|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
Living within cells. [L. cella, cells, + colo, to abide in]
A disaccharide obtained from cellulose and lichenin; a glucose-β(1→4)-glucoside, differing only from maltose in the nature of the glycosidic bond.
A solution of pyroxylin in ether and alcohol, used for embedding histologic specimens.
A cellulose bandage impregnated with plaster of Paris.
cellula, gen. and pl. cellulae (sel′u-la, -le)
1. [NA] In gross anatomy, a small but macroscopic compartment. SYN: cellule. 2. In histology, a cell. [L. a small chamber, dim. of cella] cellulae coli SYN: haustra of colon, under haustrum. cellulae ethmoidales [TA] SYN: ethmoid cells, under cell. SEE ALSO: anterior ethmoidal cells, under cell, middle ethmoidal cells, under cell, posterior ethmoidal cells, under cell. cellulae ethmoidales anteriores [TA] SYN: anterior ethmoidal cells, under cell. cellulae ethmoidales mediae [TA] SYN: middle ethmoidal cells, under cell. cellulae ethmoidales posteriores [TA] SYN: posterior ethmoidal cells, under cell. cellulae mastoideae [TA] SYN: mastoid cells, under cell. cellulae pneumaticae tubae auditivae [TA] SYN: tubal air cells (of pharyngotympanic tube), under cell. cellulae tympanicae [TA] SYN: tympanic cells, under cell.
1. Relating to, derived from, or composed of cells. 2. Having numerous compartments or interstices. [L. cellula, dim. of cella, storeroom]
The degree, quality, or condition of cells that are present.
Endo-1,4-β-glucase;an enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of 1,4-β-glucoside links in cellulose, lichenin, and other β-d-glucans; found in a variety of microorganisms in soil and in the digestive tracts of herbivores. Used to produce digestive tablets and in the removal of cellulose from foods for special diets.
SYN: cellula (1) .
Destructive to cells. [cellula + L. caedo, to kill]
Moving from, or extending in a direction away from, a cell or cell body; denoting certain cells repelled by other cells, or processes extending from the body of a cell. [cellula + L. fugio, to flee]
Moving toward, or extending in a direction toward, a cell or cell body. [cellula + L. peto, to seek]
1. Colloquial term for deposits of fat and fibrous tissue causing dimpling of the overlying skin. 2. SYN: lipoedema.
Inflammation of subcutaneous, loose connective tissue (formerly called cellular tissue). acute scalp c. deep inflammation of the scalp without suppuration. anaerobic c. infection with subcutaneous soft tissues with any of a variety of anaerobic bacteria, usually a mixed culture including Bacteroides species, anaerobic cocci, and clostridia. dissecting c. SYN: perifolliculitis abscedens et suffodiens. eosinophilic c. recurrent c. followed by brawny edematous skin lesions or sometimes urticarial papular, annular, or gyrate lesions; affected skin and subcutis are heavily infiltrated by eosinophils and histiocytes, with scattered small necrotic foci (flame figures); of varied etiology; sometimes follows an arthropod bite. SYN: Wells syndrome. gangrenous c. infection of soft tissue with organisms that produce extensive tissue necrosis and local vascular occlusions; streptococci, clostridia, and anaerobes are known causes, but most cases recently have been polymicrobial. SYN: necrotizing c.. necrotizing c. SYN: gangrenous c.. orbital c. c. that involves the tissue layers posterior to the orbital septum. pelvic c. SYN: parametritis. periorbital c. SYN: preseptal c.. preseptal c. infection involving the superficial tissue layers anterior to the orbital septum. SYN: periorbital c..
A linear B1→4 glucan, composed of cellobiose residues, differing in this respect from starch, which is comprised of maltose residues; it forms the basis of vegetable and wood fiber and is the most abundant organic compound; useful in providing bulk in the diet. SYN: cellulin. [L. cellula, cell, + -ose] c. acetate a polymer commonly used as a support medium for electrophoresis. c. acetate phthalate a reaction product of phthalic anhydride and a partial acetate ester of c.; used as a tablet-coating agent. carboxymethyl c. c. in which some of the OH groups are modified to contain &cbond;CH2&cbond;COOH groups; used in column chromatography. SYN: CM-c.. O-diethylaminoethyl c. c. to which diethylaminoethyl groups have been attached; used in anion-exchange chromatography. SYN: DEAE-c.. microcrystalline c. purified, partially depolymerized c., prepared by treating α-c., obtained as a pulp from fibrous plant material, with mineral acids; used as a tablet diluent. oxidized c. 1. cellulosic acid in the form of an absorbable gauze; used as a hemostatic in operations where ligation is not feasible (capillary or venous bleeding from small vessels) because cellulosic acid has a pronounced affinity for hemoglobin and produces an artificial clot; 2. a sterile absorbable substance prepared by the oxidation of cotton containing not less than 16% and not more than 22% of carboxyl. SEE ALSO: oxycellulose. TEAE-c. c. to which triethylaminoethyl groups have been attached; used in ion-exchange chromatography. SYN: O-(triethylaminoethyl) c.. O-(triethylaminoethyl) c. SYN: TEAE-c..
cellulosic acid (sel-u-los′ik)
See oxidized cellulose.
1. The celom. [G. koiloma, hollow (celom)] 2. Hernia. [G. kele, hernia] 3. The abdomen. SEE ALSO: celio-. [G. koilia, belly]
celom, celoma (se′lom, se-lo′ma)
1. The cavity between the splanchnic and somatic mesoderm in the embryo. 2. SYN: body cavity. [G. koiloma, a hollow] extraembryonic c. that portion of the c. that extends beyond the confines of the embryonic body.
Relating to the body cavity.
Inflammation of a vena cava. SYN: cavitis. [G. koilos, hollow, + phlebitis]
Rarely used term for an optic device for examining the interior of a body cavity. [G. koilos, hollow, + skopeo, to view]
Rarely used term for examination of any body cavity with an optical instrument.
Congenital protrusion of the abdominal or thoracic viscera, usually with a defect of the sternum and ribs as well as of the abdominal walls. SYN: kelosomia. [G. kele, hernia, + soma, body]
An adenovirus found in chickens.
Inhabiting any of the cavities of the body; applied to certain parasitic protozoa, chiefly gregarines. [G. koilos, hollow, + zoikos, pertaining to animals]
Anders, Swedish astronomer, 1701–1744. See C. scale.
See C. scale.
cement (se-ment′) [TA]
1. A layer of bonelike mineralized tissue covering the dentin of the root and neck of a tooth that serves to anchor the fibers of the periodontal ligament. SYN: cementum [TA] , substantia ossea dentis, tooth c.. 2. In dentistry, a nonmetallic material used for luting, filling, or permanent or temporary restorative purposes, made by mixing components into a plastic mass that sets, or as an adherent sealer in attaching various dental restorations in or on the tooth. [see cementum] composite dental c. an organic dental c. modified by the inclusion of inorganic materials treated with a coupling agent to bond them to the polymers. copper phosphate c. a dental preparation, the combination of a solution of orthophosphoric acid with a c. powder (usually zinc oxide) modified with varying proportions of copper oxide. dental c. c. (2) . glass ionomer c. a dental c. produced by mixing a powder prepared from a calcium aluminosilicate glass with an aqueous solution of polyacrylic acid. [ion + -mer (1)] inorganic dental c. a dental c. consisting usually of metallic salts or oxides which, when mixed with a specific liquid, form a plastic mass that sets. intercellular c. a hypothetical adhesive substance formerly believed to occur between some epithelial cells. modified zinc oxide-eugenol c. dental c. obtained by mixing zinc oxide and eugenol with one or more additives. organic dental c. a dental c. consisting mainly of synthetic polymers. polycarboxylate c. a powder containing primarily zinc oxide mixed with a liquid containing polyacrylic acid which reacts to form a hard crystalline mass upon standing; when used to lute metal castings to teeth, it has the potential of bonding to the calcium contained in tooth structure as well as to any base metals contained in the casting. resin c. a monomer or monomer/polymer system used as a dental luting agent; used in cementation of restorations or orthodontic brackets to the teeth. silicate c. a dental filling material prepared by mixing a modified phosphoric acid solution with a powdered silica alumina fluoride glass. tooth c. SYN: c. (1) . See c. (2) . unmodified zinc oxide-eugenol c. a dental c. obtained by mixing zinc oxide and eugenol without modifiers. zinc phosphate c. a powder, containing primarily zinc oxide mixed with a liquid containing orthophosphoric acid to form a hard crystalline mass on standing, used in dentistry as a luting agent for cast metal restorations and orthodontic bands, and as a temporary restorative material, or a base under restorations, particularly in deep cavities.
1. The process of attaching parts by means of a cement. 2. In dentistry, attaching a restoration to natural teeth by means of a cement.
A calcified spherical body, composed of cementum lying free within the periodontal membrane, attached to the cementum or imbedded within it.
Metaplastic production of cementum or cementoid within a less differentiated connective tissue, e.g., c. of a fibroma.
A cell of mesenchymal origin concerned with the formation of the layer of cementum on the roots of teeth. [L. cementum, cement, + G. blastos, germ]
A benign odontogenic tumor of functional cementoblasts; it appears as a mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion attached to a tooth root and may cause expansion of the bone cortex or be associated with pain. SYN: benign c., true cementoma. benign c. SYN: c..
Destruction of cementum by cementoclasts. [L. cementum, cement, + G. klasis, fracture]
One of the multinucleated giant cells, identical with osteoclasts, that are associated with the resorption of cementum. [L. cementum, cement, + G. klastos, broken]
An osteocyte-like cell with numerous processes, trapped in a lacuna in the cementum of the tooth. [L. cementum, cement, + G. kytos, cell]
The development of the cementum over the root dentin of a tooth. [cementum + G. genesis, production]
Nonspecific term referring to any benign cementum-producing tumor; four types are recognized: 1) periapical cemental dysplasia, 2) central ossifying fibroma, 3) cementoblastoma, 4) sclerotic cemental mass. When the type is not specified, c. usually refers to periapical cemental dysplasia. [L. cementum, cement, + G. -oma, tumor] gigantiform c. the familial occurrence of cemental masses in the jaws; inherited as an autosomal dominant characteristic. SEE ALSO: sclerotic cemental mass. true c. SYN: cementoblastoma.
cementum (se-men′tum) [TA]
SYN: cement (1) . [L. caementum, rough quarry stone, fr. caedo, to cut] afibrillar c. c. which, with the electron microscope, appears as laminated, electron-dense reticular material that sometimes overlies the enamel of the tooth. primary c. c. that has no cementocytes; may cover the entire root of the tooth, but often is missing on the apical third of the root. secondary c. c. that forms on the root surface after eruption; it contains cementocytes.
The general sense of bodily existence; the sensation caused by the functioning of the internal organs. SYN: coenesthesia. [G. koinos, common, + aisthesis, sensation]
cenesthesic, cenesthetic (se-nes-the′zik, -sik; -thet′ik)
Relating to cenesthesia.
1. Shared in common. [G. koinos, common] 2. New, fresh. [G. kainos, new] 3. Emptiness (rare). SEE ALSO: coeno-. [G. kenos, empty]
A multinucleate cell or hypha without cross walls, characteristic of the hyphae of zygomycetes. SEE ALSO: nonseptate mycelium. SYN: coenocyte. [G. koinos, common, + kytos, cell]
Pertaining to or having characteristics of a cenocyte. SYN: coenocytic.
A facultative commensal organism; one that can sustain itself apart from its usual host. [G. koinos, common, + sitos, food]
A scientifically more accurate term than the earlier “instinct”, denoting the behavior pattern shown by all members of a large group having the same biologic equipment and same experience. [G. koinos, common, + trope, a turning]
In psychoanalytic theory, the psychic barrier that prevents certain unconscious thoughts and wishes from coming to consciousness unless they are so cloaked or disguised as to be unrecognizable. [L. a judge, critic, fr. censeo, to value, judge]
In epidemiology, (1) Loss of subjects from a follow-up study for unknown reasons. (2) Observations with unknown values from one end of a frequency distribution, beyond a measurement threshold.
An enumeration of a population, originally for taxation and military purposes, now with many other purposes; basic facts about all persons—age, sex, occupation, nature of residence, etc.— are recorded in the c., which often also includes some information about health status. [L., fr. censeo, to count]
center (sen′ter) [TA]
1. The middle point of a body; loosely, the interior of a body. A c. of any kind, especially an anatomical c.. 2. A group of nerve cells governing a specific function. SYN: centrum [TA] . [L. centrum; G. kentron] active c. the part of a macromolecule at which a substrate or ligand, upon binding, produces biologic activity; for an enzyme, this is the catalytic c., the site on an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction. anospinal c. the c. in the spinal cord that controls the contraction of the anal sphincter. birthing c. a facility, usually in a hospital, that provides labor and delivery services in a comfortable, homelike setting. Broca c. the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus of the left or dominant hemisphere, corresponding approximately to Brodmann area 44; Broca identified this region as an essential component of the motor mechanisms governing articulated speech. SYN: Broca area, Broca field, motor speech c.. Budge c. SYN: ciliospinal c.. catalytic c. active c.. cell c. SYN: cytocentrum. chondrification c. a site of earliest cartilage formation in the body. ciliospinal c. the preganglionic motor neurons in the first thoracic segment of the spinal cord which give rise to the sympathetic innervation that eventually influences the dilator muscle of the eye's pupil. SYN: Budge c.. dentary c. a specific ossification c. of the mandible that gives rise to the lower border of its outer plate. diaphysial c. primary c. of ossification in the shaft of a long bone. epiotic c. the c. of ossification of the petrous part of the temporal bone that appears posterior to the posterior semicircular canal. expiratory c. the region of the medulla oblongata that is electrically active during expiration and where electrical stimulation produces sustained expiration. feeding c. a region of the lateral zone of the hypothalamus, electrical stimulation of which in the rat elicits uninterrupted eating; destruction of the region causes long-lasting anorexia. germinal c. of Flemming the lightly staining c. in a lymphatic nodule in which the predominant cells are large lymphocytes and macrophages. SYN: reaction c.. inspiratory c. the region of the medulla oblongata that is electrically active during inspiration and where electrical stimulation produces sustained inspiration. Kerckring c. an occasional independent ossification c. in the occipital bone; it appears in the posterior margin of the foramen magnum at about the sixteenth week of gestation. SYN: Kerckring ossicle. medullary c. SYN: centrum semiovale. microtubule-organizing c. a locus in interphase and mitotic cells from which most microtubules radiate; in the c. of this c. is the centriole; this c. determines the polarity of cellular microtubules. motor speech c. SYN: Broca c.. ossific c. SYN: ossification c.. c. of ossification SYN: ossification c.. SYN: centrum ossificationis [TA] . ossification c. [TA] the site of earliest bone formation via accumulation of osteoblasts within connective tissue (membranous ossification) or of earliest destruction of cartilage prior to onset of ossification (endochondral ossification). SYN: c. of ossification, ossific c., point of ossification, punctum ossificationis. primary c. of ossification SYN: primary ossification c.. SYN: centrum ossificationis primarium [TA] . primary ossification c. [TA] this is the first site where bone begins to form in the shaft of a long bone or in the body of an irregular bone. SYN: primary c. of ossification, primary point of ossification, punctum ossificationis primarium. reaction c. SYN: germinal c. of Flemming. respiratory c. the region in the medulla oblongata concerned with integrating afferent information to determine the signals to the respiratory muscles; the inspiratory and expiratory centers considered together. c. of ridge the buccolingual midline of the residual ridge. c. of rotation a point or line around which all other points in a body move. See axis. satiety c. a term referring to the region of the ventromedial nucleus in the hypothalamus; destruction of this small region in the rat leads to continuous eating and extreme obesity. secondary c. of ossification SYN: secondary ossification c.. SYN: centrum ossificationis secundarium [TA] . secondary ossification c. [TA] this is the c. of bone formation appearing later than the punctum ossificationis primarium, usually in epiphysis. SYN: punctum ossificationis secundarium, secondary c. of ossification, secondary point of ossification. semioval c. SYN: centrum semiovale. sensory speech c. SYN: Wernicke c.. speech centers areas of the cerebral cortex centrally involved in speech function; one is in the left inferior frontal gyrus, a second one in the supramarginal, angular, and first and second temporal gyri. SEE ALSO: Broca c., Wernicke c.. sphenotic c. one of the paired centers of ossification of the sphenoid bone. vasomotor c. diffuse area of the reticular formation in the lateral medulla containing neurons that control vascular tone; consists of separate vasodepressor and vasopressor areas. vital c. c. essential to life; usually refers to the centers located in the medulla oblongata which are necessary for the maintenance of respiration and circulation. Wernicke c. the region of the cerebral cortex thought to be essential for understanding and formulating coherent, propositional speech; it encompasses a large region of the parietal and temporal lobes near the lateral sulcus of the left cerebral hemisphere; corresponding approximately to Brodmann areas 40, 39, and 22. SYN: sensory speech c., Wernicke area, Wernicke field, Wernicke region, Wernicke zone.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
The federal facility for disease eradication, epidemiology, and education headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, which encompasses the Center for Infectious Diseases, Center for Environmental Health, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Center for Prevention Services, Center for Professional Development and Training, and Center for Occupational Safety and Health. Formerly named Center for Disease Control (1970), Communicable Disease Center (1946).
Puncture, especially when used as a suffix, as in paracentesis. [G. kentesis, puncture, fr. kenteo, to prick, pierce]
Prefix used in the SI and metric systems to signify one hundredth (10−2). [L. centum, one hundred]
One hundredth of a bar.
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