|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
calf, pl .calves (kaf, kavz)
A young bovine animal, male or female. [Gael. kalpa]
1. SYN: fibula. 2. Bone from a calf (young cow) used in orthopedic reconstruction.
The diameter of a hollow tubular structure. [Fr. calibre, of uncert. etym.]
1. To graduate or standardize any measuring instrument. 2. To measure the diameter of a tubular structure.
The act of standardizing or calibrating an instrument or laboratory procedure.
calibrator (kal′i-bra-ter, -tor)
A standard or reference material or substance used to standardize or calibrate an instrument or laboratory procedure.
Relating to the calix. SYN: calyceal.
SYN: caliectasis. [calix + G. ektasis, dilation]
SYN: calicotomy. [calix, + G. ektome, excision]
Plural of calix.
Shaped like a cup or goblet. SYN: calyciform. [L. calix + forma, form]
Of the nature of, or resembling a calix. SYN: calycine.
A family of naked icosahedral single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses 30–38 mm in diameter associated with epidemic viral gastroenteritis and certain forms of hepatitis in humans.
A genus in the family Caliciviridae that is associated with gastroenteritis. See hepatitis E virus, Norwalk agent. [G. kalyx, cup, + virus]
SYN: calioplasty. [calix, + G. plastos, formed]
Incision into a calix, usually for removal of a calculus. SYN: calicectomy, caliotomy. [calix, + G. tome, a cutting]
caliculus, pl .caliculi (ka-lik′u-lus, li)
A bud-shaped or cup-shaped structure, resembling the closed calyx of a flower. SYN: calycle, calyculus. [L. dim. from G. kalyx, the cup of a flower] c. gustatorius SYN: taste bud. c. ophthalmicus SYN: optic cup.
Dilation of the calices, usually due to obstruction or infection. SYN: calicectasis, pyelocaliectasis.
californium (Cf) (kal-i-for′ne-um)
An artificial transuranium element, symbol Cf, atomic no. 98, atomic wt. 251.08; half-life of 251Cf (the most stable known isotope) is 900 years. [California, state and university where first prepared]
Surgical reconstruction of a calix, usually designed to increase its lumen at the infundibulum. SYN: calicoplasty.
1. Suturing of a calix. 2. Plastic surgery of a dilated or obstructed calix to improve urinary drainage, often requiring combination of two or more calices or the massive movement of renal pelvic mucosa to rebuild the caliceal drainage system. [calix, + G. rhaphe, suture, seam]
An instrument used for measuring diameters. [a corruption of caliber]
Systematic practice of various exercises with the object of preserving health and increasing physical strength. [G. kalos, beautiful, + sthenos, strength]
calix, pl .calices (ka′liks, kal′i-sez)
A flower-shaped or funnel-shaped structure; specifically one of the branches or recesses of the pelvis of the kidney into which the orifices of the malpighian renal pyramids project. SYN: calyx. [L. fr. G. kalyx, the cup of a flower] major calices the primary subdivisions of the renal pelvis, usually two or three in number. SYN: calices renales majores. minor calices the subdivisions of the major calices, varying in number from 7–13, which receive the renal papillae. SYN: calices renales minores. calices renales majores SYN: major calices. calices renales minores SYN: minor calices.
Leroy Adelbert, U.S. obstetrician-gynecologist, 1894–1960. See C. sign.
Friedrich von, Austrian physician, 1844–1917. See C.-Exner bodies, under body.
John R., U.S. endodontist, 1853–1918. See C. method.
Latimer, San Francisco surgeon, 1892–1947. See C. amputation.
Calleja, Calleja y Sanchez
Camilo, Spanish anatomist, &dag;1913. See islands of C., under island.
A genus of blowflies (family Calliphoridae, order Diptera), the bluebottle flies, the larvae of which feed on dead flesh. C. vomitoria and C. vicina are common species in the U.S. [G. kalli, beauty, + phoros, bearing]
James S., U.S. physician, *1873. See C. fluid.
Former name for Cochliomyia.
Relating to the corpus callosum.
A linear 1,3-β-d-glucan formed by certain enzymes from UDP-glucose, differing from cellulose (a β-1,4-glucan formed from GDP-glucose) and starch amylose (an α-1,4-glucan formed from ADP-glucose). Found in certain plant cell walls.
A circumscribed thickening of the keratin layer of the epidermis as a result of repeated friction or intermittent pressure. SYN: callus (1) , keratoma (1) , poroma (1) . [L. fr. callosus, thick-skinned]
Relating to the corpus callosum and the cingulate gyrus; denoting the sulcus between them. SEE ALSO: sulcus of corpus callosum.
Relating to a callus or callosity.
1. SYN: callosity. 2. A composite mass of tissue that forms at a fracture site to establish continuity between the bone ends; it is composed initially of uncallused fibrous tissue and cartilage, and ultimately of bone. [L. hard skin] central c. the c. within the medullary cavity of a fractured bone. SYN: medullary c.. definitive c. the c. which has become converted into osseous tissue. SYN: permanent c.. ensheathing c. the mass of c. around the outside of the fractured bone. medullary c. SYN: central c.. permanent c. SYN: definitive c.. provisional c. the c. that develops to keep the ends of the fractured bone in apposition; it is absorbed after union is complete. SYN: temporary c.. temporary c. SYN: provisional c..
Calming, quieting; allaying excitement; denoting such an agent.
Leon A., French bacteriologist, 1863–1933. See bacille C.-Guérin, bacillus C.-Guérin vaccine, C. test, C.-Guérin bacillus, C.-Guérin vaccine.
A small, ubiquitous eukaryotic protein that binds calcium ions, thereby becoming the agent for many of the cellular effects long ascribed to calcium ions. This calcium-protein complex binds to the apoenzyme, to form the holoenzyme, of certain phosphodiesterases; through these, or other as yet unknown mechanisms, the complex regulates adenylate and guanylate cyclases, many kinases, phospholipase A2 activity, and other basic cellular functions. [calcium + modulate]
One of three trichurid nematode genera, commonly referred to as Capillaria.
Mild mercury chloride; mercury monochloride, protochloride, or subchloride; has been used as an intestinal antiseptic and laxative; replaced by safer agents. SYN: mercurous chloride, sweet precipitate. [Mediev. L., fr. G. kalos, beautiful, + melas, black] vegetable c. SYN: podophyllum.
Heat, as one of the four signs of inflammation (c., rubor, tumor, dolor) enunciated by Celsus. [L.]
Luigi, Italian anatomist, 1807–1896. See C. bursa.
1. Relating to a calorie. 2. Relating to heat. [L. calor, heat] c. intake the total number of calories in a daily diet allocation.
A unit of heat content or energy. The amount of heat necessary to raise 1 g of water from 14.5–15.5°C (small c.). C. is being replaced by joule, the SI unit equal to 0.239 c.. SEE ALSO: British thermal unit. SYN: calory. [L. calor, heat] gram c. SYN: small c.. kilogram c. (kcal) SYN: large c.. large c. (Cal, C) the quantity of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1°C (more precisely from 14.5°–15.5°C); it is 1000 times the value of the small c.; used in measurements of the heat production of chemical reactions, including those involved in biology. SYN: kilocalorie, kilogram c.. mean c. one hundredth of the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water from 0–100°C. small c. (cal, c) the quantity of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1°C, or from 14.5–15.5°C in the case of normal or standard c.. SYN: gram c..
Producing heat. [L. calor, heat]
1. Capable of generating heat. 2. Stimulating metabolic production of heat. SYN: thermogenetic (2) , thermogenic. [L. calor, heat, + G. genesis, production]
An apparatus for measuring the amount of heat liberated in a chemical reaction. [L. calor, heat, + G. metron, measure] Benedict-Roth c. Benedict-Roth apparatus. bomb c. an instrument for determining the potential energy of organic substances, including those in foods. It consists of a hollow steel container, lined with platinum and filled with pure oxygen, into which a weighed quantity of substance is placed and ignited with an electric fuse; the heat produced is absorbed by water surrounding the bomb and, from the rise in temperature, the calories liberated are calculated.
Relating to calorimetry.
Measurement of the amount of heat given off by a reaction or group of reactions (as by an organism). direct c. measurement of the heat produced by a reaction, as distinguished from indirect methods, which involve measurement of something other than heat production itself. indirect c. determination of heat production of an oxidation reaction by measuring uptake of oxygen and/or liberation of carbon dioxide and nitrogen excretion and then calculating the amount of heat produced.
Relating to thermotropism.
Jean-François, French surgeon, 1861–1944. See C. triangle.
Calcium-dependent thiol proteinases. These are cytoplasmic mammalian enzymes. [calcium + suffix -pain, protease, fr. papain]
A calcium-binding protein found in the interior of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscles. It releases calcium ions at calcium channels. [calcium + sequester + -in]
The dried root of Jateorrhiza palmata (family Menispermaceae), a tall climbing vine of east Africa; used as a bitter tonic.
An amaroid from calumba that accounts for the bitterness of the crude drug.
An antineoplastic agent.
calvaria, pl .calvariae (kal-va′re-a, -va′re-e) [TA]
The upper domelike portion of the skull. SYN: roof of skull, skullcap. [L. a skull]
Relating to the skullcap.
Incorrectly used for calvaria.
Jacques, French orthopedic surgeon, 1875–1954. See Calvé-Perthes disease, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.
SYN: alopecia. [L. fr. calvus, bald]
calx, gen. calcis, pl .calces (kalks, kal′sis, kal-ses)
1. SYN: lime (1) . [L. limestone] 2. The posterior rounded extremity of the foot. SYN: heel (2) [TA] , calcar pedis. [L. heel]
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