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Medical Dictionary


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choledochoenterostomy (ko-led′o-ko-en-ter-os′to-me)
Establishment of a communication, other than the natural one, between the common bile duct and any part of the intestine. [choledocho- + G. enteron, intestine, + stoma, mouth]

choledochojejunostomy (ko-led′o-ko-je-joo-nos′to-me)
Anastomosis between the common bile duct and the jejunum. [choledocho- + jejuno- + G. stoma, mouth]

choledocholith (ko-led′o-ko-lith)
Stone in the common bile duct. [choledocho- + G. lithos, stone]

choledocholithiasis (ko-led′o-ko-lith-i′a-sis)
Presence of a stone in the common bile duct.

choledocholithotomy (ko-led′o-ko-li-thot′o-me)
Incision of the common bile duct for the extraction of a stone. [choledocho- + G. lithos, stone, + tome, incision]

choledocholithotripsy (ko-led′o-ko-lith′o-trip-se)
Fragmentation of a gallstone in the common bile duct either by transcutaneous sonic energy or endoscopically directed laser. SYN: choledocholithotrity. [choledocho- + G. lithos, stone, + tripsis, rubbing]

choledocholithotrity (ko-led′o-ko-li-thot′ri-te)
SYN: choledocholithotripsy.

choledochoplasty (ko-led′o-ko-plas-te)
Rearrangement of tissues of the common bile duct. [choledocho- + G. plastos, formed]

choledochorrhaphy (ko-led-o-kor′ra-fe)
Suturing together the divided ends of the common bile duct. [choledocho- + G. rhaphe, suture]

choledochostomy (ko-led-o-kos′to-me)
Establishment of a fistula into the common bile duct. [choledocho- + G. stoma, mouth]

choledochotomy (ko-led-o-kot′o-me)
Incision into the common bile duct. SYN: choledochendysis. [choledocho- + G. tome, incision]

choledochous (ko-led′o-kus)
Containing or conveying bile.

choledochus (ko-led′o-kus)
SYN: bile duct (1) . [see choledoch]

choleglobin (ko-le-glo′bin)
A pigmented compound of globin and iron porphyrin (with an open ring due to cleavage of the α-methene bridge by α-methyl oxygenase); the first intermediate in the degradation of hemoglobin, further degraded successively to verdohemochrome, biliverdin, and bilirubin. SYN: bile pigment hemoglobin, green hemoglobin, verdohemoglobin.

cholehematin (ko-le-he′ma-tin)
A red pigment in the bile of herbivorous animals; derived from chlorophyll and a product of hematin oxidation.

cholehemia (ko-le-he′me-a)
SYN: cholemia. [chole- + G. haima, blood]

choleic (ko-le′ik)
SYN: cholic.

choleic acids
Compounds of bile acids and sterols.

cholelith (ko′le-lith)
SYN: gallstone. [chole- + G. lithos, stone]

cholelithiasis (ko′le-li-thi′a-sis)
Presence of concretions in the gallbladder or bile ducts. SYN: chololithiasis.

cholelithotomy (ko′le-li-thot′o-me)
Operative removal of a gallstone. [chole- + G. lithos, stone, + tome, incision]

cholelithotripsy (ko-le-lith′o-trip-se)
Rarely used term for the crushing of a gallstone. [chole- + G. lithos, stone, + tripsis, a rubbing]

cholelithotrity (ko-le-li-thot′ri-te)
Rarely used term for the crushing of a gallstone. [chole- + G. lithos, stone, + L. tero, pp. tritus, to rub]

cholemesis (ko-lem′e-sis)
Vomiting of bile. [chole- + G. emesis, vomiting]

cholemia (ko-le′me-a)
The presence of bile salts in the circulating blood. SYN: cholehemia. [chole- + G. haima, blood]

cholemic (ko-le′mik)
Relating to cholemia.

cholepathia (ko-le-path′e-a)
1. Disease of bile ducts. 2. Irregularity in contractions of the bile ducts. c. spastica spastic contraction of the bile ducts.

choleperitonitis (ko′le-per-i-to-ni′tis)
SYN: bile peritonitis.

cholepoiesis (ko′le-poy-e′sis)
Formation of bile. SYN: cholopoiesis. [chole- + G. poiesis, making]

cholepoietic (ko′le-poy-et′ik)
Relating to the formation of bile.

cholera (kol′er-a)
An acute epidemic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. A soluble toxin elaborated in the intestinal tract by the bacterium activates the adenylate cylase of the mucosa, causing active secretion of an isotonic fluid resulting in profuse watery diarrhea, extreme loss of fluid and electrolytes, and dehydration and collapse, but no gross morphologic change in the intestinal mucosa. SYN: Asiatic c.. [L. a bilious disease, fr. G. chole, bile] Asiatic c. SYN: c.. c. infantum old term for a disease of infants, characterized by vomiting, profuse watery diarrhea, fever, prostration, and collapse. c. morbus old term for acute severe gastroenteritis of unknown etiology, marked by severe colic, vomiting, and diarrhea with watery stools; formerly common during hot weather. pancreatic c. SYN: diarrhea pancreatica. c. sicca an old term for a malignant form of disease seen during epidemics of Asiatic c. in which death occurs without diarrhea. typhoid c. old term for c. (2) with predominantly cerebral manifestations such as confusion or dementia.

choleragen (kol′er-a-jen)
A term suggested for a factor(s) produced during growth in vitro of the cholera vibrio and causes diarrhea. [cholera + G. -gen, producing]

choleraic (kol′er-a′ik)
Relating to cholera.

choleraphage (kol′er-a-faj)
Bacteriophage of Vibrio cholerae. [cholera + G. phago, to eat]

choleresis (ko-ler-e′sis)
The secretion of bile, as opposed to the expulsion of bile, by the gallbladder. [chole- + G. hairesis, a taking]

choleretic (kol-er-et′ik)
1. Relating to choleresis. 2. An agent, usually a drug, that stimulates the liver to increase output of bile.

cholerheic (kol-e-re′ik)
Denoting diarrhea produced secondary to unabsorbed bile salts. [chole- + G. hairesis, a taking]

choleric (kol′er-ik)
SYN: bilious (3) .

choleriform (kol′er-i-form)
Resembling cholera. SYN: choleroid.

cholerigenic, cholerigenous (kol′er-i-jen′ik, -ij′en-us)
Causing or engendering cholera.

cholerine (kol′er-en)
A mild form of diarrhea seen during epidemics of Asiatic cholera.

choleroid (kol′er-oyd)
SYN: choleriform.

cholerrhagia (ko-le-ra′je-a)
Extensive flow of bile. [chole- + G. rhegnymi, to burst forth]

cholerrhagic (ko-le-raj′ik)
Referring to the flow of bile.

cholescintigraphy (ko-le-sin-tig′ra-fe)
Examination of the gall bladder and bile ducts by nuclear medicine scanning; radionuclide cholecystography. [chole- + scintigraphy]

cholestane (ko′les-tan)
The parent hydrocarbon of cholesterol. For structure, see steroids.

cholestanol (ko-les′tan-ol)
Differing from cholesterol in the absence of the double bond.

cholestanone (ko-les′tan-on)
An oxidation product of cholestanol, differing from it in the presence of a ketone oxygen in place of the 3-hydroxyl group; an isomer of coprostanone.

cholestasia, cholestasis (ko-les-ta′se-a, -les′ta-sis)
An arrest in the flow of bile; c. due to obstruction of bile ducts is accompanied by formation of plugs of inspissated bile in the small ducts, canaliculi in the liver, and elevation of serum direct bilirubin and some enzymes. [chole- + G. stasis, a standing still]

cholestasis (-les′ta-sis)
See cholestasia. intrahepatic c. of pregnancy intrahepatic c. with centrilobular bile staining without inflammatory cells or proliferation of mesenchymal cells; clinically characterized by pruritus and/or icterus; of unknown cause but associated with high estrogen levels. SYN: c. of pregnancy, cholestatic hepatosis icterus gravidarum, recurrent jaundice of pregnancy. c. of pregnancy SYN: intrahepatic c. of pregnancy.

cholestatic (ko-les-tat′ik)
Tending to diminish or stop the flow of bile.

cholesteatoma (ko-les-te-a-to′ma)
1. A mass of keratinized squamous cell epithelium and cholesterol in the middle ear, usually resulting from chronic otitis media, with squamous metaplasia or extension of squamous epithelium inward to line an expanding cystic cavity that may involve the mastoid and erode surrounding bone. 2. An epidermoid cyst arising in the central nervous system in humans or animals. [cholesterol + G. stear (steat-), tallow, + -oma, tumor]

cholesteatomatous (ko-les-te-a-to′ma-tus)
Of or pertaining to cholesteatoma.

cholestenone (ko-les′ten-on)
A dehydrocholestanone, differing from cholestanone by the presence of a double bond between carbons 4 and 5.

cholesteremia (ko-les-ter-e′me-a)
The presence of enhanced quantities of cholesterol in the blood. SYN: cholesterinemia, cholesterolemia. [cholesterol + G. haima, blood]

cholesterinemia (ko-les′ter-in-e′me-a)
SYN: cholesteremia.

cholesterinosis (ko-les′ter-in-o′sis)
SYN: cholesterolosis.

cholesterinuria (ko-les′ter-i-noo′re-a)
SYN: cholesteroluria. [cholesterin + G. ouron, urine]

cholesterol (ko-les′ter-ol)
5-Cholesten-3β-ol (cholestane with a 5,6 double bond and a 3β-hydroxyl group); the most abundant steroid in animal tissues, especially in bile and gallstones, and present in food, especially food rich in animal fats; circulates in the plasma complexed to proteins of various densities and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atheroma formation in arteries. SEE ALSO: lipoprotein.

cholesterolemia (ko-les′ter-ol-e′me-a)
SYN: cholesteremia. [cholesterol + G. haima, blood]

cholesterologenesis (ko-les′ter-ol-o-jen′e-sis)
The biosynthesis of cholesterol.

cholesterolosis (ko-les′ter-ol-o′sis)
1. A condition resulting from a disturbance in metabolism of lipids, characterized by deposits of cholesterol in tissue, as in Tangier disease. 2. Cholesterol crystals in the anterior chamber of the eye, as in aphakia with associated retinal separation. SYN: cholesterinosis.

cholesteroluria (ko-les′ter-ol-oo′re-a)
The excretion of cholesterol in the urine. SYN: cholesterinuria.

cholestyramine (ko-les′ter-a-men)
An anion exchange resin used to bind dietary cholesterol and hence prevent its systemic absorption. Used to treat hypercholesteremia. Can bind many acidic drugs in the gastrointestinal tract and prevent their absorption.

choleuria (ko-le-u′re-a)
SYN: biliuria.

cholic (ko′lik)
Relating to the bile. SYN: choleic.

cholic acid
A family of steroids comprising the bile acids (or salts), generally in conjugated form ( e.g., glycocholic and taurocholic acids). Chemically, cholic acids are cholan-24-oic (cholanic) acids (the terminal C24 of cholane becoming a &cbond;COOH group); biologically, cholic acids are derived from cholesterol (a cholestane derivative) and display varying degrees of oxidation (OH groups) and orientation at positions 3, 7, and 12. It is these oxidations and orientations that distinguish the several c.; e.g., c. is 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid, deoxycholic acid is 3α,12α-dihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid. C. is a naturally occurring detergent that aids in the digestion of fats. SYN: cholalic acid, cholanic acid.

cholicele (ko′li-sel)
Enlargement of the gallbladder due to retained fluids. [G. chole, bile, + kele, tumor]

choline (ko′len)
(2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium ion;found in most animal tissues either free or in combination as lecithin (phosphatidylcholine), acetate (acetylcholine), or cytidine diphosphate (cytidine diphosphocholine). It is included in the vitamin B complex; as acetylcholine (c. esterified with acetic acid), it is essential for synaptic transmission. Several salts of c. are used in medicine. SYN: lipotropic factor, transmethylation factor. c. acetylase SYN: c. acetyltransferase. c. acetyltransferase an enzyme catalyzing the condensation of c. and acetyl-coenzyme A, forming O-acetylcholine and coenzyme A. SYN: c. acetylase. activated c. SYN: cytidine diphosphocholine. c. chloride a lipotropic agent. c. dihydrogen citrate a lipotropic agent. c. esterase I SYN: acetylcholinesterase. c. esterase II SYN: cholinesterase. c. kinase an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-phosphocholine and ADP from c. and ATP. SYN: c. phosphokinase. c. phosphatase SYN: phospholipase D. c. phosphate cytidylyltransferase an enzyme that catalyzes a key step in lecithin biosynthesis: CTP + phosphocholine ⇆ pyrophosphate + CDP-c.. c. phosphokinase SYN: c. kinase. c. salicylate c. salt of salicyclic acid, an analgesic and antipyretic (because of the salicylate moiety). c. theophyllinate SYN: oxtriphylline.

cholinephosphotransferase (ko′len-fos-fo-trans′fer-as)
An enzyme catalyzing the reaction between CDP-choline and 1,2-diacylglycerol to form a phosphatidylcholine and CMP. The last step in lecithin biosynthesis.

cholinergic (kol-in-er′jik)
Relating to nerve cells or fibers that employ acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter. Cf.:adrenergic. [choline + G. ergon, work]




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