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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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chlormezanone (klor-mez′a-non)
A muscle relaxant and tranquilizing agent with pharmacologic actions and uses similar to those of meprobamate.

chloro-
See chlor-.

chloroacetic acid (klor′o-a-se′tik)
An acetic acid in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine. According to the number of atoms so displaced the acid is called monochloroacetic (chloroacetic), dichloroacetic, or trichloroacetic. SYN: chloracetic acid.

chloroacetophenone (klor′o-as′e-to-fe′non)
A lacrimatory gas; used in training and in riot control.

chloroambucil (klor-o-am′bu-sil)
SYN: chlorambucil.

chloroanemia (klor′o-a-ne′me-a)
SYN: chlorosis.

chloroazodin (klor-o-az′o-din)
A bactericidal agent used as a surgical antiseptic.

chlorobutanol (klor-o-bu′ta-nol)
A hypnotic sedative and local anesthetic; used chiefly in dermatologic preparations and as a preservative in multiple-dose vials for parenteral use. SYN: acetone chloroform, chlorbutol.

chlorocresol (klor-o-kre′sol)
Used as an antiseptic and disinfectant; it is more active in acid than in alkaline solutions.

chlorocruorin (klor-o-kroo′or-in)
A greenish hemoglobin-like pigment found in certain worms; contains a porphyrin differing from protoporphyrin by a formyl group in place of the 2-vinyl group.

chloroethane (klor-o-eth′an)
SYN: ethyl chloride.

chloroethylene (klor-o-eth′i-len)
SYN: vinyl chloride.

chloroform (klor′o-form)
Formerly used by inhalation to produce general anesthesia; also used as a solvent. SYN: trichloromethane. [chlor(ine) + form(yl)] acetone c. SYN: chlorobutanol.

chloroformism (klor′o-form-izm)
Habitual chloroform inhalation, or the symptoms caused thereby.

chloroguanide hydrochloride (klor-o-gwah′nid)
An antimalarial drug. SYN: chlorguanide hydrochloride, proguanil hydrochloride.

chlorohemin (klor-o-he′min)
SYN: hemin.

chloroma (klo-ro′ma)
A condition characterized by the development of multiple localized green masses of abnormal cells (in most instances, myeloblasts), especially in relation to the periosteum of the skull, spine, and ribs; the clinical course is similar to that of acute myeloid leukemia, although the tumors may precede the findings in blood and bone marrow; observed more frequently in children and young adults. SEE ALSO: granulocytic sarcoma. [chloro- + G. -oma, tumor]

chloromethane (klor-o-meth′an)
A refrigerant with anesthetic properties when inhaled; it hydrolyzes to methanol. SYN: methyl chloride.

chlorometry (klo-rom′e-tre)
The measurement of chlorine content, or the use of analytical techniques involving the release or titration of chlorine.

chloropenia (klor-o-pe′ne-a)
A deficiency in chloride. [chloro- + G. penia, poverty]

chloropercha (klor-o-per′cha)
A solution of gutta-percha in chloroform, used in dentistry as an agent to lute gutta-percha filling material to the wall of a prepared root canal.

chlorophenol (klor-o-fe′nol)
One of several substitution products obtained by the action of chlorine on phenol; used as antiseptics.

chlorophenothane (klor-o-fen′o-than)
SYN: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane.

chlorophyll (klor′o-fil)
The magnesium complex of the phorbin derivative found in photosynthetic organisms; light-absorbing green plant pigments that, in living plants, convert light energy into oxidizing and reducing power, thus fixing CO2 and evolving O2; the naturally occurring forms are c. a, b, c, and d. SEE ALSO: phorbin. c. a magnesium(II) pheophytinate a [(pheophytinato a)magnesium(II)];the major pigment found in all oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms (higher plants, and red and green algae). c. b (CH3 at 7 replaced by CHO in the c. structure), magnesium(II) pheophytinate b [(pheophytinato b) magnesium(II)]; the c. generally characteristic of higher plants (including the Chlorophyta, Euglenaphyta, and green algae). Absent in other types of algae. c. c the c. present in brown algae, diatoms, and flagellates. Two variants are known: c1, in which two hydrogens are lost from C-17 and C-18, thus resembling phytoporphyrin, and the side chain at C-17 becomes an acrylic residue, &cbond;CH&dbond;CH2COOH; c2, in which the same changes are noted, but two more hydrogens are lost from the ethyl group at C-8, making this a vinyl residue like that at C-3. The two compounds can thus be named in terms of phytoporphyrin: magnesium 31,32,171,172-tetradehydro-132-(methoxycarbonyl)phytoporphyrinate and magnesium 31,32,81,82,171,172-hexadehydro-132-(methoxycarbonyl)phytoporphyrinate. c. d (&cbond;CH&dbond;CH2 replaced by &cbond;CO&cbond;CH3 in the c. structure), the c. found in red algae (Rhodophyceae ), together with c. a. c. esterase SYN: chlorophyllase. water-soluble c. derivatives the copper complex of sodium and/or potassium salts of saponified c., used topically for deodorization of chronic lesions and to promote wound repair.

chlorophyllase (klor-o-fil′-as)
A reversible hydrolyzing enzyme catalyzing the removal of the phytyl group from a chlorophyll, leaving a chlorophyllide. SYN: chlorophyll esterase.

chlorophyllide, chlorophyllid (klor′o-fil-id)
That which remains of a chlorophyll molecule when the phytyl group is removed.

chloropicrin (klor-o-pik′rin)
A toxic lung irritant and lacrimatory gas; it also causes vomiting, colic, and diarrhea, and therefore is called vomiting gas. SYN: nitrochloroform.

chloroplast (klor′o-plast)
A plant cell inclusion body containing chlorophyll; occurs in cells of leaves and young stems. Site of photosynthesis in higher plants. [chloro- + G. plastos, formed]

chloroprednisone (klor-o-pred′ni-son)
A topical anti-inflammatory agent.

chloroprocaine hydrochloride (klor-o-pro′kan)
A local anesthetic similar in action and use to procaine hydrochloride.

chloropsia (klo-rop′se-a)
A condition in which objects appear to be colored green, as may occur in digitalis intoxication. SYN: green vision. [chloro- + G. opsis, eyesight]

chloropyramine (klor-o-pir′a-men)
An H1 antihistaminic agent.

chloroquine (klor′o-kwin)
An antimalarial agent used for the treatment and suppression of Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, and P. falciparum; available as the phosphate and sulfate. It does not produce a radical cure because it has no effect on the exoerythrocytic stages; c.-resistant strains of P. falciparum have developed in Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America. It is also used for hepatic amebiasis and for certain skin diseases, e.g., lupus erythematosus and lichen planus.

chlorosis (klor-o′sis)
Rarely used term for a form of chronic hypochromic microcytic (iron deficiency) anemia, characterized by a great reduction in hemoglobin out of proportion to the decreased number of red blood cells; observed chiefly in females from puberty to the third decade and usually associated with diets deficient in iron and protein. SYN: asiderotic anemia, chloremia (1) , chloroanemia, chlorotic anemia, green sickness. [chloro- + G. -osis, condition]

chlorothen citrate (klor′o-then)
An antihistaminic agent.

chlorothiazide (klor-o-thi′a-zid)
An orally effective diuretic inhibiting renal tubular reabsorption of sodium; used in the treatment of edema due to congestive heart failure, liver disease, pregnancy, premenstrual tension, and drugs; also used as an adjunct in the management of hypertension. c. sodium c. suitable for parenteral administration.

chlorothymol (klor-o-thi′mol)
An antibacterial for topical use. SYN: chlorthymol.

chlorotic (klo-rot′ik)
Pertaining to or having the characteristic features of chlorosis.

chlorotrianisene (klor′o-tri-an′i-sen)
A synthetic estrogen derived from stilbene, active by mouth.

chlorous (klor′us)
1. Relating to chlorine. 2. Denoting compounds of chlorine in which its valence is +3; e.g., c. acid.

chlorous acid
HClO2;an acid forming chlorites with bases.

chlorozotocin (klor′o-zo-to-sin)
A nitrogen mustard compound that is a chloroethylnitrosourea compound used in cancer chemotherapy; an antineoplastic.

chlorphenesin (klor-fen′e-sin)
A topical antifungal agent. c. carbamate a skeletal muscle relaxant in which actions are exerted in the central nervous system.

chlorphenindione (klor-fen-in-di′on)
An anticoagulant related chemically to phenindione.

chlorpheniramine maleate (klor-fen-ir′a-men)
An H1 antihistamine.

chlorphenol red (klor-fe′nol)
An acid-base indicator (MW 423, pK 6.0): yellow at pH values below 5.1, red above 6.7.

chlorphenoxamine (klor-fen-ok′sa-men)
Used in the management of idiopathic, arteriosclerotic, and postencephalitic parkinsonism, usually with concomitant administration of other anti-parkinsonian agents.

chlorphentermine hydrochloride (klor-fen′ter-men)
A sympathomimetic amine used as an anorexiant; resembles amphetamine.

chlorproguanil hydrochloride (klor-pro′gwah-nil)
The 3,4-dichloro homologue of chloroguanide; used for causal prophylaxis and suppression of falciparum malaria.

chlorpromazine (klor-pro′ma-zen)
A phenothiazine antipsychotic agent with antiemetic, antiadrenergic, and anticholinergic actions. c. hydrochloride c. suitable for oral, intramuscular, and intravenous administration.

chlorpropamide (klor-pro′pa-mid)
An orally effective hypoglycemic agent related chemically and pharmacologically to tolbutamide; used in controlling hyperglycemia in selected patients with adult onset (type II) diabetes mellitus.

chlorprothixene (klor-pro-thik′sen)
An antipsychotic of the thioxanthene group; it also possesses antiemetic, adrenolytic, spasmolytic, and antihistaminic actions.

chlorquinaldol (klor-kwin′al-dol)
A keratoplastic, antibacterial, and antifungal agent used in the treatment of cutaneous bacterial and mycotic infections.

chlortetracycline (klor′tet-ra-si′klen)
Active against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms including hemolytic streptococci, staphylococci, typhoid bacilli, and brucellae, as well as against certain viruses. Also available as c. hydrochloride.

chlorthalidone (klor-thal′i-don)
An orally effective diuretic and antihypertensive agent, used in the treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure, renal disease, hepatic cirrhosis, pregnancy, and premenstrual tension; it produces an increase in the excretion of sodium, chloride, potassium, and water.

chlorthenoxazin (klor-then-ok′sa-zin)
An antipyretic and analgesic.

chlorthymol (klor-thi′mol)
SYN: chlorothymol.

chloruresis (klor-u-re′sis)
The excretion of chloride in the urine. SYN: chloriduria, chloruria.

chloruretic (klor-u-ret′ik)
Relating to an agent that increases the excretion of chloride in the urine, or to such an effect.

chloruria (klor-u′re-a)
SYN: chloruresis.

chlorzoxazone (klor-zok′sa-zon)
A centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant used in the treatment of painful muscle spasm due to musculoskeletal disorder.

choanae (ko′an-a) [TA]
The opening into the nasopharynx of the nasal cavity on either side. SYN: posterior nasal apertures&star, isthmus pharyngonasalis, posterior nares, postnaris. [Mod. L. fr. G. choane, a funnel] primary choana, primitive choana initial opening of the nasal pits and olfactory sac of the embryo into the rostral part of the primordial oronasal cavity, before the formation of the secondary palate. secondary choana the definitive choana opening into the nasopharynx, after the nasal chambers have been lengthened by the formation of the secondary palate. SYN: internal nostril.

choanal (ko′a-nal)
Pertaining to a choana.

choanate (ko′an-at)
Having a funnel, i.e., with a ring or collar.

choanoflagellate (ko′an-o-flaj′e-lat)
SYN: choanomastigote.

choanoid (ko′a-noyd)
Funnel-shaped. SYN: infundibuliform. [G. choane, funnel, + eidos, resemblance]

choanomastigote (ko′an-o-mas′ti-got)
A term, in the series used to describe developmental stages of the parasitic flagellates, denoting the “barleycorn” form of the flagellate in the genus Crithidia characterized by a collarlike extension surrounding the anterior and through which the single flagellum emerges. SEE ALSO: amastigote, epimastigote, promastigote, trypomastigote. SYN: choanoflagellate, collared flagellate. [G. choane, a funnel, + mastix, whip]

Choanotaenia infundibulum (ko-a-no-te′ne-a)
An important species of cosmopolitan tapeworm of fowls, occurring in the small intestine and transmitted by houseflies and stableflies; related to Dipylidium, the double-pored dog tapeworm. [G. choane, a funnel, + L., fr. G. tainia, tapeworm]

Chodzko reflex
See under reflex.

choke (chok)
1. To prevent respiration by compression or obstruction of the larynx or trachea; common expression for laryngospasm. 2. Any obstruction of the esophagus in herbivorous animals by a partly swallowed foreign body. [M.E. choken, fr. O.E. aceocian]

chokes (choks)
A manifestation of decompression sickness or altitude sickness characterized by dyspnea, coughing, and choking.

chol-
See chole-.

cholagogic (ko-la-goj′ik)
SYN: cholagogue (2) .




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