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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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cholinester (ko′lin-es-ter)
An ester of choline; e.g., acetylcholine.

cholinesterase (ko-lin-es′ter-as)
One of a family of enzymes capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of acylcholines and a few other compounds. In mammals, found in white matter of brain, liver, heart, pancreas, and serum. It is also found in cobra venom. SEE ALSO: acetylcholinesterase. SYN: choline esterase II, nonspecific c., “s”-type c.. “e”-type c. SYN: acetylcholinesterase. [“e” as in erythrocyte] nonspecific c. SYN: c.. specific c. SYN: acetylcholinesterase. “s”-type c. SYN: c.. [“s” as in serum] true c. SYN: acetylcholinesterase.

cholinesterase reactivator
A drug that reacts directly with the alkylphosphorylated enzyme to free the active unit; the drugs used therapeutically to reactivate phosphorylated forms of acetylcholinesterase are oximes, e.g., diacetylmonoxime, monoisonitrosoacetone, 2-pralidoxime.

cholinoceptive (ko′lin-o-sep′tiv)
Referring to chemical sites in effector cells with which acetylcholine unites to exert its actions. Cf.:adrenoceptive. [acetylcholine + L. capio, to take]

cholinolytic (ko′lin-o-lit′ik)
Preventing the action of acetylcholine. [acetylcholine + G. lysis, loosening]

cholinomimetic (kol′i-no-mi-met′ik)
Having an action similar to that of acetylcholine, the substance liberated by cholinergic nerves; term proposed to replace the less accurate term, parasympathomimetic. Cf.:adrenomimetic. [acetylcholine + G. mimetikos, imitating]

cholinoreactive (ko′lin-o-re-ak′tiv)
Responding to acetylcholine and related compounds.

cholinoreceptors (kol′i-no-re-sep′terz, -torz)
See cholinergic receptors, under receptor.

cholistine sulphomethate sodium (ko-lis′ten sul-fo-meth′at)
SYN: colistimethate sodium.

cholo-
See chole-.

chololithiasis (kol-o-li-thi′a-sis)
SYN: cholelithiasis.

choloplania (kol-o-pla′ne-a)
The presence of bile salts in the blood or tissues. [cholo- + G. plane, a wandering]

cholopoiesis (ko-lo-poy-e′sis)
SYN: cholepoiesis.

cholorrhea (kol-o-re′a)
Obsolete term for an excessive secretion of bile. [cholo- + G. rhoia, a flow]

choloscopy (ko-los′ko-pe)
Rarely used term for cholangioscopy. [cholo- + G. skopeo, to view]

cholothorax (ko-lo-thor′aks)
Bile in the pleural cavity.

choloyl (ko′lo-il)
The radical of cholic acid or cholate.

choluria (ko-loo′re-a)
SYN: biliuria. [G. chole, bile, + ouron, urine]

cholyl-coenzyme A (ko′lil-ko-en′zim)
A condensation product of cholic acid and coenzyme A; an intermediate in the formation of bile salts from bile acids, such as taurocholic acid from cholic acid. cholyl-coenzyme A synthetase SYN: cholate ligase.

chondral (kon′dral)
SYN: cartilaginous. [G. chondros, cartilage]

chondralloplasia (kon′dral-o-pla′ze-a)
Occurrence of cartilage in abnormal situations in the bony skeleton. [G. chondros, cartilage, + allos, other, + plasia, formed]

chondrectomy (kon-drek′to-me)
Excision of cartilage. [G. chondros, cartilage, + ektome, excision]

chondrification (kon′dri-fi-ka′shun)
Conversion into cartilage. [G. chondros, cartilage, + L. facio, to make]

chondrify (kon′dri-fi)
To become cartilaginous.

chondrio-
See chondro-.

chondritis (kon-dri′tis)
Inflammation of cartilage. [G. chondros, cartilage, + -itis, inflammation] costal c. SYN: costochondritis.

chondro-, chondrio-
1. Cartilage or cartilaginous. 2. Granular or gritty substance. [G. chondrion, dim. of chondros, groats (coarsely ground grain), grit, gristle, cartilage]

chondroblast (kon′dro-blast)
A dividing cell of growing cartilage tissue. SYN: chondroplast. [chondro- + G. blastos, germ]

chondroblastoma (kon′dro-blas-to′ma)
A benign tumor arising in the epiphyses of long bones, consisting of highly cellular tissue resembling fetal cartilage.

chondrocalcin (kon′dro-kal-sin)
A 69,000 molecular weight protein believed to play a role in mineralization in hard tissue.

chondrocalcinosis (kon′dro-kal-si-no′sis)
Calcification of cartilage. [chondro- + calcium + G. -osis, condition] articular c. [MIM*118600] a disease characterized by deposits of calcium pyrophosphate crystals free of urate in synovial fluid, articular cartilage, and adjacent soft tissue; causes various forms of arthritis commonly characterized by goutlike attacks of pain, swelling of joints, and radiologic evidence of calcification in articular cartilage (pseudogout); inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in some cases, and associated with certain diseases in others.

chondroclast (kon′dro-klast)
A multinucleated cell (giant cell) involved in the resorption of calcified cartilage; morphologically identical to osteoblasts. [chondro- + G. klastos, broken in pieces]

chondrocostal (kon-dro-kos′tal)
SYN: costochondral. [chondro- + L. costa, rib]

chondrocranium (kon-dro-kra′ne-um)
A cartilaginous skull; the cartilaginous parts of the developing skull. [chondro- + G. kranion, skull]

chondrocyte (kon′dro-sit)
A nondividing cartilage cell; occupies a lacuna within the cartilage matrix. SYN: cartilage cell. [chondro- + G. kytos, a hollow (cell)] isogenous chondrocytes a clone of cartilage cells derived from one cell by division; occur in a cluster called an isogenous nest.

chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis (kon-dro-der-ma-ti′tis nod-u-lar′is kron′i-ka hel′i-sis)
A benign, chronic, small, painful nodule (or nodules) on the helix of the ear in the elderly, which may occasionally become ulcerated and results from habitually sleeping on the affected side.

chondrodysplasia (kon′dro-dis-pla′ze-a) [MIM*118650]
SYN: chondrodystrophy. [chondro- + G. dys, bad, + plasis, a molding] c. calcificans congenita [MIM*118650] autosomal dominant inheritance characterized by asymmetric calcifications and dysplastic skeletal changes, less frequent occurrence of congenital cataracts and ichthyosis compared to other forms, and relatively good prognosis. SYN: Conradi disease, Conradi-Hünermann disease. Nance-Sweeney c. SYN: chondrodystrophy with sensorineural deafness. c. punctata a developmental disorder characterized by epiphyseal stippling, coronal clefting of the vertebrae, dwarfism with rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, joint contractures, congenital cataracts, ichthyosis, and mental retardation. Autosomal dominant and recessive and X-linked forms exist. SYN: dysplasia epiphysialis punctata, hypoplastic fetal chondrodystrophy, stippled epiphysis. rhizomelic c. punctata [MIM*215100] autosomal recessively inherited lethal c. caused by mutation in the PEX 7 gene encoding the peroxisomal type 2 targeting signal (PTS2) receptor on chromosomal 6q.

chondrodystrophy (kon-dro-dis′tro-fe)
A disturbance in the development of the cartilage primordia of the long bones, especially the region of the epiphysial plates, resulting in arrested growth of the long bones and dwarfism in which the extremities are abnormally short, but the head and trunk are essentially normal; autosomal recessive inheritance. SYN: chondrodysplasia. [chondro- + G. dys, bad, + trophe nourishment] asphyxiating thoracic c. SYN: asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy. asymmetric c. SYN: enchondromatosis. hereditary deforming c. 1. SYN: hereditary multiple exostoses, under exostosis. 2. SYN: enchondromatosis. hypoplastic fetal c. SYN: chondrodysplasia punctata. myotonic c. a rare congenital disease that causes myotonia, muscular hypertrophy, joint and long bone abnormalities, and weakness. SYN: Schwartz-Jampel disease. c. with sensorineural deafness [MIM*215150] a skeletal dysplasia characterized by dwarfism, flat nasal bridge, cleft palate, sensorineural deafness, large epiphyses, and flattening of the vertebral bodies; autosomal recessive inheritance, caused by mutation in the type XI collagen gene (COL11A2) on chromosome 6p; dominant forms exist. SYN: Nance-Insley syndrome, Nance-Sweeney chondrodysplasia, OSMED, otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia.

chondroectodermal (kon′dro-ek-to-der′mal)
Relating to ectodermally derived cartilage; e.g., branchial cartilages that have developed from the neural crest.

chondrofibroma (kon′dro-fi-bro′ma)
SYN: chondromyxoid fibroma.

chondrogenesis (kon-dro-jen′e-sis)
Formation of cartilage. [chondro- + G. genesis, origin]

chondroglossus (kon-dro-glos′us)
See c. muscle. [chondro- + G. glossa, tongue]

chondroid (kon′droyd)
1. Resembling cartilage. SYN: cartilaginoid. 2. Uncharacteristically developed cartilage, primarily cellular with a basophilic matrix and thin or nonexistent capsules. [chondro- + G. eidos, resemblance]

chondroitin (kon-dro′i-tin)
A (muco)polysaccharide (proteoglycan) composed of alternating residues of β-d-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine sulfate in alternating β(1-3) and β(1-4) linkages; present among the ground substance materials in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. c. sulfate A c. with sulfuric residues esterifying the 4-hydroxyl groups of the galactosamine residues; found in connective tissue. c. sulfate B SYN: dermatan sulfate. c. sulfate C c. with sulfuric residues esterifying the 6-hydroxyl groups of the galactosamine residues.

chondrology (kon-drol′o-je)
The study of cartilage. [chondro- + G. logos, treatise]

chondrolysis (kon-drol′i-sis)
Disappearance of articular cartilage as the result of disintegration or dissolution of the cartilage matrix and cells.

chondroma (kon-dro′ma)
A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. [chondro- + G. -oma, tumor] extraskeletal c. a c. located in soft tissues, usually of the fingers, hands, and feet, not connected to underlying bone or periosteum. juxtacortical c. SYN: periosteal c.. periosteal c. a c. that develops from periosteum or periosteal connective tissue. SYN: juxtacortical c..

chondromalacia (kon′dro-ma-la′she-a)
Softening of any cartilage. [chondro- + G. malakia, softness] c. fetalis an intrauterine form of c. in which the fetus is born dead with soft pliable limbs. generalized c. SYN: relapsing polychondritis. c. of larynx the presence of soft laryngeal cartilage, most often seen in epiglottis of young children. SYN: laryngomalacia. c. pate′llae a softening of the articular cartilage of the patella; may cause patellalgia. systemic c. SYN: relapsing polychondritis.

chondromatosis (kon′dro-ma-to′sis)
Presence of multiple tumor-like foci of cartilage. synovial c. c. or osteocartilaginous nodules occurring in the synovial membrane of a joint. SYN: synovial osteochondromatosis.

chondromatous (kon-dro′ma-tus)
Pertaining to or manifesting the features of a chondroma.

chondrome (kon′drom)
The genetic information contained in all of the mitochondria of a cell. [mitochondria + -ome]

chondromere (kon′dro-mer)
A cartilage unit of the fetal axial skeleton developing within a single metamere of the body; a primordial cartilaginous vertebra together with its costal component. [chondro- + G. meros, part]

chondromyxoma (kon′dro-mik-so′ma)
SYN: chondromyxoid fibroma.

chondronectin (kon-dro-nek′tin)
A glycoprotein of cartilage matrix that mediates the adhesion of chondrocytes to type II collagen. [chondro- + L. necto, to bind, + -in]

chondro-osseous (kon-dro-os′e-us)
Relating to cartilage and bone, either as a mixture of the two tissues or as a junction between the two, such as the union of a rib and its costal cartilage.

chondro-osteodystrophy (kon′dro-os′te-o-dis′tro-fe)
Term used for a group of disorders of bone and cartilage which includes Morquio syndrome and similar conditions. SYN: osteochondrodystrophia deformans, osteochondrodystrophy.

chondropathy (kon-drop′a-the)
Any disease of cartilage. [chondro- + G. pathos, suffering]

chondropharyngeus (kon′dro-far-in-je′us)
See middle constrictor (muscle) of pharynx.

chondrophyte (kon′dro-fit)
An abnormal cartilaginous mass that develops at the articular surface of a bone. [chondro- + G. phytos, a growth]

chondroplast (kon′dro-plast)
SYN: chondroblast. [chondro- + G. plastos, formed]

chondroplasty (kon′dro-plas-te)
Reparative or plastic surgery of cartilage. [chondro- + G. plastos, formed]

chondroporosis (kon′dro-por-o′sis)
Condition of cartilage in which spaces appear, either normal (in the process of ossification) or pathologic. [chondro- + L. porosus, porous]

chondrosarcoma (kon′dro-sar-ko′ma)
A malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and older people; most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion.

chondrosin, chondrosine (kon′dro-sin)
A disaccharide composed of one molecule of d-glucuronic acid and one of d-galactosamine (chondrosamine); a component of the chondroitins.

chondroskeleton (kon′dro-skel′e-ton)
A skeleton formed of hyaline cartilage; e.g., that of the human embryo or of certain adult fishes such as the shark or ray.

chondrosternal (kon-dro-ster′nal)
1. Relating to a sternal cartilage. 2. Relating to the costal cartilages and the sternum.

chondrosternoplasty (kon-dro-ster′no-plas-te)
Surgical correction of malformations of the sternum.

chondrotome (kon′dro-tom)
A very stiff scalpel-shaped knife used in cutting cartilage. SYN: cartilage knife. [chondro- + G. tome, cutting]




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