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Medical Dictionary


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chemosynthesis (ke-m′o-sin′the-sis)
1. Chemical synthesis. 2. Chemolithotrophy.

chemotactic (ke-mo-tak′tik)
Relating to chemotaxis.

chemotaxis (ke-mo-tak′sis)
1. Movement of cells or organisms in response to chemicals, whereby the cells are attracted (positive c.) or repelled (negative c.) by substances exhibiting chemical properties. 2. The migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages toward higher concentrations of certain fragments of complement. SYN: chemiotaxis, chemotropism. [chemo- + G. taxis, orderly arrangement]

chemothalamectomy (kem′o-thal-a-mek′to-me, ke′mo-)
Chemical destruction of a part of the thalamus, usually for relief of pain or dyskinesia. SYN: chemothalamotomy. [chemo- + thalamus, + G. ektome, excision]

chemothalamotomy (kem′o-thal-a-mot′o-me, ke′mo-)
SYN: chemothalamectomy.

chemotherapeutic (kem′o-thar-a-pu′tik, ke′mo-)
Relating to chemotherapy.

chemotherapeutics (kem′o-thar-a-pu′tiks, ke′mo)
The branch of therapeutics concerned with chemotherapy.

chemotherapy (kem′o-thar-a-pe, ke′mo-)
Treatment of disease by means of chemical substances or drugs; usually used in reference to neoplastic disease. SEE ALSO: pharmacotherapy. adjuvant c. c. given in addition to surgical therapy, in order to reduce the risk of local or systemic relapse. combination c. c. with more than one drug, to benefit from their dissimilar toxicities. consolidation c. repetitive cycles of treatment during the immediate post-remission period, used especially for leukemia. SYN: intensification c.. cytostatic c. c. that does not allow tumor cell proliferation, but may not kill cells. cytotoxic c. c. designed to kill tumor cells. induction c. use of c. as initial treatment before surgery or radiotherapy of a malignancy. intensification c. SYN: consolidation c.. salvage c. use of c. in a patient with recurrence of a malignancy following initial treatment, in hope of a cure or prolongation of life. SYN: salvage therapy.

chemotic (ke-mot′ic)
Relating to chemosis.

chemotransmitter (kem-o-trans′mit-er, ke-mo-)
A chemical substance produced to diffuse across the space between cells (synapse) and cause responses of neurons or effector cells.

chemotroph (ke-mo-trof)
An organism that obtains its energy by the oxidation of inorganic or organic nutrients ( i.e., exogenous chemical sources).

chemotropism (ke-mot′ro-pi-zum)
SYN: chemotaxis. [chemo- + G. tropos, direction, turn]

Chenais
Louis J., French physician, 1872–1950. See Cestan-C. syndrome.

Cheney
William D., U.S. radiologist, *1918. See C. syndrome.

chenodeoxycholic acid (ke′no-de-oks-e-ko′lik)
A major bile acid in many vertebrates, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine, which facilitates cholesterol excretion and fat absorption; administered to dissolve cholesterol gallstones. SYN: chenodiol.

chenodiol (ke-no-di′ol)
SYN: chenodeoxycholic acid.

chenopodium (ke-no-po′de-um)
The dried ripe fruit of C. ambrosoides (family Chenopodiaceae), American wormwood, from which a volatile oil is distilled and used as an anthelmintic. SYN: Jesuit tea, Mexican tea, wormseed (2) . [G. chen, goose, + pous (pod-), foot]

Cherenkov
See Cerenkov.

cherry juice (char′e)
The juice expressed from the fresh ripe fruit of Prunus cerasus, containing not less than 1.0% of malic acid; used as a flavoring agent, and as a vehicle for cough syrups and other preparations for oral administrations.

cherubism (che-r′ub-izm) [MIM*118400]
Hereditary giant cell lesions of the jaws beginning in early childhood; multilocular radiolucencies and progressive symmetric painless swelling of the jaws; bilateral; occurs with no associated systemic manifestations. SYN: fibrous dysplasia of jaws. [Hebr. kerubh, cherub]

chest
The anterior wall of the thorax. SEE ALSO: thorax. SYN: pectus. [A.S. cest, a box] alar c. SYN: flat c.. barrel c. a c. permanently resembling the shape of a barrel, i.e., with increased anteroposterior diameter, roughly equaling the lateral diameter; usually with some degree of kyphosis; seen in cases of emphysema. flail c. loss of stability of thoracic cage following fracture of sternum, ribs, or both; can cause respiratory failure. flat c. a c. in which the anteroposterior diameter is shorter than the average. SYN: alar c., pterygoid c.. foveated c., funnel c. SYN: pectus excavatum. keeled c. SYN: pectus carinatum. phthinoid c. a long narrow c., the lower ribs being more oblique than usual and sometimes reaching almost to the crest of the ilium, with the scapulae projecting backward, the manubrium sterni depressed, and Louis angle sharper than normal; such a c. was once considered indicative of pulmonary tuberculosis. pigeon c. SYN: pectus carinatum. pterygoid c. SYN: flat c..

Cheyne
John, Scottish physician, 1777–1836. See C.-Stokes psychosis, C.-Stokes respiration.

chi (ki)
1. The 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet, &c.;. 2. In chemistry, denotes the 22nd in a series. 3. Symbol for the dihedral angle between the α-carbon and the side chains of amino acids in peptides and proteins.

Chiari
Johann B., German obstetrician, 1817–1854. See C.-Frommel syndrome.

Chiari
Hans, German pathologist, 1851–1916. See Arnold-C. deformity, Arnold-C. malformation, Arnold-C. syndrome, C. disease, C. net, C. syndrome, C. II syndrome, C.-Budd syndrome, Budd-C. syndrome.

chiasm (ki′azm)
1. An intersection or crossing of two lines. 2. [TA] In anatomy, a decussation or crossing of two fibrous bundles, such as tendins, nerves, or tracts. 3. In cytogenetics, the site at which two homologous chromosomes make contact (thus appearing to be crossed), enabling the exchange of genetic material during the prophase stage of meiosis. SYN: chiasma [TA] . [G. chiasma] Camper c. SYN: tendinous c. of the digital tendons. optic c. [TA] a flattened quadrangular body in front of the tuber cinereum and infundibulum, the point of crossing or decussation of the axons of the optic nerves; axons from the nasal retina cross to the opposite side while axons from the temporal retina run directly caudal without crossing, some pass transversely on the posterior surface between the two optic tracts and others pass transversely on the anterior surface between the two optic nerves. SYN: chiasma opticum [TA] , optic decussation. tendinous c. of the digital tendons [TA] crossing of the tendons, the passage of the tendons of the flexor digitorum profundus (flexor digitorum longus in the foot) through the interval left by the decussation of the fibers of the tendons of the flexor digitorum superficialis (flexor digitorum brevis in the foot). SYN: chiasma tendinum [TA] , Camper c..

chiasma, pl .chiasmata (ki-az′ma, ki-az′ma-ta) [TA]
SYN: chiasm. [G. c., two crossing lines, fr. the letter chi, 3] c. opticum [TA] SYN: optic chiasm. c. tendinum [TA] SYN: tendinous chiasm of the digital tendons.

chiasmapexy (ki-as′ma-pek-se)
Surgical fixation of the optic chiasma. [G. chiasma, decussation, + pexis, fixation]

chiasmatic (ki-az-mat′ik)
Relating to a chiasm.

chickenpox (chik′en-poks)
SYN: varicella.

Chick-Martin test
See under test.

chicle (chik′el)
1. The partially evaporated viscous, milky juice from Manilkara zapotilla (sapotaceae), which is native to the West Indies, Mexico, and Central America. 2. A mixture of gutta with triterpene alcohols. Used in the manufacture of chewing gum. [Sp., from Nahuatl chictli]

Chievitz
Johan H., Danish anatomist, 1850–1901. See C. layer, C. organ.

chigger (chig′er)
The six-legged larva of Trombicula species and other members of the family Trombiculidae; a bloodsucking stage of mites that includes the vectors of scrub typhus.

chigoe (chig′o)
Common name for Tunga penetrans.

chil-
See chilo-.

Chilaiditi
Demetrius, Austrian radiologist, *1883. See C. syndrome.

chilblain (chil′blan)
Erythema, itching, and burning, especially of the dorsa of the fingers and toes, and of the heels, nose, and ears caused by vascular constriction on exposure to extreme cold (usually associated with high humidity); lesions can be single or multiple, and can become blistered and ulcerated. SYN: erythema pernio, perniosis. [chill + A.S. blegen, a blain]

CHILD
See C. syndrome.

childbearing (child′bar-ing)
Pregnancy and parturition.

childbirth (child′berth)
The process of labor and delivery in the birth of a child. SEE ALSO: birth, accouchement. SYN: parturition.

childhood (child′hud)
The period of life between infancy and puberty.

chill
1. A sensation of cold. 2. A feeling of cold with shivering or shaking and pallor, accompanied by an elevation of temperature in the interior of the body; usually a symptom of an infectious disease due to the invasion of the blood by toxins. SYN: rigor (2) . [A.S. cele, cold] smelter's chills SYN: smelter's fever.

chilo-, chil-
Lips. SEE ALSO: cheilo-. [G. cheilos, lip]

chilomastigiasis (ki′lo-mas-ti-gi′a-sis)
Infection with protozoan flagellates of the genus Chilomastix, such as C. mesnili of the human cecum. SYN: chilomastosis.

Chilomastix (ki-lo-mas′tiks)
A genus of protozoan flagellates parasitic in the large intestine of humans and other primates, and in many other mammals, birds, amphibia, and reptiles; it is ordinarily nonpathogenic, but one species, C. mesnili, may be an occasional cause of diarrhea in children. [chilo- + G. mastix, whip]

chilomastosis (ki′lo-mas-to′sis)
SYN: chilomastigiasis.

Chilopoda (ki-lop′o-da)
A class of centipedes (phylum Arthropoda). [chilo- + G. pous, foot]

chilopodiasis (ki′lo-po-di′a-sis)
Invasion of one of the cavities, especially the nasal cavity, by a species of Chilopoda.

chimera (ki-mer′a, ki-)
1. In experimental embryology, the individual produced by grafting an embryonic part of one animal on to the embryo of another, either of the same or of another species. 2. An organism that has received a transplant of genetically and immunologically different tissue, such as bone marrow. 3. Dizygotic twins that retain each other as immunologically distinct types of erythrocytes. 4. A protein fusion in which two different proteins are linked via peptide bonds; usually genetically engineered. Chimeric antibodies may have the Fab fragment from one species fused with the Fc fragment from another. 5. Any macromolecule fusion formed by two or more macromolecules from different species or from different genes. [L. Chimaera, G. Chimaira, mythic monster (lit. a she-goat)] radiation c. an individual that has been subjected to whole body irradiation in order to lower immune response to foreign donor cells and therefore has the immunologic characteristics of both host and donor after a bone marrow graft from the antigenically different donor.

chimeric (ki-mer′ik)
1. Relating to a chimera. Cf.:mosaicism. 2. Composed of parts that are of different origin and are seemingly incompatible.

chimerism (ki-me-r′izm)
The state of being a chimera.

chimpanzee (chim-pan′ze, chim′pan-ze′)
Generic name for the apes Pan panisus and P. troglodytes. [African dial.]

chin [TA]
The prominence formed by the anterior projection of the mandible, or lower jaw. SYN: mentum [TA] . [A.S. cin] double c. SYN: buccula.

chiniofon (ki-n′e-o-fon)
A mixture of 7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid and sodium bicarbonate, used in the treatment of amebic dysentery.

chinoleine (chin′o-le-in)
SYN: quinoline (1) .

chip
A small fragment resulting from breakage, cutting, or avulsion. bone chips small pieces of cancellous bone generally used to fill in bony defects and to promote reossification.

chip-blower
An instrument for blowing the debris out of, or drying, a tooth cavity that is being excavated for a filling; it consists of a rubber bulb with a metal nozzle.

chiral (ki′ral)
Denoting an object, such as a molecule in a given configuration or conformation, that possesses chirality. A c. molecule has no plane, axis, or center of symmetry.

chirality (ki-ral′i-te)
The property of nonidentity of an object with its mirror image; used in chemistry with respect to stereochemical isomers. [G. cheir, hand]

chirarthritis (ki-rar-thri′tis)
SYN: cheirarthritis.

chiro-, chir-
The hand. SEE ALSO: cheiro-. [G. cheir, hand]

chirognostic (ki-rog-nos′tik)
SYN: cheirognostic.

chirokinesthesia (ki-ro-kin-es-the′ze-a)
SYN: cheirokinesthesia.

chiropodalgia (ki′ro-po-dal′je-a)
SYN: cheiropodalgia.

chiropodist (ki-rop′o-dist)
SYN: podiatrist. [chiro- + G. pous, foot]

chiropody (ki-rop′o-de)
SYN: podiatry.

chiropompholyx (ki-ro-pom′fo-liks)
SYN: dyshidrosis.




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