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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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capsuloplasty (kap′soo-lo-plas-te)
Rearrangement of the wall of a capsule; often the capsule of a joint. [L. capsula, capsule, + G. plastos, formed]

capsulorrhaphy (kap-soo-lor′a-fe)
Suture of a tear or surgical incision in any capsule; specifically, suture of a joint capsule to prevent recurring dislocation of the articulation. [L. capsula, capsule, + rhaphe, suture]

capsulorrhexis (kap-soo-lo-reks′sis)
Technique used in cataract surgery by which a continuous circular tear is made in the anterior lens capsule. [L. capsula, capsule, + G. rhexis, rupture]

capsulotome (kap′soo-lo-tom)
SYN: cystotome (2) .

capsulotomy (kap-soo-lot′o-me)
1. Division of a capsule as around a breast implant. 2. Creation of an opening through a capsule; e.g., of a scar that might form around a foreign body. 3. Incision of the capsule of the lens in the extracapsular cataract operation. [L. capsula, capsule, + G. tome, a cutting] renal c. incision of the capsule of the kidney.

captopril (kap′to-pril)
An angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.

capture (kap′choor)
Catching and holding a particle or an electrical impulse originating elsewhere. [L. capio, pp. -tus, to take, seize] atrial c. control of the atria for one or more beats after a period of independent beating, as in incomplete AV block or in junctional or ventricular ectopic beats or tachycardias by a retrograde impulse. electron c. a mode of radioactive disintegration, in which an orbital electron, usually from the K shell, is captured by the nucleus, converting a proton into a neutron with ejection of a neutrino and emission of a gamma ray, and emission of characteristic x-rays as the missing K-shell electron is replaced. SYN: K c.. K c. SYN: electron c.. ventricular c. c. of the ventricle(s) by an impulse arising in the atria or A-V junction.

Capuron
Joseph, French physician, 1767–1850. See C. points, under point.

caput, gen. capitis, pl .capita (kap′ut, ka′put; kap′i-tis; kap′i-ta) [TA]
[TA] SYN: head. [L.] c. angulare quadrati labii superioris SYN: levator labii superioris alaeque nasi (muscle). c. breve [TA] SYN: short head. c. breve musculi bicipitis brachii [TA] SYN: short head of biceps brachii. c. breve musculi bicipitis femoris [TA] SYN: short head of biceps femoris. c. costae [TA] SYN: head of rib. c. epididymidis [TA] SYN: head of epididymis. c. femoris [TA] SYN: head of femur. c. fibulae [TA] SYN: head of fibula. c. gallinaginis obsolete term for seminal colliculus. [Mod. L. snipe's head] c. humerale [TA] SYN: humeral head. c. humerale musculi flexoris carpi ulnaris humeral head of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. See humeral head. c. humerale musculi pronatoris teretis humeral head of pronator teres muscle. See humeral head. c. humeri [TA] SYN: head of humerus. c. humeroulnare musculi flexoris digitorum superificialis [TA] SYN: humeroulnar head of flexor digitorum superficialis muscle. c. infraorbitale quadrati labii superioris SYN: levator labii superioris (muscle). c. laterale [TA] SYN: lateral head. c. laterale musculi gastrocnemii lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle. See lateral head. c. laterale musculi tricipitis brachii lateral head of triceps brachii. See lateral head. c. longum [TA] SYN: long head. c. longum musculi bicipitis brachii long head of biceps brachii muscle. See long head. c. longum musculi bicipitis femoris long head of biceps femoris muscle. See long head. c. longum musculi tricipitis brachii long head of triceps brachii muscle. See long head. c. mallei [TA] SYN: head of malleus. c. mandibulae [TA] SYN: head of mandible. c. mediale [TA] SYN: medial head. c. mediale musculi gastrocnemii medial head of gastrocnemius muscle. See medial head. c. mediale musculi tricipitis brachii medial head of triceps brachii muscle. See medial head. c. medusae 1. varicose veins radiating from the umbilicus, seen in the Cruveilhier-Baumgarten syndrome; 2. dilated ciliary arteries girdling the corneoscleral limbus in rubeosis iridis. SYN: Medusa head. [Medusa, G. myth. char.] c. nuclei caudati [TA] SYN: head of caudate nucleus. c. obliquum [TA] SYN: oblique head. c. obliquum musculi adductoris hallucis oblique head of adductor hallucis muscle. See oblique head. c. obliquum musculi adductoris pollicis oblique head of adductor pollicis muscle. See oblique head. c. ossis femoris SYN: head of femur. c. ossis metacarpalis [TA] SYN: head of metacarpal. c. ossis metatarsalis [TA] SYN: head of metatarsal. c. pancreatis [TA] SYN: head of pancreas. c. phalangis (manus et pedis) [TA] SYN: head of phalanx (of hand or foot). c. profundum musculi flexoris pollicis brevis [TA] SYN: deep head of flexor pollicis brevis. c. quadratum a head of large size and square shape, owing to thickened parietal and frontal eminences, seen in rachitic children. c. radii [TA] SYN: head of radius. c. stapedis [TA] SYN: head of stapes. c. succedaneum an edematous swelling formed on the presenting portion of the scalp of an infant during birth; the effusion overlies the periosteum and consists of edema; contrasted with cephalhematoma, in which condition the effusion lies under the periosteum and consists of blood. c. superficiale musculi flexoris pollicis brevis [TA] SYN: superficial head of flexor pollicis brevis. c. tali [TA] SYN: head of talus. c. transversum [TA] SYN: transverse head. c. transversum musculi adductoris hallucis transverse head of adductor hallucis muscle. See transverse head. c. transversum musculi adductoris pollicis transverse head of adductor pollicis muscle. See transverse head. c. ulnae [TA] SYN: head of ulna. c. ulnare [TA] SYN: ulnar head. c. ulnare musculi flexoris carpi ulnaris ulnar head of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. See ulnar head. c. ulnare musculi pronatoris teretis ulnar head of pronator teres muscle. See ulnar head. c. zygomaticum quadrati labii superioris SYN: zygomaticus minor (muscle).

Carabelli
Georg (Edler von Lunkaszprie), Austrian dentist, 1787–1842. See cusp of C., C. tubercle.

caramel (kar′a-mel)
Burnt sugar; a concentrated solution of the substance obtained by heating sugar with an alkali; a thick, dark brown liquid used as a coloring and flavoring agent in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. [Sp., fr. L.L. calamellus, fr. L. calamus, reed]

caramiphen ethanedisulfonate (ka-ram′i-fen eth′an-di-sul′fo-nat)
An antitussive.

caramiphen hydrochloride
A synthetic spasmolytic drug; used in the treatment of diseases of the basal ganglia, e.g., parkinsonism and hepatolenticular degeneration.

carate (ka-rah′te)
SYN: pinta.

carb-, carbo-
Prefixes indicating carbon, especially the attachment of a group containing a carbon atom. [L. carbo, charcoal]

carbachol (kar′ba-kol)
A parasympathetic stimulant used locally in the eye for the treatment of glaucoma.

carbadox (kar′ba-doks)
An antibacterial agent.

carbamate (kar′ba-mat)
1. A salt or ester of carbamic acid forming the basis of urethane hypnotics. 2. A group of cholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides resembling organophosphates; the most frequent c. is carbaril. SYN: carbamoate, carbaril. c. kinase a phosphotransferase catalyzing the reaction of carbamoyl phosphate and ADP to form ATP, NH3, and CO2.

carbamazepine (kar-bam-az′e-pen)
An anticonvulsant; also useful in alleviating the pain of trigeminal neuralgia and other neurogenic pain syndromes.

carbamic acid (kar-bam′ik)
A hypothetical acid, NH2&cbond;COOH, forming carbamates; the acyl radical is carbamoyl.

carbamide (kar′ba-mid)
Obsolete term for urea.

carbaminohemoglobin (kar-bam′i-no-he-mo-glo′bin)
Carbon dioxide bound to hemoglobin by means of a reactive amino group on the latter, i.e., Hb–NHCOOH; approximately 20% of the total content of carbon dioxide in blood is combined with hemoglobin in this manner. SYN: carbhemoglobin, carbohemoglobin.

carbamoate (kar′ba-mot)
SYN: carbamate.

carbamoyl (kar′ba-mo-il)
The acyl radical, NH2&cbond;CO&cbond;, the transfer of which plays an important role in certain biochemical reactions; e.g., in the urea cycle, via c. phosphate.

carbamoylaspartate dehydrase (kar′ba-mo-il-as-par′tat)
SYN: dihydro-orotase.

carbamoylation (kar-ba-mo-il-a′shun)
Transfer of the carbamoyl from a carbamoyl-containing molecule ( e.g., carbamoyl phosphate) to an acceptor moiety such as an amino group; the second step in the urea cycle is a c..

carbamoylcarbamic acid (kar′ba-mo-il-kar-bam′ik)
SYN: allophanic acid.

carbamoyl phosphate
A reactive intermediate capable of transferring its carbamoyl group to an acceptor molecule, forming citrulline from ornithine in the urea cycle, and ureidosuccinic acid from aspartic acid in pyrimidine ring formation. c. synthetase a phosphotransferase catalyzing the formation of c.. There are two significant isozymes. Carbomoyl phosphate synthetase I is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of 2ATP, NH3, CO2, and H2O to c., 2ADP, and orthophosphate. It is activated by N-acetylglutamate and participates in urea biosynthesis. A deficiency of c. synthetase I can result in hyperammonemia. C. synthetase II is a cytosolic enzyme that, under physiological conditions, uses l-glutamine as the nitrogen source (producing l-glutamate) instead of NH3, is not activated by N-acetylglutamate, and participates in pyrimidine biosynthesis.

carbamoyltransferases (kar′ba-mo-il-trans′fer-as-ez) [EC 2.1.3.x]
Enzymes transferring carbamoyl groups from one compound to another ( e.g., aspartate carbamoyltransferase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase). SYN: transcarbamoylases.

carbamoylurea (kar′ba-mo-il-u-re′a)
SYN: biuret.

carbamyl (kar′ba-mil)
Former spelling of carbamoyl.

carbamylation (kar′ba-mil-a′shun)
Former spelling of carbamoylation.

carbanion (karb-an′i-on)
An organic anion in which the negative charge is on a carbon atom; the specific names are formed by adding -ide, -diide, etc., to the name of the parent compound; e.g., methanide, (CH3)−.

carbapenems
A class of broad-spectrum bactericidal β-lactam antibiotics that bind to the penicillin-binding protein 2 and thereby interfere with cell wall structure; they are highly resistant to β-lactamases and easily penetrate bacterial walls.

carbaril (car-bar-il′)
SYN: carbamate.

carbarsone (kar-bar′son)
An amebicide.

carbaryl (kar′ba-ril)
A cholinesterase-inhibiting contact insecticide. A pediculicide and ectoparasiticide. Toxic to humans, causing nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bronchoconstrictions, blurring vision, excessive salivation, muscle twitching, cyanosis, convulsions, coma, respiratory failure.

carbazides (kar′ba-zidz)
1,3-diaminoureas. SYN: carbohydrazides.

carbazochrome salicylate (kar-baz′o-krom)
An oxidation product of epinephrine used for the systemic control of capillary bleeding associated with increased capillary permeability.

carbazole (kar′ba-zol)
Reacts with carbohydrates (including uronates and deoxypentoses) giving colors characteristic of the sugar type; used for assay and analysis of carbohydrates and formaldehyde, and as a dye intermediate; sensitive to ultraviolet light. SYN: 9-azafluorene, diphenylenimine.

carbazotic acid (kar-ba-zot′ik)
SYN: picric acid.

carbenicillin disodium (kar-ben-i-sil′in)
A semisynthetic extended spectrum penicillin active against a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

carbenium (kar-ben′e-um)
See carbonium.

carbetapentane citrate (kar′be-ta-pen′tan)
It has atropine-like and local anesthetic actions and effectively suppresses acute cough due to common upper respiratory infections.

carbhemoglobin (karb′he-mo-glo′bin)
SYN: carbaminohemoglobin.

carbide (kar′bid)
A compound of carbon with an element more electropositive than itself; e.g., CaC2, calcium c..

carbidopa (kar-bi-do′pa)
A dopa decarboxylase inhibitor which does not enter the brain used in conjunction with levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson disease to reduce L-dopa doses and reduce side effects.

carbimazole (kar-bi′ma-zol)
Used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

carbinol (kar′bi-nol)
SYN: methyl alcohol.

carbinoxamine maleate (kar-bi-nok′sa-men)
An antihistaminic agent.

carbo
SYN: charcoal. [L. coal]

carbo-
See carb-.

carbobenzoxy- (Z, Cbz) (kar′bo-ben-zok′se)
SYN: benzyloxycarbonyl.

carbocation (kar-bo-kat′i-on)
See carbonium.

carbogen (kar′bo-jen)
A mixture of 10% carbon dioxide and 90% oxygen used for inhalation therapy to produce vasodilation. [carbon dioxide + oxygen]

carbohemoglobin (kar′bo-he-mo-glo′bin)
SYN: carbaminohemoglobin.

carbohydrates (kar-bo-hi′drats)
Class name for the aldehydic or ketonic derivatives of polyhydric alcohols, the name being derived from the fact that the most common examples of such compounds have formulas that may be written as Cn(H2O)n ( e.g., glucose, C6(H2O)6; sucrose, C12(H2O)11), although they are not true hydrates and the name is, in that sense, a misnomer. The group includes compounds with relatively small molecules, such as the simple sugars (monosaccharides, disaccharides, etc.), as well as macromolecular (polymeric) substances such as starch, glycogen, and cellulose. The c. most typical of the class contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only, but carbohydrate metabolic intermediates in tissues also contain phosphorus. See saccharides.

carbohydraturia (kar′bo-hi-dra-too′re-a)
General term denoting the excretion of one or more carbohydrates in the urine ( e.g., glucose, galactose, lactose, pentose), thus including such conditions as glycosuria (melituria), galactosuria, lactosuria, pentosuria, etc.

carbohydrazides (kar-bo-hi′dra-zidz)
SYN: carbazides.

carbolate (kar′bo-lat)
1. SYN: phenate. 2. To carbolize.

carbolated (kar′bo-la-ted)
SYN: phenolated.

carbol-fuchsin (kar′bol-fuk′sin)
1. See Ziehl stain. 2. See carbol-fuchsin paint.

carbolic acid (kar-bol′ik)
SYN: phenol.

carbolize (kar′bo-liz)
To mix with or add carbolic acid (phenol).




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