|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
SYN: cephalometric radiograph.
Relating to rotation of the head. [cephalo- + G. gyros, a circle]
An instrument showing the degree of intracranial blood pressure. [cephalo- + G. haima, blood, + metron, measure]
Enlargement of the head. [cephalo- + G. megas, great]
Malformed individual with an accessory limb, resembling a leg or arm, growing from the head. [cephalo- + G. melos, a limb]
Obsolete term for meningitis. [cephalo- + G. meninx (mening-), membrane]
An instrument used to position the head to produce oriented, reproducible lateral and posterior-anterior head films. SYN: cephalostat. [cephalo- + G. metron, measure]
In oral surgery and orthodontics: 1. The scientific measurement of the bones of the cranium and face, utilizing a fixed, reproducible position for lateral radiographic exposure of skull and facial bones. SEE ALSO: cephalometry. 2. A scientific study of the measurements of the head with relation to specific reference points; used for evaluation of facial growth and development, including soft tissue profile. [cephalo- + G. metron, measure]
Scientific measurements, often taken by means of radiographic imaging, of the head in the living, or of the cadaver head with soft tissues in place, utilizing specific reference points and sufficient standardization to allow reproducible results. Commonly used to document age based on cephalic growth (as in obstetric ultrasonography) or to plan or measure progress in cephalic remodeling (as in orthodontics). SEE ALSO: craniometry, cephalometrics. [cephalo- + G. metron, measure] ultrasonic c. measurement of the fetal head by ultrasound.
Relating to movements of the head.
Former name for Oestrus. [cephalo- + G. myia, fly]
Adult stage of a cephaline gregarine, a sporozoan parasite commonly found in arthropods and other invertebrate hosts. The body is usually divided by a septum into an anterior epimerite and protomerite and a posterior deutomerite; acephaline gregarines lack a dividing septum. [cephalo- + G. on (ont-), being]
Conjoined twins with heads fused but the remainder of the bodies separate. See conjoined twins, under twin. SEE ALSO: craniopagus, duplicitas posterior. [cephalo- + G. pagos, something fixed]
Pertaining to the size of the fetal head in relation to the maternal pelvis.
Radiographic measurement of the dimensions of the pelvis and the fetal head; the technique has been largely abandoned. SYN: pelvicephalography, pelvocephalography. [cephalo- + pelvimetry]
See superior pharyngeal constrictor (muscle).
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial derived from cephalosporin C..
Relating to the head and the spine. [cephalo- + G. rhachis, spine]
cephalosporanic acid (sef′a-lo-spor-an′ik)
The basic chemical nucleus upon which cephalosporin antibiotic derivatives are based.
This is an antibiotic produced by a Cephalosporium, but since the antibiotic was discovered the name Cephalosporium has been removed and the new name is Acremonium. c. C an antibiotic whose activity is due to the 7-aminocephalosporanic acid portion of the cephalosporanic acid molecule; it is effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but is less potent than c. N. Addition of side chains produced semisynthetic broad spectrum antibiotics with greater antibacterial activity than that of c. C; the antibiotic activity is due to interference with bacterial cell-wall synthesis. c. N an antibiotic active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but inactivated by penicillinase; on hydrolysis it yields penicillamine. SYN: penicillin N, synnematin B. c. P a steroid antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium, chemically related to fusidic and helvolic acids, that is active only against Gram-positive bacteria.
Former name of Acremonium.
SYN: cephalometer. [cephalo- + G. statos, stationary]
Chemically modified cephalosporin C, a broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Relating to the head and the chest.
Conjoined twins with the bodies fused in the cephalic and thoracic regions. See conjoined twins, under twin. [cephalo- + G. thorax, chest, + pagos, something fixed] c. asymmetros SYN: c. monosymmetros. c. disymmetros a form of c. with the fused head showing equally developed faces directed laterally. c. monosymmetros a form of c. in which only one of the faces is well developed. SYN: c. asymmetros.
Instrument formerly used for cutting into the fetal head to permit its compression in cases of dystocia. [cephalo- + G. tome, a cutting]
Formerly used operation of cutting into the head of the fetus.
A poison, believed to be a protein, found in the salivary glands of cephalopods (octopus). SEE ALSO: eledoisin.
Forcepslike instrument, with strong blades and a screw handle, formerly used to crush the fetal head in cases of dystocia. [G. tribo, to rub, bruise]
A family of β-lactam antibiotics (similar to penicillin and cephalosporins) produced by various Streptomyces species.
cephapirin sodium (sef-a-pi′rin)
A semisynthetic broad spectrum antibiotic derived from cephalosporin C; it is used by injection.
A semisynthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from cephalosporin C; used orally and by injection.
ceptor (sep′ter, tor)
SYN: receptor (2) . [L. capio, pp. captus, to take] chemical c. c. that initiates chemical reactions in response to the appropriate stimuli. contact c. a nerve c. in the surface layer of skin or mucous membrane by means of which impulses contributed by direct physical impact are received. distance c. a nerve mechanism of one of the organs of special sense whereby the subject is brought into relation with the distant environment.
Combining form denoting taker, receiver. [L. capio, pp. captus, to take]
SYN: wax (1) . [L.]
Waxen. [L. cera, wax]
An enzyme that hydrolyzes ceramides into sphingosine and a fatty acid; acylsphirgosine deacylase. A deficiency of this enzyme is associated with Farber disease.
Generic term for a class of sphingolipid, N-acyl (fatty acid) derivatives of a long chain base or sphingoid such as sphinganine or sphingosine; e.g., CH3(CH2)12CH&dbond;CH&cbond;CHOH&cbond;CH(CH2OH)&cbond;NH&cbond;CO&cbond;R, where R is the fatty-acyl residue, attached in this example to 4-sphingenine (sphingosine) in amide linkage. Ceramides accumulate in individuals with Farber disease. c. dihexoside the accumulated glycolipid noted in glycolipid lipidosis. c. lactosidase a hydrolytic enzyme (a β-galactosidase) that acts on c. lactoside, producing glucosylceramide and galactose. A deficiency of this enzyme can result in c. lactoside liposis. Cf.:cytolipin. c. lactoside a lactosylceramide that accumulates in individuals with ceremide lactoside liposis. Cf.:cytolipin. c. 1-phosphorylcholine SYN: sphingomyelins. c. saccharide SYN: glycosphingolipid.
A rarely used unctuous solid preparation, harder than an ointment, containing sufficient wax to prevent it from melting when applied to the skin. [L. cera, wax]
Relating to the inferior cornua of the thyroid cartilage and to the cricoid cartilage, or the cricothyroid articulation. SYN: keratocricoid.
Relating to one of the cornua of the hyoid bone. SYN: keratohyal.
A family of mammal and bird fleas, many of which have a wide host range and serve as important vectors of plague, sustaining the infection among wild and domestic rodent hosts. Important genera include Nosopsyllus and Ceratophyllus. [G. keras, horn, + phyllodes, like leaves]
A genus of fleas (family Ceratophyllidae) found in temperate climates; includes important fleas of poultry such as C. niger, the western chicken flea, and C. gallinae, the European chicken flea, although these fleas have a wide range of hosts, including humans. [cerat- (kerat-) + G. phyllon, leaf] C. punjatensis a species of flea abundant on wild and domestic rodents in India; may serve as a liaison agent between wild rodents and humans in the transmission of plague.
cercaria, pl .cercariae (ser-ka′re-a, -re-e)
The free-swimming trematode larva that emerges from its host snail; it may penetrate the skin of a final host (as in Schistosoma of humans), encyst on vegetation (as in Fasciola), in or on fish (as in Clonorchis), or penetrate and encyst in various arthropod hosts. Body and tail are greatly varied in form, and specialized function is adapted to the particular life cycle demands of each species. SEE ALSO: sporocyst (1) , redia. [G. kerkos, tail]
Plural of cercus.
1. Bringing into close opposition and binding together the ends of an obliquely fractured bone by a ring or by an encircling, tightly drawn wire loop. 2. Operation for retinal detachment in which the choroid and retinal pigment epithelium are brought in contact with the detached sensory retina by a band encircling the sclera posterior to the insertion of the ocular rectus muscles. 3. The placing of a nonabsorbable suture around an incompetent cervical os. [Fr. an encircling, hooping, banding]
A specialized form of tapeworm cysticercoid larva that develops within the vertebrate host villus rather than in an invertebrate host; e.g., the c. of Hymenolepis nana in its direct or egg-borne cycle in man. SEE ALSO: cysticercus, cysticercoid. [G. kerkos, tail, + kystis, bladder]
The caudal appendage of a larval cestode, the procercoid stage of pseudophyllid cestodes; it may also be found on the cysticercoid larvae of taenioid cestodes, as well as in many of the hymenolepidids ( e.g., Hymenolepis nana). This appendage frequently bears the hooks originally used by the hexacanth in clawing its way into the intermediate host in which the procercoid or other larval stage develops. [G. kerkos, tail + meros, part]
Common name for members of the genus Cercomonas.
A genus of freshwater and coprophilic protozoan flagellates in which members have one anterior and one posterior flagellum. Species have been described from the intestine or feces of humans and several types of domestic livestock, but have usually proved to be other genera such as Trichomonas or Chilomastix. [G. kerkos, tail + monas (monad-), unit, monad]
One of the three superfamilies of the suborder Anthropoidea; includes apes, Old World monkeys, and humans. [G. kerkos, tail, + pithekos, monkey]
A genus of the family Cercopithecidae, represented by guenons and common African monkeys.
cercus, gen. and pl. cerci (ser′kus, ker′kus; -se, -ke)
1. A stiff hairlike structure. 2. A pair of specialized sensory appendages on the 11th abdominal segment of most insects. [Mod. L., fr. G. kerkos, tail]
cerea flexibilitas (se′re-a flek-si-bil′i-tas)
“Waxy flexibility,” in which the limb remains where placed; often seen in catatonia. [L.]
Relating to the cerebellum.
A cerebellum-specific hexadecapeptide localized in the perikarya and dendrites of cerebellar Purkinje cells; used as a marker for Purkinje cell maturation studies of neural development.
Obsolete term for inflammation of the cerebellum.
The cerebellum. [L. cerebrum, brain, + -ellum, dim. suff.]
Relating to the cerebellum and the lens of the eye.
Relating to the cerebellum and the medulla oblongata.
Relating to the connections of the cerebellum with the inferior olive.
Relating to the cerebellum and the pons; denoting especially the c. recess or angle between these two structures.
Relating to the connections of the cerebellum with the red nucleus. [cerebello- + L. ruber, red]
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