er-ik)
Relating to a dead body.

cadaverine (ka-dav′er-in)
1,5-Pentanediamine; 1,5-diaminopentane;a foul-smelling diamine formed by bacterial decarboxylation of lysine; poisonous and irritating to the skin; found in decaying meat and fish.

cadaverous (ka-dav′er-us)
Having the pallor and appearance resembling a corpse.

cade oil (kad)
SYN: juniper tar.

cadherin (kad-her′-in)
One of a class of integral-membrane glycoproteins that has a role in cell-cell adhesion and is important in morphogenesis and differentiation; E-c. is also known as uvomorulin and is concentrated in the belt desmosome in epithelial cells; N-c. is found in nerve, muscle, and lens cells helps maintain the integrity of neuronal aggregates; P-c. is expressed in placental and epidermal cells. [cell + adhere + -in]

cadmium (Cd) (kad′me-um)
A metallic element, atomic no. 48, atomic wt. 112.411; its salts are poisonous and little used in medicine. Various compounds of c. are used commercially in metallurgy, photography, electrochemistry, etc.; a few have been used as ascaricides, antiseptics, and fungicides. [L. cadmia, fr. G. kadmeia or kadmia, an ore of zinc, calamine]

caduca (ka-doo′ka)
SYN: deciduous membrane. [L. fem. of caducus, fallen, falling]

caduceus (ka-doo′se-us)
A staff with two oppositely twined serpents and surmounted by two wings; emblem of the U.S. Army Medical Corps. For veterinary medicine the double serpent was changed in 1972 to its present form with a single serpent. SEE ALSO: staff of Aesculapius. [L. the staff of Mercury; G. keryx herald, the staff of Hermes]

cae-
For words so beginning, see under ce-.

caecum
SYN: cecum.

caffearine (kaf′e-a-rin)
SYN: trigonelline.

caffeine (kaf′en)
An alkaloid obtained from the dried leaves of Thea sinensis, tea, or the dried seeds of Coffea arabica, coffee; used as a central nervous system stimulant, diuretic, circulatory and respiratory stimulant, and as an adjunct in the treatment of headaches. SYN: guaranine, thein.
  • c. citrate citrated c., a mixture of equal parts of c. and citric acid; more water soluble than c.
  • c. hydrate monohydrate of c., a central nervous system stimulant.
  • c. and sodium salicylate a mixture of sodium salicylate and c. formerly used for the relief of headache and neuralgia.
caffeinism (kaf′en-izm)
Caffeine intoxication characterized by restlessness, tremulousness, nervousness, excitement, insomnia, flushed face, diuresis, and gastrointestinal complaints, brought on by the ingestion of excess substances containing caffeine.

Caffey
John Patrick, U.S. physician, radiologist, and pediatrician, the “the father of pediatric radiology”, 1895–1978. See C. disease, C. syndrome, C.-Kempe syndrome, C.-Silverman syndrome.

cage (kaj)
1. An enclosure made partly or completely of open work and commonly used to house animals. 2. A structure resembling such an enclosure. [M.E., fr. O.Fr., fr. L. cavea, hollow, stall] thoracic c. [TA] the skeleton of the thorax consisting of the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, and sternum. SYN: cavea thoracis [TA] , compages thoracis.

Cajal, Ramón y Cajal
Santiago, Spanish histologist and 1906 Nobel laureate, 1852–1934. See C. cell, horizontal cell of C., C. astrocyte stain, interstitial nucleus of C..

cajeput oil, cajuput oil (kaj′e-put, -u-put)
A volatile oil distilled from the fresh leaves of Cajuputi viridiflora, a tree of tropical Asia and Australia; a stimulant, counterirritant, and expectorant.

cajeputol, cajuputol (kaj′e-pu-tol, -u-pu-tol)
SYN: cineole.

Cal
Abbreviation for large calorie.

cal
Abbreviation for small calorie.

Calabar bean (kal′a-bar ben)
SYN: physostigma.

calamine (kal′a-min)
Zinc oxide with a small amount of ferric oxide or basic zinc carbonate suitably colored with ferric oxide; used in dusting powders, lotions, and ointments, as a mild astringent and protective agent for skin disorders. [Mediev. L. calamina, fr. L. cadmia, fr. G. kadmia, Theban (earth), fr. Kadmos, founder of Thebes]

calamus (kal′a-mus)
1. The dried, unpeeled rhizome of Acorus c. (family Araceae), cultivated in Myanmar and Sri Lanka, a carminative and anthelminthic. 2. A reed-shaped structure. [L. reed, a pen] c. scriptorius inferior part of the rhomboid fossa; the narrow lower end of the fourth ventricle between the two clavae. SYN: Arantius ventricle. [L. writing pen]

calcaneal, calcanean (kal-ka′ne-al, kal-ka′ne-an)
Relating to the calcaneus or heel bone.

calcaneo-
The calcaneus. [L. calcaneum, heel]

calcaneoapophysitis (kal-ka′ne-o-a-pof-i-si′tis)
Inflammation at the posterior part of the os calcis, at the insertion of the Achilles tendon.

calcaneoastragaloid (kal-ka′ne-o-as-trag′a-loyd)
Relating to the calcaneus, or os calcis, and the talus, or astragalus.

calcaneocavus (kal-ka′ne-o-ka′vus)
Combination of talipes calcaneus and talipes cavus.

calcaneocuboid (kal-ka′ne-o-ku′boyd)
Relating to the calcaneus and the cuboid bone.

calcaneodynia (kal-ka′ne-o-din′e-a)
SYN: painful heel. [calcaneo- + G. odyne, pain]

calcaneonavicular (kal-ka′ne-o-na-vik′u-lar)
Relating to the calcaneus and the navicular bone. SYN: calcaneoscaphoid.




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