|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
A trimethylammonium (betaine) derivative of γ-amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid, formed from Nε,Nε,Nε-trimethyllysine and from γ-butyrobetaine; the l-isomer is a thyroid inhibitor found in muscle, liver, and meat extracts; l-c. is an acyl carrier with respect to the mitochondrial membrane; it thus stimulates fatty acid oxidation. SYN: BT factor, vitamin BT. [L. caro carn-, flesh + ine] c. acetyltransferase an enzyme found in mitochondria that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to c., forming O-acetylcarnitine and coenzyme A. Acetylcarnitine is an important fuel source in sperm. c. acylcarnitine translocase a transport protein found in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Transports acylcarnitine derivatives into the mitochondria and transports c. out of the mitochondria. An important step in fatty acid oxidation. c. palmitoyltransferase 1. an enzyme that reversibly forms acylcarnitines and coenzyme A from c. and acylcoenzyme A (often, palmitoyl-CoA); important in fatty acid oxidation. Deficiency of isozyme I results in ketogenesis with hypoglycemia; deficiency of isozyme II affects primarily skeletal muscle.
An order of chiefly flesh-eating mammals that includes the cats, dogs, bears, civets, minks, and hyenas, as well as the raccoon and panda; some species are omnivorous or herbivorous. [L. carnivorus, fr. caro (carn-), flesh, + voro, to devour]
One of the Carnivora.
Flesh-eating; subsisting on animals as food. SYN: zoophagous.
Mammalian enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of carnosine, producing histidine and β-alanine; a deficiency of the serum enzyme leads to elevated carnosine levels.
N-β-Alanyl-l-histidine;the dominant nonprotein nitrogenous component of brain tissue, first found in relatively high amounts in muscle; chelates copper and activates myosin ATPase. SYN: ignotine, inhibitine. [L. carnosus, fleshy, fr. caro, flesh, + -ia]
An autosomal recessive congenital disease, characterized by the presence of excess amounts of carnosine in the blood and urine and caused by a genetic deficiency of the enzyme carnosinase. Clinically characterized by progressive neurologic damage, severe mental retardation, and myoclonic seizures. [carnosine + G. haima, blood + -ia]
1. Fleshiness. 2. A fleshy protuberance.
Jean Baptiste, French biologist, 1836–1899. See C. fixative.
caro, gen. carnis, pl .carnes (ka′ro, kar′nis, -nes)
The fleshy parts of the body; muscular and fatty tissues. [L.] c. quadrata sylvii SYN: quadratus plantae (muscle).
carob flour (kar′ob)
J., 20th century French physician. See C. disease.
SYN: β-carotene 15,15′-dioxygenase.
A class of carotenoids, yellow-red pigments (lipochromes) widely distributed in plants and animals, notably in carrots, and closely related in structure to the xanthophylls and lycopenes and to the open-chain squalene; of particular interest in that they include precursors of the vitamins A (provitamin A carotenoids). Chemically, they consist of 8 isoprene units in a symmetrical chain with the two isoprenes at each end cyclized, forming either α-c. or β-c. (γ-c. has only one end cyclized). The cyclic ends of β-c. are identical β-ionine-like structures; thus, on oxidative fission, β-c. yields 2 molecules of vitamin A. The cyclic ends of α-c. differ: one is an α-ionone, the other a β-ionone; on fission, α-c., like γ-c., yields 1 molecule of vitamin A (a β-ionone derivative). c. oxidase SYN: lipoxygenase.
Carotene in the blood, especially pertaining to increased quantities, which sometimes cause a pale yellow-red pigmentation of the skin that may resemble icterus. SYN: carotinemia, xanthemia.
SYN: carotenosis cutis. [carotene + G. derma, skin]
1. Resembling carotene; having a yellow color. 2. One of the carotenoids.
Generic term for a class of carotenes and their oxygenated derivatives (xanthophylls) consisting of 8 isoprenoid units (thus, tetraterpenes) joined so that the orientation of these units is reversed at the center, placing the two central methyl groups in a 1,6 relationship in contrast to the 1,5 of the others. All c. may be formally derived from the acyclic C40H56 structure known as lycopene, with its long central chain of conjugated double bonds by hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, oxidation, cyclization, or combinations of these. Included as c. are some compounds arising from certain rearrangements or degradations of the carbon skeleton, but not retinol and related C20 compounds. The nine-carbon end groups may be acyclic with 1,2 and 5,6 double bonds or cyclohexanes with a single double bond at 5,6 or 5,4 or cyclopentanes or aryl groups; these are now designated by Greek letter prefixes preceding “carotene” (α and δ, which are used in the trivial names α-carotene and δ-carotene, are not used for that reason). Suffixes (-oic acid, -oate, -al, -one, -ol) indicate certain oxygen-containing groups (acid, ester, aldehyde, ketone, alcohol); all other substitutions appear as prefixes (alkoxy-, epoxy-, hydro-, etc.). The configuration about all double bonds is trans unless cis and locant numbers appear. The prefix retro- is used to indicate a shift of one position of all single and double bonds; apo- indicates shortening of the molecule. Many c. have anticancer activities.
A protein with a covalently-bound carotenoid.
carotenosis cutis (kar-o-te-no′sis ku′tis)
A harmless, reversible yellow coloration of the skin caused by an increase in carotene content; the sclera is not involved. SYN: carotenoderma, carotinosis cutis.
SYN: stuporous. [G. karotikos, stupefying]
Relating to the carotid canal and the tympanum.
Pertaining to any c. structure. [G. karotides, the c. arteries, fr. karoo, to put to sleep (because compression of the c. artery results in unconsciousness)]
carotinosis cutis (ka-rot-i-no′sis ku′tis)
SYN: carotenosis cutis.
Pain caused by pressure on the carotid artery. SYN: carotidynia. [G. odyne, pain]
Relating to the carpus.
Excision of a portion or all of the carpus. [G. karpos, wrist, + ektome, excision]
George Alfred, British physician, 1859–1910. See C. syndrome.
Alain, 20th century French cardiothoracic surgeon. See C.-Edwards valve.
carphenazine maleate (kar-fen′a-zen)
A phenothiazine tranquilizer of the piperazine group. Functionally classified as an antipsychotic agent, it is used in the treatment of chronic and acute schizophrenia; also possesses antiemetic, adrenolytic, anticholinergic, and dopamine-blocking actions.
SYN: midcarpal (2) .
A genus of mites including Carpoglyptus passularum, the fruit mite, which causes a dermatitis among handlers of dried fruit. [G. karpos, fruit, + glypho, , to carve]
Relating to both carpus and metacarpus.
Relating to the wrist and the foot, or the hands and feet; denoting especially c. spasm. [G. karpos, wrist, + L. pes (ped-), foot]
carpoptosis, carpoptosia (kar-pop-to′sis, -to′ze-a)
SYN: wrist-drop. [G. karpos, wrist, + ptosis, a falling]
Joseph C., British surgeon, 1764–1846.
carpus, gen. and pl. carpi (kar′pus, kar′pi) [TA]
1. SYN: wrist. 2. SYN: carpal bones, under bone. [Mod. L. fr. Gr. karpos] c. curvus SYN: Madelung deformity.
Francis H., British chemist, *1874. See C.-Price reaction.
carrageen, carragheen (kar′a-jen, -gen)
1. SYN: chondrus (2) . 2. SYN: carrageenan.
carrageenan, carrageenin (kar-a-ge′nan, -nin)
A polysaccharide vegetable gum obtained from Irish moss; a galactosan sulfate resembling agar in molecular structure. SYN: carrageen (2) , carragheen. [Carragheen, Irish village]
carre-four sensitif (kar-foor′son-se-tef′)
A term given by Charcot to the posterior portion of the caudal limb of the internal capsule. [Fr. sensory crossroads]
Alexis, French-U.S. surgeon and Nobel laureate, 1873–1944. See C. treatment, C.-Lindbergh pump, Dakin-C. treatment.
1. A person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease and serves as a potential source of infection. 2. Any chemical capable of accepting an atom, radical, or subatomic particle from one compound, then passing it to another; e.g., cytochromes are electron carriers; homocysteine is a methyl c.. 3. A substance that, by having chemical properties closely related to or indistinguishable from those of a radioactive tracer, is thus able to carry the tracer through a precipitation or similar chemical procedure; the best carriers are the nonradioactive isotopes of the tracer in question. SEE ALSO: label, tracer. 4. A large immunogen that, when coupled to a hapten, will facilitate an immune response to the hapten. 5. A component of a membrane that causes the transfer of a substance from one side of the membrane to the other. 6. The mobile phase in chromatography. amalgam c. an instrument used to transport triturated amalgam to a cavity preparation and to deposit it therein. convalescent c. an individual who is clinically recovered from an infectious disease but is still capable of transmitting the infectious agent to others. genetic c. a person heterozygous for a mutant allele that, in homozygous form, causes a recessive condition. hydrogen c. a molecule that, in conjunction with a tissue enzyme system, carries hydrogen from one metabolite (oxidant) to another (reductant) or to molecular oxygen to form H2O. SYN: hydrogen acceptor. incubatory c. an individual capable of transmitting an infectious agent to others during the incubation period of the disease. latent c. a person, typically a prospective parent, bearing the appropriate genotype of a trait (homozygous for recessive, homozygous or heterozygous for dominant, hemizygous or homozygous for X-linked) that manifests the trait only under certain conditions, e.g., age, an environmental insult, etc. manifesting c. SYN: manifesting heterozygote. translocation c. a person with balanced translocation.
Said of a substance in which a radioactive or other tagged atom is found in every molecule; the highest possible specific activity.
Daniel A., Peruvian medical student, 1859–1885, who inoculated himself with a disease later designated as C. disease, and died thereof. See C. disease.
The phenomenon by which part of the analyte present in a sample appears to be present in the next or following samples in the same analytic process. This is most noticeable when a sample of low analyte concentration follows one of very high concentration.
Alexandre, French physician, *1897. See Gougerot-C. syndrome.
Relating to Cartesius, Latinized form of Descartes.
The dried florets of C. tinctorius (family Compositae). SEE ALSO: safflower oil. SYN: safflower. [Ar. qurtum, fr. qartama, paint; the plant yields a dye]
cartilage (kar′ti-lij) [TA]
A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and a ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of c.: hyaline c., elastic c., and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures such as the larynx, air passages, and ears; comprises most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone.For gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries. SYN: cartilago [TA] , chondrus (1) , gristle. [L. cartilago (cartilagin-), gristle] accessory c. a sesamoid c.. accessory nasal cartilages [TA] variable small plates of c. located in the interval between the greater alar and lateral nasal cartilages. SYN: cartilagines nasales accessoriae [TA] , sesamoid cartilages of nose. accessory quadrate c. SYN: minor alar c.. c. of acoustic meatus [TA] the c. that forms the wall of the lateral part of the external acoustic meatus. It is incomplete above and is firmly attached to the margins of the bony part of the external meatus. SYN: cartilago meatus acustici [TA] , meatal c.. alisphenoid c. the c. in the embryo from which the greater wing of the sphenoid bone is developed. anular c. SYN: cricoid c.. arthrodial c. SYN: articular c.. articular c. the c. covering the articular surfaces of the bones participating in a synovial joint. SYN: arthrodial c., cartilago articularis, diarthrodial c., investing c.. arytenoid c. [TA] one of a pair of small triangular pyramidal laryngeal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the cricoid c.. It gives attachment at its anteriorly directed vocal process to the posterior part of the corresponding vocal ligament and to several muscles at its laterally directed muscular process. The base of the c. is hyaline but the apex is elastic. SYN: cartilago arytenoidea [TA] , triquetrous c. (2) . c. of auditory tube SYN: c. of pharyngotympanic tube. auricular c. [TA] the c. of the auricle. SYN: cartilago auriculae [TA] , c. of ear, conchal c.. basilar c. the c. filling the foramen lacerum. SYN: basilar fibrocartilage, fibrocartilago basalis. branchial cartilages cartilages developing within the embryonic branchial arches; they form the cartilaginous viscerocranium. SYN: pharyngeal cartilages. calcified c. c. in which calcium salts are deposited in the matrix; it occurs prior to replacement by osseous tissue and sometimes in aging c.. cellular c. an embryonic or immature stage of c. in which it consists chiefly of cells with very little matrix. SYN: parenchymatous c.. ciliary c. incorrect term sometimes applied to the inferior and superior tarsi. See tarsus (2) . circumferential c. 1. SYN: acetabular labrum. 2. SYN: glenoid labrum of scapula. conchal c. SYN: auricular c.. connecting c. the c. in a cartilaginous joint such as the symphysis pubis. SYN: interosseous c., uniting c.. corniculate c. [TA] a conical nodule of elastic c. surmounting the apex of each arytenoid c.. SYN: cartilago corniculata [TA] , corniculum laryngis, Santorini c., supra-arytenoid c.. costal c. [TA] the c. forming the anterior continuation of a rib, providing the means by which it reaches and articulates with the sternum. SYN: cartilago costalis [TA] , costicartilage. cricoid c. [TA] the lowermost of the laryngeal cartilages; it is shaped like a signet ring, being expanded into a nearly quadrilateral plate (lamina) posteriorly; the anterior portion is called the arch (arcus). SYN: cartilago cricoidea [TA] , anular c.. cuneiform c. [TA] a small nonarticulating rod of elastic c. in the aryepiglottic fold anterolateral and somewhat superior to the corniculate c.. SYN: cartilago cuneiformis [TA] , Morgagni c., Morgagni tubercle, Wrisberg c.. diarthrodial c. SYN: articular c.. c. of ear SYN: auricular c.. elastic c. a c. in which the cells are surrounded by a territorial capsular matrix outside of which is an interterritorial matrix containing elastic fiber networks in addition to type II collagen fibers and ground substance. SYN: yellow c.. ensiform c., ensisternum c. obsolete term for xiphoid process. epiglottic c. [TA] a thin lamina of elastic c. forming the central portion of the epiglottis. SYN: cartilago epiglottica [TA] . epiphysial c. [TA] particular type of new c. produced by the epiphysis of a growing long bone; located on the epiphysial (distal) side of the zone of growth c., it is a zone of relatively quiescent chondrocytes (the resting zone) of the epiphyseal (growth) plate that unites the epiphysis with the shaft. SEE ALSO: epiphysial plate. SYN: cartilago epiphysialis [TA] . falciform c. SYN: medial meniscus. floating c. a loose piece of c. within a joint cavity, detached from the articular c. or from a meniscus. SYN: loose c.. greater alar c. SYN: major alar c.. Huschke cartilages two horizontal cartilaginous rods at the edge of the cartilaginous septum of the nose. hyaline c. c. having a frosted glass appearance, with interstitial substance containing fine type II collagen fibers obscured by the ground substance; in adult c., the cells are present in isogenous groups. hypsiloid c. SYN: Y c.. interosseous c. SYN: connecting c.. intervertebral c. SYN: intervertebral disk. intraarticular c. 1. SYN: articular disk. 2. SYN: meniscus lens. intrathyroid c. a narrow slip of c. sometimes found joining the laminae of the thyroid c. of the larynx in infancy. investing c. SYN: articular c.. Jacobson c. SYN: vomeronasal c.. cartilages of larynx See thyroid c., cricoid c., arytenoid c., cuneiform c., triticeal c., corniculate c., sesamoid c. of cricopharyngeal ligament, epiglottic c.. SYN: cartilagines laryngis. lateral c. of nose SYN: lateral process of septal nasal c.. lesser alar cartilages SYN: minor alar c.. loose c. SYN: floating c.. Luschka c. a small cartilaginous nodule sometimes found in the anterior portion of the vocal cord. major alar c. [TA] one of a pair of cartilages that form the tip of the nose. It consists of a medial crus that extends into the nasal septum with its fellow of the opposite side, and a lateral crus that forms the anterior part of the wing of the nose. SYN: cartilago alaris major, greater alar c.. mandibular c. a c. bar in the mandibular arch that forms a temporary supporting structure in the embryonic mandible; the cartilagenous primordia of the malleus and incus develop from its proximal end, and it also gives rise to the sphenomandibular and anterior malleolar ligaments. SYN: Meckel c.. meatal c. SYN: c. of acoustic meatus. Meckel c. SYN: mandibular c.. Meyer cartilages the anterior sesamoid cartilages at the anterior attachments of the vocal ligaments. minor alar c. [TA] the 2–4 cartilaginous plates of the wing of the nose posterior to the greater alar c.. SYN: accessory quadrate c., cartilagines alares minores, lesser alar cartilages. Morgagni c. SYN: cuneiform c.. nasal septal c. SYN: septal nasal c.. c. of nasal septum SYN: septal nasal c.. cartilages of nose See lateral process of septal nasal c., major alar c., septal nasal c., vomeronasal c., minor alar c., accessory nasal cartilages. SYN: cartilagines nasi. ossifying c. SYN: temporary c.. parachordal c. c. primordia adjacent on either side to the cephalic portion of the notochord in young embryos; they represent an initial step in the formation of the chondrocranium. paraseptal c. SYN: vomeronasal c.. parenchymatous c. SYN: cellular c.. periotic c. a cartilaginous mass on either side of the chondrocranium surrounding the developing auditory vesicle in the fetus; the otic capsule in its early cartilaginous stage. permanent c. c. that is not replaced by bone. pharyngeal cartilages SYN: branchial cartilages. c. of pharyngotympanic tube [TA] the trough-shaped c. that forms the medial wall, roof, and part of the lateral wall of the pharyngotympanic tube. SYN: cartilago tubae auditivae [TA] , c. of auditory tube, tubal c.. precursory c. SYN: temporary c.. primordial c. c. in an early stage in its development. quadrangular c. SYN: septal nasal c.. Reichert c. a c. in the mesenchyme of the second branchial arch in the embryo, from which develop the stapes, the styloid processes, the stylohyoid ligaments, and the lesser cornua of the hyoid bone. reticular c., retiform c. rarely used terms for fibrocartilage. Santorini c. SYN: corniculate c.. Seiler c. a small rod of c. attached to the vocal process of the arytenoid c.. semilunar c. one of the articular menisci of the knee joint. See lateral meniscus, medial meniscus. septal c. SYN: septal nasal c.. septal nasal c. [TA] a thin cartilaginous plate located between vomer, perpendicular plate of the ethmoid, and nasal bones, and completing the nasal septum anteriorly. SYN: cartilago septi nasi [TA] , c. of nasal septum, cartilaginous septum, nasal septal c., pars cartilaginea septi nasi, quadrangular c., septal c.. sesamoid c. of cricopharyngeal ligament [TA] a small nodule of elastic c. sometimes present on the lateral border of the arytenoid c.. SYN: cartilago sesamoidea ligamentum cricopharyngeum [TA] , cartilago sesamoidea laryngis, sesamoid c. of larynx. sesamoid c. of larynx SYN: sesamoid c. of cricopharyngeal ligament. sesamoid cartilages of nose SYN: accessory nasal cartilages. slipping rib c. subluxation of rib c., at the costo-chondral junction, causing pain and audible click. sternal c. a costal c. of one of the true ribs. supra-arytenoid c. SYN: corniculate c.. tarsal c. incorrect term sometimes applied to the inferior tarsus and superior tarsus. See tarsus (2) . temporary c. a c. that is normally replaced by bone, to form a part of the skeleton. SYN: ossifying c., precursory c.. thyroid c. [TA] the largest of the cartilages of the larynx; it is formed of two approximately quadrilateral plates (laminae) joined anteriorly at an angle of from 90–20°, the prominence so formed constituting the laryngeal prominence (Adam's apple). SYN: cartilago thyroidea [TA] . tracheal cartilages [TA] the 16–20 incomplete rings of hyaline c. forming the skeleton of the trachea; the rings are deficient posteriorly for from one-fifth to one-third of their circumference. SYN: cartilagines tracheales [TA] , tracheal ring. triangular c. SYN: articular disk of distal radioulnar joint. triquetrous c. 1. SYN: articular disk of distal radioulnar joint. 2. SYN: arytenoid c.. triticeal c. [TA] a rounded nodule of c., the size of a grain of wheat, occasionally present in the posterior margin of the lateral thyrohyroid ligament. SYN: cartilago triticea [TA] , corpus triticeum, triticeum. tubal c. SYN: c. of pharyngotympanic tube. uniting c. SYN: connecting c.. vomerine c. SYN: vomeronasal c.. vomeronasal c. [TA] a narrow strip of c. located between the lower edge of the c. of the nasal septum and the vomer. SYN: cartilago vomeronasalis [TA] , Jacobson c., paraseptal c., vomer cartilagineus, vomerine c.. Weitbrecht c. SYN: articular disk of acromioclavicular joint. Wrisberg c. SYN: cuneiform c.. xiphoid c. SYN: xiphoid process. Y c., Y-shaped c. the connecting c. for the ilium, ischium, and pubis; it extends through the acetabulum. SYN: hypsiloid c.. yellow c. SYN: elastic c..
Plural of cartilago.
SYN: chondroid (1) .
Relating to or consisting of cartilage. SYN: chondral.
cartilago, pl .cartilagines (kar-ti-la′go, -laj′i-nes) [TA]
SYN: cartilage.For histologic description, see cartilage. [L. gristle] cartilagines alares minores SYN: minor alar cartilage. c. alaris major SYN: major alar cartilage. c. articularis SYN: articular cartilage. c. arytenoidea [TA] SYN: arytenoid cartilage. c. auriculae [TA] SYN: auricular cartilage. c. corniculata [TA] SYN: corniculate cartilage. c. costalis [TA] SYN: costal cartilage. c. cricoidea [TA] SYN: cricoid cartilage. c. cuneiformis [TA] SYN: cuneiform cartilage. c. epiglottica [TA] SYN: epiglottic cartilage. c. epiphysialis [TA] SYN: epiphysial cartilage. cartilagines laryngis SYN: cartilages of larynx, under cartilage. c. meatus acustici [TA] SYN: cartilage of acoustic meatus. cartilagines nasales accessoriae [TA] SYN: accessory nasal cartilages, under cartilage. cartilagines nasi SYN: cartilages of nose, under cartilage. c. nasi lateralis SYN: lateral process of septal nasal cartilage. c. septi nasi [TA] SYN: septal nasal cartilage. c. sesamoidea laryngis SYN: sesamoid cartilage of cricopharyngeal ligament. c. sesamoidea ligamentum cricopharyngeum [TA] SYN: sesamoid cartilage of cricopharyngeal ligament. c. thyroidea [TA] SYN: thyroid cartilage. cartilagines tracheales [TA] SYN: tracheal cartilages, under cartilage. c. triticea [TA] SYN: triticeal cartilage. [L. triticum, wheat] c. tubae auditivae [TA] SYN: cartilage of pharyngotympanic tube. c. vomeronasalis [TA] SYN: vomeronasal cartilage.
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