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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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centigrade (C) (sen′ti-grad)
1. Basis of the former temperature scale in which 100 degrees separated the melting and boiling points of water. See Celsius scale. 2. One hundredth of a circle, equal to 3.6° of the astronomical circle. [L. centum, one hundred, + gradus, step, degree]

centigram (sen′ti-gram)
One hundredth of a gram; 0.15432358 grain.

centile (sen′til)
One-hundredth. See quantile. [L. centum, one hundred, + -ilis, adj. suffix]

centiliter (sen′ti-le-ter)
10 mL; one hundredth of a liter; 162.3073 minims (U.S.).

centimeter (cm) (sen′ti-me-ter)
One hundredth of a meter; 0.3937008 inch. cubic c. (cc, c.c.) one thousandth of a liter; 1 mL.

centimorgan (cM) (sen′ti-mor-gan)
See morgan.

centinormal (sen-ti-nor′mal)
One-hundredth normal; denoting the concentration of a solution.

centipede (sen′ti-ped)
A venomous predatory arthropod of the order Chilopoda, characterized by one pair of legs per leg-bearing segment. The venom is injected through the first pair of leglike appendages, modified into piercing claws; the bites may be painful and locally necrotic, but seldom are dangerous, except to very young children. Genera found in the U.S. include Scutigera, Lithobius, Scolopendra, and Geophilus. [L. centum, hundred, + pes (ped-), foot]

centipoise (sen′ti-poyz)
One hundredth of a poise.

centra (sen′tra)
Plural of centrum.

centrad (sen′trad)
1. Toward the center. 2. A unit of measurement of the refracting strength of a prism; it corresponds to the deviation of a ray of light, the arc of which is 1/100 of the radius of the circle, or 0.57°.

centrage (sen′traj)
The condition in which the optical centers of all the reflecting and refracting surfaces of an optical system are on the same axis.

centralis (sen-tra′lis)
Central; in the center. [L.]

centre médian de Luys (sen′tr ma-de-an)
SYN: centromedian nucleus. [Fr.]

centrencephalic (sen′tren-se-fal′ik)
Relating to the center of the encephalon.

centri- (sen′tri)
Combining form denoting center.

centric (sen′trik)
Having a center (of a specific kind or number) or having a specific thing as its center (of interest, focus, etc.). [G. kentron, center]

centriciput (sen-tris′i-put)
The central portion of the upper surface of the skull, between the occiput and the sinciput. [L. centrum, center, + caput, head]

centrifugal (sen-trif′u-gal)
1. Denoting the direction of the force pulling an object outward (away) from an axis of rotation. 2. Sometimes, by analogy, extended to describe any movement away from a center. Cf.:eccentric (2) . [L. centrum, center, + fugio, to flee]

centrifugalization (sen-trif′u-gal-i-za′shun)
SYN: centrifugation.

centrifugalize (sen-trif′u-gal-iz)
SYN: centrifuge (2) .

centrifugation (sen-trif-u-ga′shun)
Subjection to sedimentation, by means of a centrifuge, of solids suspended in a fluid. SYN: centrifugalization. band c. SYN: density gradient c.. density gradient c. ultracentrifugation of substances in concentrated solutions of cesium salts or of sucrose; at equilibrium, the medium exhibits a concentration (hence density) gradient increasing in the direction of centrifugal force and the substances of interest collect in layers at the levels of their densities. See isopycnic zone. SYN: band c., zone c.. zone c. SYN: density gradient c..

centrifuge (sen′tri-fooj)
1. An apparatus by means of which particles in suspension in a fluid are separated by spinning the fluid, the centrifugal force throwing the particles to the periphery of the rotated vessel. 2. To submit to rapid rotary action, as in a c.. SYN: centrifugalize.

centrilobular (sen-tri-lob′u-lar)
At or near the center of a lobule, e.g., of the liver.

centriole (sen′tre-ol)
Tubular structures, 150 nm by 300 to 500 nm, with a wall having 9 triple microtubules, usually seen as paired organelles lying in the cytocentrum; centrioles may be multiple and numerous in some cells, such as the giant cells of bone marrow. [G. kentron, a point, center] anterior c. SYN: proximal c.. distal c. the c. in the developing spermatozoon from which the flagellum develops. SYN: posterior c.. posterior c. SYN: distal c.. proximal c. the c. that lies in a depression in the wall of the posterior portion of the nucleus of the developing spermatozoon. SYN: anterior c..

centripetal (sen-trip′e-tal)
1. SYN: afferent. 2. Denoting the direction of the force pulling an object toward an axis of rotation. SYN: axipetal. [L. centrum, center, + peto, to seek]

centro-
Combining form denoting center. [G. kentron]

centroblast (sen′tro-blast)
A lymphocyte with a large non-cleaved nucleus. [centro- + G. blastos, germ]

Centrocestus (sen-tro-ses′tus)
A genus of extremely small fish-borne flukes (family Heterophyidae) that may produce intestinal lesions similar to those caused by Heterophyes heterophyes. C. formosana has been reported in humans in Taiwan. [G. kentron, point, center, + kestos, belt, both words fr. kenteo, to pierce]

centrocyte (sen′tro-sit)
1. A cell whose protoplasm contains single and double granules of varying size stainable with hematoxylin; seen in lesions of lichen planus. SYN: Lipschütz cell. 2. A lymphocyte with a cleaved nucleus. 3. A nondividing, activated B cell that expresses membrane immunoglobulin. [centro- + G. kytos, cell]

centrokinesia (sen′tro-ki-ne′se-a)
Movement excited by a stimulus of central origin. [centro- + G. kinesis, movement]

centrokinetic (sen′tro-ki-net′ik)
1. Relating to centrokinesia. 2. SYN: excitomotor.

centrolecithal (sen-tro-les′i-thal)
Denoting an ovum in which the deutoplasm accumulates centrally. [centro- + G. lekithos, yolk]

centromere (sen′tro-mer)
1. The nonstaining primary constriction of a chromosome which is the point of attachment of the spindle fiber; provides the mechanism of chromosome movement during cell division; the c. divides the chromosome into two arms, and its position is constant for a specific chromosome: near one end (acrocentric), near the center (metacentric), or between (submetacentric). [centro- + G. meros, part]

centroplasm (sen′tro-plazm)
The substance of the cytocentrum. [centro- + G. plasma, thing formed]

centrosome (sen′tro-som)
SYN: cytocentrum. [centro- + G. soma, body]

centrosphere (sen′tro-sfer)
The specialized, often gelated cytoplasm of the cytocentrum. Contains the centrioles from which the astral fibers (microtubules) extend during mitosis. SYN: astrocele, statosphere. [centro- + G. sphaira, a ball, sphere]

centrostaltic (sen-tro-stal′tik)
Relating to the center of motion. [centro- + G. stallein, set forth, fetch]

centrum, pl .centra (sen′trum, sen′tra) [TA]
SYN: center. [L. fr. G. kentron] c. medianum SYN: centromedian nucleus. c. medullare SYN: c. semiovale. c. ossificationis [TA] SYN: center of ossification. c. ossificationis primarium [TA] SYN: primary center of ossification. c. ossificationis secundarium [TA] SYN: secondary center of ossification. c. ovale SYN: c. semiovale. c. semiovale the great mass of white matter composing the interior of the cerebral hemisphere; the name refers to the general shape of this white core in horizontal sections of the hemisphere. SYN: c. medullare, c. ovale, medullary center, semioval center, Vicq d'Azyr c. semiovale, Vieussens c.. c. tendineum diaphragmatis [TA] SYN: central tendon of diaphragm. c. tendineum perinei [TA] SYN: central tendon of perineum. c. of a vertebra 1. the ossification center of the central mass of the body of a vertebra; 2. body of vertebra (as distinct from the arches). Vicq d'Azyr c. semiovale SYN: c. semiovale. Vieussens c. SYN: c. semiovale. Willis c. nervosum SYN: celiac ganglia, under ganglion.

Centruroides (sen-tru-roy′dez)
A genus of North American scorpions, the commonest species of which are C. gracilis, the margarite scorpion; C. vittatus, the stripe-back scorpion; and C. sculpturatus, the deadly sculptured scorpion. SEE ALSO: Scorpionida.

centum (c) (sen′tum)
One hundred. [L. one hundred]

cenuris, coenuris (se-nu′ris)
A tapeworm bladderworm with multiple inverted scoleces attached to the inner germinative layer; produced by taeniid cestodes of the genus Multiceps, typically found in the brain or tissues of herbivores and the adult worm in the intestine of wolves, dogs, or other canids; rare cases of c. infections in humans have been reported. [G. kenos, empty, + G. uris, tail]

cenurosis, cenuriasis (sen-u-ro′sis, sen-u-ri′a-sis)
Disease produced by the presence of a cenuris cyst that, in sheep, causes a brain infection known as “gid” for the giddy gait induced in the infected animal; human c. has been reported but is extremely unusual, in contrast with hydatid disease. SYN: coenurosis.

cephaeline (sef-a′e-len)
An alkaloid of ipecac; an emetic and amebicide.

Cephaelis (sef-a-e′lis)
SYN: Uragoga. [G. kephale, head, + eilo, to roll up, pack close]

cephal-
See cephalo-.

cephalad (sef′a-lad)
In a direction toward the head. SEE ALSO: cranial (1) .

cephalalgia (sef′al-al′je-a)
SYN: headache. [cephal- + G. algos, pain] benign coital c. SYN: coital headache. histaminic c. SYN: cluster headache. Horton c. SYN: cluster headache.

cephaledema (sef′al-e-de′ma)
Edema of the head.

cephalemia (sef-a-le′-me-a)
Congestion, active or passive, of the brain. [cephal- + G. haima, blood]

cephalexin (sef-a-lek′sin)
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from cephalosporin C..

cephalhematocele (sef′al-he-mat′o-sel)
A cephalhematoma under the pericranium communicating with the dural sinuses. SYN: cephalohematocele. [cephal- + G. haima, blood, + kele, tumor]

cephalhematoma (sef′al-he-ma-to′ma)
A collection of blood due to an effusion of blood beneath the periosteum frequently in a newborn as a result of birth trauma; contrasted with caput succedaneum, in which the effusion overlies the periosteum and consists of serum. SYN: cephalohematoma. [cephal- + G. haima, blood, + -oma, tumor]

cephalhydrocele (sef-al-hi′dro-sel)
An accumulation of serous or watery fluid under the pericranium. [cephal- + G. hydor, water, + kele, tumor]

cephalic (se-fal′ik)
SYN: cranial (1) .

cephalin (sef′a-lin)
A term formerly applied to a group of phosphatidic esters resembling lecithin but containing either 2-ethanolamine or l-serine in the place of choline; these are now known as phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine. They are widely distributed in the body, especially in the brain and spinal cord, and are used as local hemostatics and as reagents in liver function test. SYN: kephalin.

cephaline (sef′a-lin)
Denoting members of the protozoan suborder Cephalina (order Eugregarinida), characterized by bodies divided into chambers (anterior protomerite and posterior deutomerite, or anterior epimerite, protomerite, and terminal deutomerite); all are parasites of invertebrates.

cephalitis (sef-a-li′tis)
Obsolete term for encephalitis.

cephalization (sef′al-i-za′shun)
1. Evolutionary tendency for important functions of the nervous system to move forward in the brain. 2. Initiation and concentration of the growth tendency at the anterior end of the embryo.

cephalo-, cephal-
The head. [G. kephale]

cephalocaudal (sef′a-lo-kaw′dal)
Relating to both head and tail, i.e., to the long axis of the body. [cephalo- + L. cauda, tail]

cephalocele (sef′a-lo-sel)
Protrusion of part of the cranial contents, e.g., meningocele, encephalocele. SEE ALSO: encephalocele.

cephalocentesis (sef′a-lo-sen-te′sis)
Passage of a hollow needle or trocar and cannula into the brain to drain or aspirate an abscess or the fluid of a hydrocephalus. [cephalo- + G. kentesis, puncture]

cephalochord (sef′a-lo-kord)
Intracranial portion of the notochord in the embryo.

cephalodidymus (sef′a-lo-did′i-mus)
Conjoined twins fused except in the cephalic region; a variety of duplicitas posterior. See conjoined twins, under twin. [cephalo- + G. didymos, twin]

cephalodiprosopus (sef′a-lo-di-pros′o-pus)
Asymmetrical conjoined twins with the head of the autosite carrying a reduced parasitic head. See conjoined twins, under twin, diprosopus. [cephalo- + G. di-, two, + prosopon, face]

cephalodynia (sef′a-lo-din′e-a)
Headache. [cephalo- + G. odyne, pain]

cephalogenesis (sef′a-lo-jen′e-sis)
Formation of the head in the embryonic period. [cephalo- + G. genesis, production]

cephaloglycin (sef′a-lo-gli′sin)
A semisynthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic produced from cephalosporin C..




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