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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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chancroid (shang′kroyd)
An infectious, painful, ragged venereal ulcer at the site of infection by Haemophilus ducreyi, beginning after an incubation period of 3–7 days; seen more commonly in men; Gram-negative streptobacilli may be identified by staining material from the ulcer. SYN: soft chancre, soft sore, soft ulcer, venereal sore, venereal ulcer. [chancre + G. eidos, resemblance]

chancroidal (shang-kroy′dal)
Relating to or of the nature of chancroid.

chancrous (shang′krus)
Characterized by having a chancre.

Chandler
Paul A., U.S. ophthalmologist, *1896. See C. syndrome.

change (chanj)
An alteration; in pathology, structural alteration of which the cause and significance is uncertain. SYN: shift. Armanni-Ebstein c. SYN: Armanni-Ebstein kidney. Baggenstoss c. distention of pancreatic acini by proteinaceous secretion, seen in dehydration. Crooke hyaline c. replacement of cytoplasmic granules of basophil cells of the anterior pituitary by homogeneous hyaline material; a characteristic finding in Cushing syndrome, but usually not present in the cells of a basophil adenoma. SYN: Crooke hyaline degeneration. fatty c. SYN: fatty metamorphosis. c. of life colloquialism for 1. menopause; 2. climacteric. reactive changes term in the Bethesda classification system for reporting cervical/vaginal cytologic diagnosis that refers to changes benign in nature, associated with inflammation (including typical repair), atrophy with inflammation, radiation, an intrauterine device, and other nonspecific causes. SEE ALSO: Bethesda system, AGUS, LSIL, HSIL. trophic changes changes resulting from interruption of nerve supply. SEE ALSO: neurotrophic atrophy.

Changeux
Jean-Pierre, French 20th century biochemist. See Monod-Wyman-C. model.

channel (chan′el)
A furrow, gutter, or groovelike passageway. SEE ALSO: canal. [L. canalis] ion c. a specific macromolecular protein pathway, with an aqueous “pore,” that traverses the lipid bilayer of a cell's plasma membrane and maintains or modulates the electrical potential across this barrier by allowing controlled influx or exit of small inorganic ions such as Na+, K+, Cl−, and Ca2+. It plays an important role in propagation of the action potential in neurons, but also may control transduction of extracellular signals and contraction in muscle cells. In general, ion channels are characterized by their selectivity for certain ions, their specific regulation or gating of these ions, and their specific sensitivity to toxins. ligand-gated c. a class of ion channels whose ionic permeability is regulated by cell membrane receptors that respond to specific extracellular chemical signals. transnexus c. a hexagonal 15–20Å hydrophilic c. capable of transporting small ions between cardiac muscle cells. voltage-gated c. a class of ion channels that open and close in response to change in the electrical potential across the plasma membrane of the cell; voltage-gated Na+ c.'s are important for conducting action potential along nerve cell processes.

channelopathies (chan-el-op′ath-ez)
SYN: ion channel disorders, under disorder. [channel + G. pathos, disease]

Chantemesse
André, French bacteriologist, 1851–1919. See C. reaction.

chaos (ka′os)
1. State of such total disorganization that it has no constructive predicates. 2. A state in which no causal relationships are operating. [G., primeval formless void] mathematical c. a dynamic system so sensitive to its precise current state (which in practice will never be known exactly) that its behavior, though deterministic, is indistinguishable from random.

chaotropic (ka-o-trop′ik)
Pertaining to chaotropism.

chaotropism (ka-o-trop′izm)
The property of certain substances, usually ions ( e.g., SCN−, ClO4−, guanidinium), to disrupt the structure of water and thereby promote the solubility of nonpolar substances in polar solvents ( e.g., water), the unfolding of proteins, the elution from or movement through a chromatographic medium of an otherwise tightly bound substance, etc. [G. chaos, disorder, confusion, + trope, a turning]

CHAP
Acronym for cyclophosphamide, hexamethylmelamine, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), and cisplatin, a chemotherapy regimen used in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

chaperone (shap-e-ron)
1. A protein required for the proper folding and/or assembly of another protein or protein complex. 2. One who accompanies a physician during examination of a patient of the opposite sex (from the physician). [Eng. escort, protector, fr. Fr. chaperon, hood, fr. chape, cape, fr. L.L. cappa, fr. L. caput, head]

chappa (chap′pa)
A disease marked by subcutaneous nodules, the size of a pigeon's egg, which break down, release a fatty looking material, and form ulcers; the eruption is preceded by severe muscular and articular pains. [W. Af.]

chapped (chapt)
Having or pertaining to skin, especially of the hands, that is dry, scaly, and fissured, owing to the action of cold or to the excess rate of evaporation of moisture from the skin surface. See hand eczema. [M.E. chap, to chop, split]

character (kar′ak-ter)
An attribute in individuals that is amenable to formal and logical analysis and may be used as the basis of generalizations about classes and other statements that transcend individuality. SYN: characteristic (1) . [G. charakter, stamp, mark, fr. charasso, to engrave] acquired c. a c. developed in a plant or animal as a result of environmental influences during the individual's life. classifiable c. a c. that allows individuals to be sorted into distinct but not quantitative classes, e.g., blood types. compound c. an inherited c. dependent upon two or more distinct genes. denumerable c. classifiable c. that is also countable ( e.g., number of progeny, number of teeth). SYN: discrete c.. discrete c. SYN: denumerable c.. dominant c. an inherited c. determined by one kind of allele. See phenotype. inherited c. a discrete attribute of an animal or plant that is transmitted at one genetic locus from generation to generation in accordance with Mendel law. See gene. SYN: unit c.. mendelian c. an inherited c. under the control of a single locus (although perhaps modified by genes at other loci). primary sex characters the sex glands, testes or ovaries, and the accessory sex organs. recessive c. an inherited c. determined by an allele in homozygous state only. See dominance of traits. secondary sex characters those characters peculiar to the male or female that develop at puberty, e.g., men's beards and women's breasts. sex-linked c. an inherited c. determined by a gene on a gonosome. See gene. unit c. SYN: inherited c..

character armor
A habitual pattern of organized defenses against anxiety.

characteristic (kar′ak-ter-is′tik)
1. SYN: character. 2. Typical or distinctive of a particular disorder. receiver operating c. (ROC) a plot of the sensitivity of a diagnostic test as a function of nonspecificity (one minus the specificity). The ROC curve indicates the intrinsic properties of a test's diagnostic performance and can be used to compare the relative merits of competing procedures.

characterization (kar′ak-ter-i-za′shun)
The discernment, description, or attributing of distinguishing traits. denture c. modification of the form and color of the denture base and/or teeth to produce a more lifelike appearance.

charas (char′as)
A resin obtained from mature leaves of selected varieties of Cannabis sativa; used for smoking.

charbon (shar-bawn′)
SYN: anthrax (2) . [Fr. coal]

charcoal (char′kol)
Carbon obtained by heating or burning wood with restricted access of air. SYN: carbo. activated c. the residue from the destructive distillation of various organic materials, treated to increase its adsorptive power; used in diarrhea, as an antidote in various forms of poisoning, and in purification processes in industry and research. SYN: medicinal c.. animal c. c. produced by incomplete combustion of animal tissues, especially bone. SYN: animal black, bone black, bone c.. bone c. SYN: animal c.. medicinal c. SYN: activated c.. vegetable c. c. obtained by charring vegetable tissues, especially the wood of willow, beech, birch, or oak. SYN: wood c.. wood c. SYN: vegetable c..

Charcot
Jean M., French neurologist, 1825–1893. See C. arteries, C. disease, C. intermittent fever, C. gait, C. joint, C. syndrome, C. triad, C. vertigo, C.-Leyden crystals, under crystal, C.-Neumann crystals, under crystal, C.-Robin crystals, under crystal, C.-Böttcher crystalloids, under crystalloid, C.-Marie-Tooth disease, C.-Weiss-Baker syndrome, Erb-C. disease.

Chargaff
Erwin, Austrian-U.S. biochemist, *1905. See C. rule.

charge transfer
See c. complex.

charlatan (shar′la-tan)
A medical fraud claiming to cure disease by useless procedures, secret remedies, and worthless diagnostic and therapeutic machines. SYN: quack. [Fr., fr. It. ciarlare, to prattle]

charlatanism (shar′la-tan-izm)
A fraudulent claim to medical knowledge; treating the sick without knowledge of medicine or authority to practice medicine. SYN: quackery.

Charles
Jacques, French physicist, 1746–1823. See C. law.

charley horse (char′le hors)
Localized pain or muscle stiffness following a contusion of a muscle. [slang]

Charlton
Willy, German physician, *1889. See Schultz-C. phenomenon, Schultz-C. reaction.

Charnley
Sir John, English orthopedic surgeon, 1911–1982. See C. hip arthroplasty.

Charrière
Joseph F.B., French instrument maker, 1803–1876. See C. scale.

chart
1. A recording of clinical data relating to a patient's case. 2. SYN: curve (2) . 3. In optics, symbols of graduated size for measuring visual acuity, or test types for determining far or near vision. See Snellen test types. [L. charta, sheet of papyrus] Amsler c. a 10-cm square divided into 5-mm squares upon which an individual may project a defect in the central visual field. SYN: Amsler grid. isometric c. a c. or graph that displays three dimensions on a plane surface. Levey-Jennings c. SYN: quality control c.. Pickles c. day-by-day plots of new cases of infectious disease used to demonstrate the progress of an epidemic in a small, relatively isolated population. quality control c. a c. illustrating the allowable limits of error in laboratory test performance, the limits being a defined deviation from the mean of a control serum, most commonly ±2 SD. SEE ALSO: quality control. SYN: Levey-Jennings c.. Tanner growth c. a series of charts showing distribution of parameters of physical development, such as stature, growth curves, and skinfold thickness, for children by sex, age, and stages of puberty. Walker c. a system of plotting the relative fetal and placental sizes.

Charters
W.J., U.S. dentist. See C. method.

charting
Making a record in tabular or graph form of the progress of a patient's condition. SYN: clinical recording.

Chassaignac
Edouard P.M., French surgeon, 1804–1879. See C. space, C. tubercle.

Chaudhry
Anand P. See Gorlin-C.-Moss syndrome.

Chauffard
Anatole M.E., French physician, 1855–1932. See C. syndrome, Still-C. syndrome.

chaulmoogra oil (chawl-moo′gra)
The fixed oil expressed from seeds of Taraktogenos kurzii and Hydnocarpus wightiana (family Flacourtiaceae); formerly used in the treatment of leprosy. SYN: gynocardia oil, hydnocarpus oil.

Chaussier
François, French physician, 1746–1828. See C. line, C. sign.

Chayes
Herman E.S., U.S. prosthodontist, 1880–1933. See C. method.

Ch.B.
Abbreviation for Chirurgiae Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Surgery.

Ch.D.
Abbreviation for Chirurgiae Doctor, Doctor of Surgery.

Cheadle
Walter B., English pediatrician, 1835–1910. See C. disease.

Cheatle
Sir George L., British surgeon, 1865–1951. See C. slit.

checkbite (chek′bit)
SYN: interocclusal record.

checkerberry oil (chek′er-bar′e)
SYN: methyl salicylate.

Chédiak
Moisés, 20th century Cuban physician. See C.-Higashi disease, C.-Steinbrinck-Higashi anomaly, C.-Steinbrinck-Higashi syndrome.

cheek (chek)
The side of the face forming the lateral wall of the mouth. SYN: bucca, gena, mala (1) . [A. S. ceáce]

cheil-
See cheilo-.

cheilalgia, chilalgia (ki-lal′je-a)
Pain in the lip. [cheil- + G. algos, pain]

cheilectomy, chilectomy (ki-lek′to-me)
1. Excision of a portion of the lip. 2. Chiseling away bony irregularities at osteochondral margin of a joint cavity that interfere with movements of the joint. [cheil- + G. ektome, excision]

cheilectropion, chilectropion (ki-lek-tro′pe-on)
Eversion of the lips or a lip. [cheil- + G. ektropos, a turning out]

cheilion (ki′le-on)
A cephalometric point located at the angle (corner) of the mouth. [G. cheilos, lips]

cheilitis, chilitis (ki-li′tis)
Inflammation of the lips or of a lip. SEE ALSO: cheilosis. [cheil- + G. -itis, inflammation] actinic c. SYN: solar c.. angular c. inflammation and fissuring radiating from the commissures of the mouth secondary to predisposing factors such as lost vertical dimension in denture wearers, nutritional deficiencies, atopic dermatitis, or Candida albicans infection. SYN: angular stomatitis, commissural c., perlèche. commissural c. SYN: angular c.. contact c. inflammation of the lips resulting from contact with a primary irritant or specific allergen, including ingredients of lipsticks. SYN: c. venenata. c. exfoliativa an exfoliative dermatitis; it may be related to atopic dermatitis or to contact sensitivity. c. glandularis an acquired disorder, of unknown etiology, of the lower lip characterized by swelling, ulceration, crusting, mucous gland hyperplasia, abscesses, and sinus tracts. SYN: Baelz disease, myxadenitis labialis, Volkmann c.. c. granulomatosa chronic, diffuse, soft swelling of the lips, of unknown etiology, microscopically characterized by noncaseating granulomatous inflammation. SEE ALSO: Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. SYN: Meischer syndrome. impetiginous c. pyoderma of the lips with yellow crusts due to Staphylococcus aureus or streptococcal infection. solar c. mucosal atrophy with drying, crusting, and fissuring of the vermilion border of the lower lip in older fair-skinned individuals, resulting from chronic exposure to sunlight; dysplastic (premalignant) changes are noted microscopically, analogous to solar keratosis. SYN: actinic c.. c. venenata SYN: contact c.. Volkmann c. SYN: c. glandularis.

cheilo-, cheil-
Lips. SEE ALSO: chilo-, labio-. [G. cheilos, lip]

cheilognathoglossoschisis (ki′lo-nath′o-glos-os′ki-sis)
Associated condition of cleft mandible and lower lip, and bifid tongue. [cheilo- + G. gnathos, jaw, + glossa, tongue, + schisis, cleft]

cheilognathopalatoschisis (ki′lo-nath′o-pal-a-tos′ki-sis)
SYN: cheilognathouranoschisis.

cheilognathouranoschisis (ki-lo-nath′o-u-ra-nos′ki-sis)
Cleft lip with cleft upper jaw and palate. SYN: cheilognathopalatoschisis. [cheilo- + G. gnathos, jaw, + ouranos, sky (roof of mouth), + schisis, cleft]

cheilophagia, chilophagia (ki-lo-fa′je-a)
Biting of the lips. [cheilo- + G. phago, to eat]

cheiloplasty (ki′lo-plas-te)
Old term for plastic surgery of the lips. [cheilo- + G. plastos, formed]

cheilorrhaphy (ki-lor′a-fe)
Suturing of the lip. [cheilo- + G. rhaphe, suture]

cheilosis, chilosis (ki-lo′sis)
A condition characterized by dry scaling and fissuring of the lips, attributed by some to riboflavin and other nutritional deficiencies. SEE ALSO: cheilitis. [cheil- + G. -osis, condition]




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